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airborne rabies encephalitis: demonstration of rabies virus in the human central nervous system.a veterinarian contracted rabies in the course of laboratory work with homogenates of rabid goat brain. epidemiologic study determined a respiratory mode of transmission. after a fulminant encephalitic illness, formed rabies virions were identified in the synaptic zones of the olfactory glomeruli. identification, isolation, experimental disease production, and tissue cytopathic effects of virus recovered from the brain fulfilled koch's postulates in this unusual instance of virus disease of the ...1977556820
incidence of rabies virus complement-fixing antibodies in unvaccinated dogs, humans and livestock in anambra state of nigeria.a total of 376 serum samples from dogs, humans and livestock were examined for complement-fixing (cf) antibodies against rabies virus. high cf antibody titres (up to 1:1024) were detected among unvaccinated dogs aged 3 months and above as in vaccinated ones, thus establishing endemicity of the virus in the area. an antibody titre of 1:128 was detected in the serum of a puppy aged below 3 months and is unlikely to be due to residual maternal antibodies. it rather provides evidence for seroconvers ...19921602992
[rabies, a public health problem].in west-europe, rabies is mostly reported in foxes, and in less extend in different domestic animals including dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, goats and horses. the contamination to humans occurs through contact with rabid animals by bite, scratch and even contact with the wound. this paper reports upon the current situation of rabies disease in belgium and the prophylactic means routinely applied and those actually under experiment. in 1988, 514 animals were found positive, among which 366 foxes (71 ...19892610551
immunofluorescent staining of trypsinized formalin-fixed brain smears for rabies antigen: results compared with those obtained by standard methods for 221 suspect animal cases in nigeria.formalin-fixed samples from 221 animal brains received for rabies diagnosis in nigeria were digested in 0.1% trypsin in phosphate buffered saline, ph 7.4, and smears stained for rabies antigen by direct immunofluorescence (if). the results were compared with those obtained using fresh material from the same animals for negri body staining, mouse inoculation (mi) and occasionally immunofluorescent staining. from 191 specimens examined for negri bodies and by mouse inoculation 51 and 64 respective ...19852982942
antibody production in milk serum after virus instillation of goat mammary gland vi. "sham infection" with special reference to rabies.the era strain of rabies vaccine virus failed to propagate or cause clinical manifestations when instilled into the mammary gland of lactating goats. however, the virus did produce neutralizing antibodies in this gland as a result of repetitive viral stimulation, a "sham infection". the protective property of the concentrated and partly purified milk serum antibody was assessed in mice. in the first trial, protective activity was observed when a single dose of milk serum antibody was administere ...19744272951
mokola virus. further studies on iban 27377, a new rabies-related etiologic agent of zoonosis in nigeria. 19725025622
immunofluorescent staining of rabies virus antigen in formalin-fixed tissue after treatment with trypsin.formalin-fixed central nervous system tissue from clinically rabid animals was treated with 0.25% trypsin and tested for the presence of rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescent (if) staining. the results were comparable with those obtained from direct if staining of acetone-fixed standard smears or fresh frozen-cut sections. experiments were conducted using coded brain specimens (classified as if-negative, weakly positive, or strongly positive) and showed a specificity of 100% for secti ...19816172212
the dissemination of rabies virus into cranial nerves and other tissues of experimentally infected goats and dogs and naturally infected skunks.immunofluorescence examination for rabies virus antigen performed on skin specimens acquired from experimentally inoculated rabid goats and some dogs, often show little or not fluorescence. this observation is contrary to results obtained by comparable examination of the skin of naturally infected animals and most experimentally infected dogs. in an effort to elucidate some factors associated with this experience, an experiment was performed to similarly examine the cranial nerves to see if the ...19826757169
rabies virus antinucleoprotein antibody protects against rabies virus challenge in vivo and inhibits rabies virus replication in vitro.we previously reported that a/wysnj mice vaccinated via a tail scratch with a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) expressing the rabies virus internal structural nucleoprotein (n) (rcn-n) were protected against a street rabies virus (d. l. lodmell, j. w. sumner, j.j. esposito, w.j. bellini, and l. c. ewalt, j. virol. 65:3400-3405, 1991). to improve our understanding of the mechanism(s) of this protection, we investigated whether sera of a/wysnj mice that had been vaccinated with rcn-n but not cha ...19938371354
[the evaluation of a monoclonal antibody panel for lyssavirus typing in mexico].the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a panel of eight antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies developed in europe to identify different strains of rabies virus isolated from a variety of animal species from diverse geographic areas in mexico. fifty-one virus-positive samples of brain tissue from various animal species and humans were studied. material from these samples was used to infect mice, whose brains were later tested by indirect immunofluorescence, using the monoclonal ...19958540994
detection of rabies virus antigen in animals by avidin-biotin dot elisa.an avidin-biotin dot elisa test was standardized to detect rabies viral antigens from the brain of rabies-suspected animals. this test was compared with the direct fluorescent antibody test (fat). the advantages of the avidin-biotin dot elisa are discussed. the incorporation of avidin-biotin into a conventional elisa is a step forward in improving the available rabies antigen detection procedures as this technique is more sensitive, highly specific and exploits the great affinity of avidin for b ...19968946699
