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further characterization of raccoonpox virus.a poxvirus isolated from the respiratory tract of raccoons in a forest and swamp area near aberdeen, maryland, was characterized by biological, serological, and biophysical methods. the virus was shown to be related to the vaccinia-variola subgroup by serological and biophysical methods, but measurably different from the other viruses of this group by biological methods. it causes flaccid paralysis in 1-day-old suckling mice and does not grow well on cam after two or three passages.1975813616
further analyses of the orthopoxviruses volepox virus and raccoon poxvirus.volepox virus (vpx) from skin lesions on a vole and a piñon mouse caught in california and raccoon poxvirus (rcn) from raccoons trapped in maryland were examined to begin elucidating their relationship to other orthopoxviruses, most of which are not known to be indigenous to the americas. vpx and rcn produced pinpoint, nonhemorrhagic pocks on chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes. in cell cultures both viruses produced 1-mm diameter, irregular plaques, a-type inclusions (atis), and despite prod ...19921529541
sequences of the raccoon poxvirus hemagglutinin protein.primers based on sequences flanking the vaccinia virus (vv) strain ihd hemagglutinin protein (ha) open reading frame (orf) enabled amplification of ha dna segments from the genome of raccoon poxvirus (rcn) and vv strain wr. the amplified segments produced unequal cross-hybridization signal intensities against each other, indicating sequence differences between the ha of rcn (in hindiii-g) and that of vv-wr (in hindiii-a). about 1.5 kb of sequences in the ha region were then determined from clone ...19921529542
prerequisites for oral immunization of free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) with a recombinant rabies virus vaccine: study site ecology and bait system development.a model baiting system suitable for the delivery of an oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) was developed and tested on barrier islands in south carolina (usa). features of barrier island physiography and ecology were studied relative to selective bait deployment and site biosecurity. capture-mark-recapture data were obtained from 228 raccoons. raccoon density estimates, using a modified census assessment technique, were one raccoon per 1.8 to 2.7 ha. mean (+/- se) and ra ...19921548804
oral vaccination of skunks with raccoon poxvirus recombinants expressing the rabies glycoprotein or the nucleoprotein.twenty nine skunks (mephitis mephitis) were vaccinated orally with raccoon poxvirus (rcn) recombinants: 10 with a recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rcnrg), 10 with rcnrg mixed with a recombinant expressing the rabies virus nucleoprotein (rcnrn) and nine with rcn alone. rabies virus neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the 20 skunks; five skunks (three given rcnrg, two given a mixture of recombinants) survived a rabies challenge that was lethal for nine skunks vacci ...19911758034
raccoon poxvirus recombinants expressing the rabies virus nucleoprotein protect mice against lethal rabies virus infection.raccoon poxvirus (rcn) recombinants expressing the rabies virus internal structural nucleoprotein (rcn-n) protected a/wysnj mice against a lethal challenge with street rabies virus (srv). maximum survival was achieved following vaccination by tail scratch and footpad (fp) srv challenge. rcn-n-vaccinated mice inoculated in the fp with srv were resistant to infection for at least 54 weeks postvaccination. protection was also elicited by rcn recombinants expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rc ...19912033678
orthopoxvirus dna: a comparison of restriction profiles and maps.characteristic dna endonuclease digest fragment electropherograms and restriction site maps permitted differentiation and genome structure analysis of 38 orthopoxviruses that included isolates of monkeypox virus from humans and animals, monkeypox white variants, variola, vaccinia, ectromelia, tatera (gerbil) and raccoon poxviruses, and cowpox and camelpox viruses. hindiii cleavage sites mapped on the 38 virus genome dnas plus smai, bgli, saci, kpni, xhoi, and sali maps for variola (harvey) and m ...19852998003
successful oral rabies vaccination of raccoons with raccoon poxvirus recombinants expressing rabies virus glycoprotein.two infectious raccoon poxvirus (rcn) recombinants for expressing rabies virus surface spike glycoprotein (g) were produced by homologous recombination between raccoon poxvirus dna and chimeric plasmids previously used for production of vaccinia virus recombinants. expression of g protein was controlled by vaccinia virus promoter p7.5 (early/late class) or by p11 (late class). immunoprecipitation of infected cell extracts indicated that both of the rcn recombinants directed faithful expression o ...19883291388
nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of raccoon poxvirus.using primers directed against the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus, pcr products were generated from nucleic acids extracted from raccoon poxvirus-infected vero cells. the pcr products were consistent in size with the expected products from vaccinia virus. nucleotide sequence determination revealed that the raccoon pox thymidine kinase gene and flanking regions were 84.3% homologous to the corresponding sequences of vaccinia virus. at the amino acid level, an open reading frame coding fo ...19957483292
