the occurrence of rabies in the svalbard islands of norway.after the first recorded outbreak of rabies in the svalbard islands (norway) in 1980, brain tissue from 817 trapped arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) was tested for rabies by a direct fluorescent antibody test. during the same period (1980 to 1990), 29 arctic foxes, 23 polar bears (ursus maritimus), 19 reindeer (rangifer tarandus) and five ringed seals (phoca hispida) were also tested using the same technique. these animals had either been found dead, killed because of abnormal behavior or were appa ...19921548803
oral rabies vaccination of arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) with an attenuated vaccine.arctic foxes were immunized with the sag1 oral rabies vaccine. the effectiveness was determined by the serological response and by the survival to a challenge dose of rabies virus from an alaskan fox. vaccine virus was isolated from saliva 1 h after the liquid vaccine was placed directly into the mouth but not subsequently (tested up to 1 week postvaccination). two weeks after vaccination, protective antibody levels were present in all foxes and all vaccinated foxes survived challenge at 9 weeks ...19921574916
immunization of arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) with oral rabies vaccine.arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) were successfully immunized against rabies using an orally-administered, liquid sad-bhk21 live virus vaccine in a sausage bait. immunization was determined by serologic response and by resistance to challenge with an arctic rabies virus strain. virus was not shed in saliva following oral vaccination, indicating that arctic foxes would not infect other foxes after ingesting this vaccine. high antibody levels were present in all experimental foxes 2 wk following initi ...19883045347
prevalence of rabies virus in foxes trapped in the canadian arctic.brains and salivary glands of 521 trapped arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) submitted from four different settlement areas in the northwest territories were examined for rabies by the standard fluorescent antibody and mouse inoculation tests. rabies antigen was present in 44 of 201 (21.9%) brains from foxes trapped in the sachs harbour area, but submissions from cambridge bay (127), spence bay (93) and gjoa haven (100) were negative. virus was also present in salivary glands from 43 (97.7%) of these ...19807459793
quantification of residual virulence of the vnukovo-32/107 rabies virus vaccination strain.the present work summarizes the results of 11 groups of experiments carried out with the aim to complexly quantify the residual virulence of a cold mutant of the vnukovo-32/107 rabies virus vaccination strain intended for the preparation of an oral rabies vaccine (kamark) for the immunization of free-living carnivores. according to who prescriptions, residual virulence was quantified in experiments on carnivores, mainly red foxes (vulpes vulpes)--the presumed target species, and farm-bred polar ...19957740717
survey of fox trappers in northern alaska for rabies antibody.the purpose of this research was to determine whether trappers in northern alaska acquired immunity to rabies virus from non-bite exposures while trapping and skinning arctic foxes (alopex lagopus). in coastal alaska recurring epizootics presumably provide trappers ample opportunity for contact with rabid animals. serum neutralization analyses of blood samples collected from 26 individuals were conducted. all but three had negative rabies neutralizing antibody levels (< 0.05 i.u./ml). two of the ...19948062870
polymerase chain reaction protocols for rabies virus discrimination.the development of rt pcr methodology has facilitated greatly the genetic characterisation of many rabies viruses (rvs), distinct strains of which persist in certain host species reservoirs within geographically defined regions. the relative temporally conserved nature of certain regions of the rv genome, particularly the n gene, permits development of rapid molecular methods for rv typing. two main strategies have been applied to viral discrimination: (1) restriction fragment length polymorphis ...19989820569
an arctic fox rabies virus strain as the cause of human rabies in russian siberia.a case of human rabies in the arctic zone of siberia is described. the victim was bitten by a wolf, but characterization of the isolate by monoclonal antibodies showed that it was an arctic fox virus strain. this discovery reaffirmed the value of strain typing rabies virus isolates in regions where this has not been done already: such characterization pertains to the identification of the reservoir host, to the natural history of the virus in the reservoir, and to future surveillance, post-expos ...199910226626
[phylogenetic relationship of street rabies virus strains and their antigenic reactivity with antibodies induced by vaccine strains. i. analysis of phylogenetic relationship of street rabies virus strains isolated in poland].the aims of these studies were: genetic characteristic of street rabies virus strains isolated from different animal species in poland and determination of phylogenetic relationships to reference laboratory strains of the street rabies viruses belonging to genotype 1 and 5. the variability of rabies isolates and their phylogenetic relationship were studied by comparing the nucleotide sequence of the virus genome fragment. the polish strains of genotype 1 belong to four phylogenetic groups (ne, c ...200011107791