safety study of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in several non-target species with a view to its future use for the immunization of foxes in europe.the safety of the sag2 virus, a low virulence mutant of the sad strain, was investigated in ten species of mammals and seven species of birds liable to consume vaccine baits. these species are the western hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), the meadow vole (microtus arvalis), the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), the water vole (arvicola terrestris), the field mouse (apodemus flavicollis or a. sylvaticus), the norway rat (rattus norvegicus), the european badger (meles meles), the domestic ferret ...19969014291
a liquid-phase blocking elisa for the detection of antibodies to rabies virus.a liquid-phase blocking elisa was adapted to the detection and titration of antibodies to principally the nucleoprotein of rabies virus. sera from animals that had either been vaccinated against rabies or inoculated with street rabies viruses, as well as sera from animals that had no recorded contact with rabies, were tested. these included sera from people, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, laboratory mice, rabbits, yellow mongooses, wild dogs and lions. where possible, the results were compared with ...19957730435
enzyme immunoassay for rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids and its application to differentiation of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus.a rapid and sensitive enzyme immunoassay is described for detecting rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids. glass fiber filter disks were used to immobilize gamma-irradiated mouse neuroblastoma cells infected with street or laboratory strains of rabies virus. bound rabies-specific antibody was detected by reaction with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin g. the assay was performed in a 96-well filtration device developed by cleveland et al. (j. clin. microbiol. 15: ...19846365963
dna immunization protects nonhuman primates against rabies virus.more than 40,000 people die annually from rabies worldwide. most of these fatalities occur in developing countries, where rabies is endemic, public health resources are inadequate and there is limited access to preventive treatment. because of the high cost of vaccines derived from cell culture, many countries still use vaccines produced in sheep, goat or suckling mouse brain. the stability and low cost for mass production of dna vaccines would make them ideal for use in developing countries. to ...19989701249
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1999.during 1999, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,067 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 11.2% from 7,961 cases in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 1998. more than 91% (6,466 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 8.5% (601 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 92.4% in wild animals and 7.6% in domestic species in 1998). no cases of rabies were reported in human beings in 1 ...200011132881
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1998.during 1998, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,961 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 6.5% from 8,509 cases in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings reported in 1997. more than 92% (7,358 cases) were in wild animals, whereas > 7.5% (603 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93% in wild animals and 7% in domestic species in 1997). decreases were evident in al ...199910613210
b-cell responses to myelin basic protein and its epitopes in autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by semple rabies vaccine.semple rabies vaccine is composed of rabies virus-infected sheep or goat brain inactivated with phenol and is administered daily after exposure for 14-21 days. semple rabies vaccine-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis (sae) has clinico-pathological findings of demyelination similar to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eae) caused by injection of central nervous system tissue or purified myelin proteins into experimental animals and frequently studied as a model for the human demyelinat ...199910430042
immunohistochemical and histopathological studies of fixed rabies virus in goats.the purpose of this study was to systematically demonstrate and compare the pathological and immunohistochemical changes in goats which were infected by a fixed rabies virus that was used in vaccine production. in the histopathological examinations, varying degrees of inflammatory, degenerative and necrotic changes were detected in the central nervous system. in the preparations stained by the immunoperoxidase (ip) method, intra- and/or extracellular viral antigens were observed on the cerebellu ...200111585097
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2000.during 2000, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,364 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 5 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 4.3% from 7,067 cases in nonhuman animals reported in 1999. ninety-three percent (6,855 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.9% (509 cases) were in domestic species (compared wth 91.5% in wild animals and 8.5% in domestic species in 1999). compared with cases reported in 1999, the numbe ...200111767918
how to succeed as a virus: strategies for dealing with the immune system.viruses may be viewed as genetic information whose success depends on avoiding elimination from individual hosts, or, if this is not possible, in persisting in the population of their hosts. the immune system represents the crucial defense mechanism responsible for the elimination of viruses from individual hosts and for the establishment of immunity that prevents a recurring infection by the same virus. herd immunity, i.e., immunity of the population against infection resulting from the immunit ...199910614500
antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. the panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the americas. samples were isolated in the diagnostic laboratory of the pasteur institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in brazil. in addition to the fixed virus samples cvs-31/96-ip, preserved in mouse brain, and pv-bhk/97, preserved in cell c ...200212048546
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
molecular epidemiology of terrestrial rabies in the former soviet union.fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former soviet union (fsu) were compared with isolates originating from eurasia, africa, and north america according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (n) gene sequences. the fsu isolates formed five distinct groups. group a represented viruses originating from the arctic, which were similar to viruses from alaska and canada. group b consisted of "arctic-like" viruses, originating from the south of east siberia and the ...200415650080