identification of the feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) genes encoding glycoproteins g, d, i and e: expression of fhv-1 glycoprotein d in vaccinia and raccoon poxviruses.the genome of feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1), the major cause of viral upper respiratory disease in cats, contains several genes encoding homologues of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoproteins. restriction mapping studies have indicated that the group d genome of fhv-1 contains a unique short region that is 9.0 kb long. the nucleotide sequence of a 6.2 kb portion of this region was determined. analyses of this sequence have identified five open reading frames capable of encoding homo ...19948207390
raccoon poxvirus rabies virus glycoprotein recombinant vaccine in sheep.twenty sheep were divided into groups and inoculated by various routes with recombinant raccoon poxvirus expressing the cvs rabies virus glycoprotein (rrcnv-g) or with raccoon poxvirus (rcnv). the apparent innocuous pathologic responses to each virus coupled with development of high levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies in animals vaccinated with rrcnv-g intradermally or intramuscularly suggested that the recombinant is effective and that rcnv would be a suitable substrate for further d ...19938240013
rabies virus antinucleoprotein antibody protects against rabies virus challenge in vivo and inhibits rabies virus replication in vitro.we previously reported that a/wysnj mice vaccinated via a tail scratch with a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) expressing the rabies virus internal structural nucleoprotein (n) (rcn-n) were protected against a street rabies virus (d. l. lodmell, j. w. sumner, j.j. esposito, w.j. bellini, and l. c. ewalt, j. virol. 65:3400-3405, 1991). to improve our understanding of the mechanism(s) of this protection, we investigated whether sera of a/wysnj mice that had been vaccinated with rcn-n but not cha ...19938371354
raccoon poxvirus feline panleukopenia virus vp2 recombinant protects cats against fpv challenge.an infectious raccoon poxvirus (rcnv) was used to express the feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) open reading frame vp2. the recombinant, rcnv/fpv, was constructed by homologous recombination with a chimeric plasmid for inserting the expression cassette into the thymidine kinase (tk) locus of rcnv. expression of the vp2 dna was regulated by the vaccinia virus late promoter p11. southern blot and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analyses confirmed the cassette was in the tk gene of the rcnv genome. ...19968615030
protection of cats from infectious peritonitis by vaccination with a recombinant raccoon poxvirus expressing the nucleocapsid gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus.feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) is a coronavirus that induces an often fatal, systemic infection in cats. various vaccines designed to prevent fipv infection have been shown to exacerbate the disease, probably due to immune enhancement mediated by virus-specific immunoglobulins against the outer envelope (s) protein. an effective vaccine would be one that induces cell-mediated immunity without disease enhancing antibodies. in this report, we describe the use of a recombinant raccoon p ...19958830483
raccoon poxvirus live recombinant feline panleukopenia virus vp2 and rabies virus glycoprotein bivalent vaccine.a raccoon poxvirus (rcnv) recombinant for immunizing against feline panleukopenia and rabies was developed by homologous recombination with a chimeric plasmid for insertional inactivation of the rcnv thymidine kinase gene. the recombinant, rcn-fpv/vp2-rabg, coexpressed the feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) vp2 protein and the rabies virus spike glycoprotein (rabg) under oppositely oriented vaccinia virus p11 promoters. cats vaccinated subcutaneously with the recombinant showed relatively high neu ...19979302762
recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague.using a raccoon poxvirus (rcn) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. we tested the effects of a translation enhancer (emcv-ires) in combination with a secretory (tpa) signal or secretory (tpa) and membrane anchoring (chv-gg) signals on in vitro antigen expression of f1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against yersinia pestis challenge in mice. the rcn vector successfully ...200312559803
raccoon poxvirus as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats.in the present study, we evaluated both the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats. rcn is an orthopoxvirus that was isolated from healthy raccoons and has been used experimentally as a vaccine vector for rabies and other antigens in a variety of species, including raccoons, skunks, foxes, bobcats, rabbits, domestic cats, piglets, sheep and non-human primates. we evaluated the antibody response induced by a recombinant rcn va ...200315203914
limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector.a laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (f1) and rcn. this is the first documented case of human exposure to rcn.200415246608
protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western united states. a recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the f1 antigen of y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. antibody titers against y. pestis f1 antigen increased significantly (p < 0.01) in vaccinees, a ...200415322054
potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization.the usda, wildlife services cooperative oral rabies vaccination (orv) program uses a live vaccinia virus-vectored (genus orthopoxvirus) vaccine, raboral v-rg (v-rg), to vaccinate specific wildlife species against rabies virus in several regions of the u.s. several naturally occurring orthopoxviruses have been found in north america, including one isolated from asymptomatic raccoons (procyon lotor). the effect of naturally occurring antibodies to orthopoxviruses on successful v-rg vaccination in ...200818834520
immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits.prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western united states. a recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the f1 antigen of y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals ...200818957649
further development of raccoon poxvirus-vectored vaccines against plague (yersinia pestis).in previous studies, we demonstrated protection against plague in mice and prairie dogs using a raccoon pox (rcn) virus-vectored vaccine that expressed the f1 capsular antigen of yersinia pestis. in order to improve vaccine efficacy, we have now constructed additional rcn-plague vaccines containing two different forms of the lcrv (v) gene, including full-length (vfull) and a truncated form (v307). mouse challenge studies with y. pestis strain co92 showed that vaccination with a combination of rc ...200919879228
consumption of baits containing raccoon pox-based plague vaccines protects black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus).baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) expressing plague antigens (fraction 1 [f1] and a truncated form of the v protein-v307) were offered for voluntary consumption several times over the course of several months to a group of 16 black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus). for comparison, another group of prairie dogs (n = 12) was injected subcutaneously (sc) (prime and boost) with 40 microg of f1-v fusion protein absorbed to alum, a vaccine-adjuvant combination demonstrated ...201020158332
effects of route and coadministration of recombinant raccoon poxviruses on immune responses and protection against highly pathogenic avian influenza in mice.we previously demonstrated that recombinant raccoonpox (rcn) virus could serve as a vector for an influenza vaccine. rcn constructs expressing the hemagglutinin (ha) from h5n1 viruses were immunogenic in chickens. in the current study, we generated several recombinant rcn constructs expressing influenza (h5n1) antigens and a molecular adjuvant (heat-labile enterotoxin b from e. coli: rcn-ltb), demonstrated their expression in vitro, and evaluated their ability to protect mice against h5n1 virus ...201222921740
mucosal administration of raccoonpox virus expressing highly pathogenic avian h5n1 influenza neuraminidase is highly protective against h5n1 and seasonal influenza virus challenge.we previously generated recombinant poxviruses expressing influenza antigens and studied their efficacy as potential highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) vaccines in mice. while both modified vaccinia ankara (mva) and raccoon poxvirus (rcn) expressing hemagglutinin (ha) provided strong protection when administered by parenteral routes, only rcn-neuraminidase (na) showed promise as a mucosal vaccine. in the present study we evaluated the efficacy of rcn-na constructs by both intradermal (id) ...201526271828
infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the brazilian free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis).bats (order chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. with the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia ankara (mva) and raccoon poxvirus (rcn) as potential vaccine vectors in the brazilian free-tailed bat (tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. a ...201627650872
endemic orthopoxvirus circulating in procyonids in mexico.limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (opxv) are widespread in the us (e.g., raccoonpox virus, skunkpox virus, volepox virus) and brazil (vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for opxv infections has been found (oryzomys, peromyscus, microtus, and procyonidae). the presence of these groups of mammals in mexico and the evidence of their possible involvem ...201627224209
apparent field safety of a raccoon poxvirus-vectored plague vaccine in free-ranging prairie dogs (cynomys spp.), colorado, usa.prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. an oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated rcn-f1/v307) has been developed for prairie dogs. this vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine b as a biomarker. we conducted trials in august and september 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the rcn-f1/v307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. free-ranging prairie dogs and other associa ...201525588006
a recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both yersinia pestis f1 and truncated v antigens protects animals against lethal plague.in previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rrcn) expressing yersinia pestis antigens (f1 and v307-a truncated version of the v protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. to reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (spv) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more ...201426344891
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