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mechanism of antibody-mediated protection against herpes simplex virus infection in athymic nude mice: requirement of fc portion of antibody.experiments were performed to investigate the resistance of the host due to antibody-mediated mechanisms to herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. transfer of hyperimmune anti-hsv mouse serum inhibited the development of skin lesions and prolonged the survival of lethally hsv-infected nude mice. relatively high concentrations of antibody were required to achieve this protection. antisera prepared in heterologous animals were also effective, while administration of anti-cowpox virus serum or inter ...19826290850
serological evidence for the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus in british wildlife.the reservoir host of cowpox virus in western europe is not known, but epidemiological evidence from human and feline infections indicates that the virus is probably endemic in small wild rodents. therefore, serum and tissue samples were collected from a variety of wild british mammals and some birds, and tested for evidence of orthopoxvirus infection. antibody reacting with cowpox virus was detected in 9/44 (20%) bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), 8/24 (33%) field voles (microtus agrestis), ...19957641833
activation of caspases in pig kidney cells infected with wild-type and crma/spi-2 mutants of cowpox and rabbitpox viruses.the cowpox virus (cpv) crma and the equivalent rabbitpox virus (rpv) spi-2 proteins have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptosis activity by virtue of their ability to inhibit caspases, including the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ice; caspase-1). infection of llc-pk1 pig kidney cells with a cpv crma mutant, but not with wild-type (wt) cpv, results in the induction of many of the morphological features of apoptosis (c. a. ray and d. j. pickup, virology 217:384-391, 1996). in our study, llc-pk1 ...19989557631
myxoma virus serp2 is a weak inhibitor of granzyme b and interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme in vitro and unlike crma cannot block apoptosis in cowpox virus-infected cells.the serp2 protein encoded by the leporipoxvirus myxoma virus is essential for full virulence (f. messud-petit, j. gelfi, m. delverdier, m. f. amardeilh, r. py, g. sutter, and s. bertagnoli, j. virol. 72:7830-7839, 1998) and, like crma of cowpox virus (cpv), is reported to inhibit the interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ice, caspase-1) (f. petit, s. bertagnoli, j. gelfi, f. fassy, c. boucraut-baralon, and a. milon, j. virol. 70:5860-5866, 1996). serp2 and crma both contain asp at the p1 position ...199910400732
the zinc finger protein a20 interacts with a novel anti-apoptotic protein which is cleaved by specific caspases.a20 is a cys2/cys2 zinc finger protein which is induced by a variety of inflammatory stimuli and which has been characterized as an inhibitor of cell death by a yet unknown mechanism. in order to clarify its molecular mechanism of action, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to screen for proteins that interact with a20. a cdna fragment was isolated which encoded a portion of a novel protein (txbp151), which was recently found to be a human t-cell leukemia virus type-i (htlv-i) tax-binding protei ...199910435631
expression of secreted cytokine and chemokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus.the production of secreted proteins that bind cytokines and block their activity has been well characterized as an immune evasion strategy of the orthopoxviruses vaccinia virus (vv) and cowpox virus (cpv). however, very limited information is available on the expression of similar cytokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus (ev), a virulent natural mouse pathogen that causes mousepox. we have characterized the expression and binding properties of three major secreted immunomodulatory activities in 1 ...200010954546
anti-cowpox virus activities of certain adenosine analogs, arabinofuranosyl nucleosides, and 2'-fluoro-arabinofuranosyl nucleosides.nucleoside analogs were investigated for their potential to inhibit cowpox virus (a surrogate for variola and monkeypox viruses) in cell culture and in lethal respiratory infections in mice. cell culture antiviral activity was determined by plaque reduction assays, with cytotoxicity determined by cell proliferation assays. selectivity indices (si's, 50% cytotoxic concentration divided by 50% virus-inhibitory concentration) were determined for 15 compounds. three arabinofuranosyl (ara) nucleoside ...200415043161