rabies and canine distemper in an arctic fox population in alaska.two oil field workers were attacked by a rabid arctic fox (alopex lagopus) in the prudhoe bay oil field (alaska, usa) prompting officials to reduce the local fox population. ninety-nine foxes were killed during winter 1994. we tested foxes for prevalence of rabies and canine distemper. exposure to rabies was detected in five of 99 foxes. of the five, only one fox had rabies virus in neural tissue as determined by the direct fluorescent antibody test. the other four foxes had been exposed to rabi ...200111272487
safety of lyophilized sag2 oral rabies vaccine in collared lemmings.fifteen collared lemmings (dicrostonyx groenlandicus) were exposed to a lyophilized oral rabies vaccine designed to immunize wild carnivore populations. no animals contracted rabies from the vaccine as determined by the absence of clinical signs after 37 days and lack of rabies virus in brain tissue determined by the fluorescent antibody (fa) test. these results suggest that collared lemmings would not contract rabies if they ingested this lyophilized vaccine in the wild during bait vaccination ...200211838220
use of discriminatory probes for strain typing of formalin-fixed, rabies virus-infected tissues by in situ in situ hybridization (ish) method has been developed to overcome difficulties encountered in the viral typing of formalin-fixed rabies virus-infected brain tissue. rabies viruses representative of all strains normally encountered in diagnostic submissions throughout canada, including 3 strains of terrestrial hosts (arctic fox, western skunk, mid-atlantic raccoon), 10 strains circulating in several bat reservoirs (bbcan1 to bbcan7, lacan, shcan, and mycan), and the evelyn-rokitniki-abelseth ( ...200312958267
oral vaccination of captive arctic foxes with lyophilized sag2 rabies vaccine.arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) were immunized with lyophilized sag2 oral rabies vaccine. the effectiveness of this vaccine was determined by serologic response and survival to challenge by rabies virus isolated from a red fox from alaska (usa). no vaccine virus was found in saliva 1-72 hr after ingestion. at 2 wk after vaccination, all foxes had seroconverted, with rabies virus neutralizing antibody levels of 0.2-3.1 iu ml(-1). all vaccinated foxes survived to week 17 after challenge, and hippoca ...200415362836
acute toxoplasmosis in three wild arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) from svalbard; one with co-infections of salmonella enteritidis pt1 and yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 2b.acute disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three wild arctic foxes (alopex lagopus) that were found dead in the same locality on svalbard (norway). the animals included one adult female and two 4-months-old pups. the adult fox was severely jaundiced. necropsy revealed multifocal, acute, necrotizing hepatitis, acute interstitial pneumonia, and scattered foci of brain gliosis, often associated with toxoplasma tachyzoites. one pup also had toxoplasma-associated meningitis. in addition, the l ...200515563924
molecular epidemiology of terrestrial rabies in the former soviet union.fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former soviet union (fsu) were compared with isolates originating from eurasia, africa, and north america according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (n) gene sequences. the fsu isolates formed five distinct groups. group a represented viruses originating from the arctic, which were similar to viruses from alaska and canada. group b consisted of "arctic-like" viruses, originating from the south of east siberia and the ...200415650080
persistence of genetic variants of the arctic fox strain of rabies virus in southern ontario.genetic-variant analysis of rabies viruses provides the most sensitive epidemiologic tool for following the spread and persistence of these viruses in their wildlife hosts. since its introduction by a southern epizootic movement that began in the far north, the arctic fox (afx) strain of rabies virus has been enzootic in ontario for almost 50 y. prior genetic studies identified 4 principal genetic variants (ont.t1 to ont.t4) that were localized to different regions of the province; furthermore, ...200616548327
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
origins of the rabies viruses associated with an outbreak in newfoundland during 2002-2003.after being free of rabies of terrestrial mammals since 1988, an outbreak of rabies occurred on the island of newfoundland in december 2002 and continued into the middle of 2003. twenty-one cases, all due to the arctic fox strain of rabies virus, were reported. to explore the immediate origins of this outbreak, viruses from the newfoundland epizootic were genetically compared to two other rabies viruses recovered in mid-2002 from cartwright, a mainland coastal community near the island. while al ...200818263824