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2004.during 2004, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the cdc, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bat ...200516379626
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
genetic and phylogenetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from wildlife and livestock in paraiba, brazil.thirty-four rabies virus (rv) isolates from foxes (8), insectivore bats (9), cattle (14), sheep (1), a goat (1) and a donkey (1) from paraiba state, northeastern brazil, were genetically characterized. sequences of 890 nts of nucleoprotein (n) genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those of other brazilian isolates characterized earlier. phylogenetic analysis revealed three genetical lineages of rv co-existing in this region. each lineage was found to be associated with particul ...200616599183
molecular epidemiology of rabies virus isolates in india.in india, rabies is enzootic and is a serious public health and economic problem. india has a large population of stray dogs which, together with a lack of effective control strategies, might have led to the persistence of rabies virus (rv) in the canine population. our objective was to study the molecular epidemiology of rv isolates in india based on nucleotide sequence analysis of 29 rv isolates originating from different species of animals in four states. here we have analyzed two sets of seq ...200616954251
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2005.during 2005, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,417 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the cdc, representing a 6.2% decrease from the 6,836 cases in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings reported in 2004. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,534 raccoons (39.5%), 1,478 skunks (23%), 1,408 bats (21.9%), 376 foxes (5.9%), 269 cats (4.2%), 93 cat ...200617173527
molecular epidemiology identifies only a single rabies virus variant circulating in complex carnivore communities of the serengeti.understanding the transmission dynamics of generalist pathogens that infect multiple host species is essential for their effective control. only by identifying those host populations that are critical to the permanent maintenance of the pathogen, as opposed to populations in which outbreaks are the result of 'spillover' infections, can control measures be appropriately directed. rabies virus is capable of infecting a wide range of host species, but in many ecosystems, particular variants circula ...200717609187
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2007.summary: during 2007, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,258 cases of rabies in animals and 1 case in a human to the cdc, representing a 4.6% increase from the 6,940 cases in animals and 3 cases in humans reported in 2006. approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,659 raccoons (36.6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 ca ...200818795848
molecular epidemiology of rabies virus isolates in uganda.african field rabies virus isolates from domestic animals can be phylogenetically divided into three geographic lineages: africa 1a (north and west africa); africa 1b (east and south africa); africa 2 (west africa). partial nucleotide sequences of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (203-nt) were obtained from five dogs and three goats in uganda. the analyzed ugandan field rabies viruses were categorized into the africa 1a and africa 1b lineages. the present study thus demonstrates that two afri ...201019836426
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
lyssavirus detection and typing using pyrosequencing.rabies is a fatal zoonosis caused by a nonsegmented negative-strand rna virus, namely, rabies virus (rabv). apart from rabv, at least 10 additional species are known as rabies-related lyssaviruses (rrvs), and some of them are responsible for occasional spillovers into humans. more lyssaviruses have also been detected recently in different bat ecosystems, thanks to the application of molecular diagnostic methods. due to the variety of the members of the genus lyssavirus, there is the necessity to ...201121389152
antemortem diagnosis of human rabies in a veterinarian infected when handling a herbivore in minas gerais, brazil.the ministry of health's national human rabies control program advocates pre-exposure prophylaxis (pep) for professionals involved with animals that are at risk of contracting rabies. we report an antemortem and postmortem diagnosis of rabies in a veterinarian who became infected when handling herbivores with rabies. the antemortem diagnosis was carried out with a saliva sample and a biopsy of hair follicles using molecular biology techniques, while the postmortem diagnosis used a brain sample a ...201121412618
a synthetic peptide encompassing the g5 antigenic region of the rabies virus induces high avidity but poorly neutralizing antibody in immunized animals.the immunization of goats with a synthetic peptide encompassing the g5 antigenic site of the rabies virus surface glycoprotein induces a strong humoral immune response in the absence of a carrier protein. the immunized animals mounted high antibody titers and showed a strong avidity maturation of the b cell immune response to both the g5-peptide and purified surface glycoprotein g. this antibody weakly neutralized rabies virus carrying the g5 epitope but failed to neutralize escape mutants carry ...200818955098
a method for simultaneous detection and identification of brazilian dog- and vampire bat-related rabies virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.at present, the sporadic occurrence of human rabies in brazil can be attributed primarily to dog- and vampire bat-related rabies viruses. reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was employed as a simultaneous detection method for both rabies field variants within 60 min. vampire bat-related rabies viruses could be distinguished from dog variants by digesting amplicons of the rt-lamp reaction using the restriction enzyme alwi. amplification and digestion could both ...201020403387
phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene of dog rabies virus isolates from southern india.india like several other south east asian and african countries continues to face the public health and economic problems associated with the disease. our objective was to perform a limited sequence analysis of a portion of nucleoprotein gene of 22 rabies virus isolates obtained from domestic animals in southern india during 2004-2005. these isolates were compared with rabies virus isolates originating from asia, europe, africa and north america. the phylogenetic analysis showed that rv isolates ...200919428313
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
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