properties of the recombinant tnf-binding proteins from variola, monkeypox, and cowpox viruses are different.tumor necrosis factor (tnf), a potent proinflammatory and antiviral cytokine, is a critical extracellular immune regulator targeted by poxviruses through the activity of virus-encoded family of tnf-binding proteins (crmb, crmc, crmd, and crme). the only tnf-binding protein from variola virus (varv), the causative agent of smallpox, infecting exclusively humans, is crmb. here we have aligned the amino acid sequences of crmb proteins from 10 varv, 14 cowpox virus (cpxv), and 22 monkeypox virus (mp ...200617070121
activation of the pi3k/akt pathway early during vaccinia and cowpox virus infections is required for both host survival and viral replication.viral manipulation of the transduction pathways associated with key cellular functions such as actin remodeling, microtubule stabilization, and survival may favor a productive viral infection. here we show that consistent with the vaccinia virus (vacv) and cowpox virus (cpxv) requirement for cytoskeleton alterations early during the infection cycle, pbk/akt was phosphorylated at s473 [akt(s473-p)], a modification associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mtorc2), which was par ...200919386722
cowpox virus inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing to evade t cell recognition.cowpox virus encodes an extensive array of putative immunomodulatory proteins, likely contributing to its wide host range, which includes zoonotic infections in humans. unlike vaccinia virus, cowpox virus prevents stimulation of cd8(+) t cells, a block that correlated with retention of mhc class i in the endoplasmic reticulum by the cowpox virus protein cpxv203. however, deletion of cpxv203 did not restore mhc class i transport or t cell stimulation. here, we demonstrate the contribution of an a ...200919917498
tyrosine-based 1-(s)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine and -adenine ((s)-hpmpc and (s)-hpmpa) prodrugs: synthesis, stability, antiviral activity, and in vivo transport studies.eight novel single amino acid (6-11) and dipeptide (12, 13) tyrosine p-o esters of cyclic cidofovir ((s)-chpmpc , 4) and its cyclic adenine analogue ((s)-chpmpa, 3) were synthesized and evaluated as prodrugs. in vitro ic(50) values for the prodrugs (<0.1-50 μm) vs vaccinia, cowpox, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex type 1 virus were compared to those for the parent drugs ((s)-hpmpc, 2; (s)-hpmpa, 1; ic(50) 0.3-35 μm); there was no cytoxicity with kb or hff cells at ≤100 μm. the prodrugs ...201121812420
the vaccinia virus a41l protein is a soluble 30 kda glycoprotein that affects virus virulence.vaccinia virus (vv) gene a41l encodes an acidic protein with amino acid similarity to the 35 kda protein of vv strain lister, a soluble protein called vckbp that binds cc chemokines, and to a protein from orf virus, called gif, that binds gm-csf and il-2. however, despite the similarity, recombinant a41l protein was found not to bind these ligands or a variety of other chemoattractant molecules when tested using surface plasmon resonance. the a41l gene is expressed early and late during infectio ...200111514718
a mouse model of aerosol-transmitted orthopoxviral disease: morphology of experimental aerosol-transmitted orthopoxviral disease in a cowpox virus-balb/c mouse system.to determine the morphologic changes and disease progression of aerosolized cowpox virus infection in balb/c mice and to ascertain the suitability of cowpox virus-infected balb/c mice as a model of aerosol-transmitted, orthopoxviral respiratory disease.200010705388
cisplatin-induced apoptosis of immortalized mouse proximal tubule cells is mediated by interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ice) family of proteases but inhibited by overexpression of bcl-2.cisplatin is known to induce serious renal damage including acute renal failure, the major site of renal injury appears to be localized to the third segment of the proximal tubule (s3). apoptosis occurs during a variety of acute injuries to tubule cell. the purpose of this study was to determine whether cisplatin induces apoptosis of immortalized mouse s3 cells, and to define the intracellular pathways leading to cell death. s3 cells exposed to cisplatin exhibited biochemical, morphological, and ...19979332697
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