[rabies in a cat in greenland].we describe the first case of rabies diagnosed in a cat in greenland. the cat showed aggressive behaviour one month after the visit of a rabid fox on the premises. rabies is enzootic in greenland, the arctic fox being the natural host of rabies virus. cats are imported in increasing numbers to greenland and the reported case stresses the need for concern in relation to a hitherto unrecognised risk of exposure to rabies virus and stresses the need to comply with the obligatory anti-rabies vaccina ...200818761847
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2007.summary: during 2007, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,258 cases of rabies in animals and 1 case in a human to the cdc, representing a 4.6% increase from the 6,940 cases in animals and 3 cases in humans reported in 2006. approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,659 raccoons (36.6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 ca ...200818795848
oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (orv). formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated orv programs in the united states of america. the signing of the north american rabies management plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and ...200920027214
rabies in an arctic fox on the svalbard archipelago, norway, january 2011.we report a case of rabies in an arctic fox. in january 2011 a fox attacked dogs belonging to a meteorological station in the svalbard archipelago, norway. rabies virus was detected in the fox's brain post-mortem. the dogs had been vaccinated against rabies and their antibody levels were protective. post-exposure prophylaxis was administered to staff at the station. rabies vaccination is recommended for inhabitants and visitors to the arctic who may be in contact with wild animals.201121345322
preliminary evaluation of raboral v-rg® oral rabies vaccine in arctic foxes (vulpes lagopus).we tested the raboral v-rg® recombinant oral rabies vaccine for its response in arctic foxes (vulpes lagopus), the reservoir of rabies virus in the circumpolar north. the vaccine, which is currently the only licensed oral rabies vaccine in the united states, induced a strong antibody response and protected foxes against a challenge of 500,000 mouse intracerebral lethal dose 50% of an arctic rabies virus variant. however, one unvaccinated control fox survived challenge with rabies virus, either i ...201122102679
rabies in the arctic fox population, svalbard, norway.arctic foxes, 620 that were trapped and 22 found dead on svalbard, norway (1996-2004), as well as 10 foxes trapped in nenets, north-west russia (1999), were tested for rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by standard direct fluorescent antibody test. rabies antigen was found in two foxes from svalbard and in three from russia. blood samples from 515 of the fox carcasses were screened for rabies antibodies with negative result. our results, together with a previous screening (1980-1989, n=817) in ...201122102665
spatio-temporal analysis of the genetic diversity of arctic rabies viruses and their reservoir hosts in greenland.there has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the arctic, in particular greenland. previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (rabv) lineage (arctic-3), but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of rabvs at that time. however, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular ...201627459154
population structure of two rabies hosts relative to the known distribution of rabies virus variants in alaska.for pathogens that infect multiple species, the distinction between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts is often difficult. in alaska, three variants of the arctic rabies virus exist with distinct spatial distributions. we tested the hypothesis that rabies virus variant distribution corresponds to the population structure of the primary rabies hosts in alaska, arctic foxes (vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) to possibly distinguish reservoir and spillover hosts. we used mitochondrial ...201626661691
a conceptual model for the impact of climate change on fox rabies in alaska, 1980-2010.the direct and interactive effects of climate change on host species and infectious disease dynamics are likely to initially manifest\ at latitudinal extremes. as such, alaska represents a region in the united states for introspection on climate change and disease. rabies is enzootic among arctic foxes (vulpes lagopus) throughout the northern polar region. in alaska, arctic and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) are reservoirs for rabies, with most domestic animal and wildlife cases reported from norther ...201423452510
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
global mammal parasite database version 2.0.illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy, and human health. extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, and fungi). here we present an updated version of the global mammal parasite database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artioda ...201728273333
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