[a contribution to the stabilisation of the mva-vaccine (author's transl)].the titre of the mva-vaccine remains constant at -20 degrees c with human serum albumin, sorbitol, haemaccel, rheomacrodex and cysteine within 8 month. at -20 degrees c the stability of the mva-virus is equivalent to the vaccinia-virus, stabilized by peptone and sorbitol. storing the mva-virus at +4 degrees c, +20 degrees c for 8 month or at 27 degrees c for 4 weeks, 1% human serum albumin and 5% sorbitol preserves the virustitre best, but the stability of vaccinia-virus with 5% peptone and 5% s ...197994967
[allergic reactions in viral infections]. 1975164736
production of species-unspecific antiviral inhibitors in cell-cultures and in chicken embryos under the influence of pyrazolon derivatives. 1975169855
oral immunization against pox. studies on fowl pox as a model.oral vaccination against fowl pox is both effective and harmless. a suitable vaccine strain is the attenuated hp-1 strain in the 200th to 400th tissue culture passage. for optimal immunization virus of the 200th to 270th passage level should be applied twice at an interval of 3 to 4 weeks. vaccination dose should contain 10(7.0)tcid50. chickens may be effectively immunized already at 5 days. immunity is against both homologous and heterologous virus and proves equally resistant to oral, cutaneo ...1976182584
[infectious and parasitic diseases. survey of the current status in 1977]. 1977196324
[methods for the rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex using the indirect hemagglutination reaction].a method for preparation of an erythrocyte immunoglobulin herpes preparation for the indirect hemagglutination test (iha) is described. a high specificity and sensitivity of this test and the preparation has been demonstrated. the results of the use of iha with this preparation for the detection of herpes simplex virus in specimens from patients are presented.1977201105
the effect of mixed infections induced by adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia or smallpox virus, on the ultrastructure of kb cells ii. observations of changes in the ultrastructure of kb cells during 6--11 days infection with adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia virus. 1978215254
[the smallpox vaccination strain mva: marker, genetic structure, experience gained with the parenteral vaccination and behavior in organisms with a debilitated defence mechanism (author's transl)].the mva virus is a lab virus ideally suited for vaccination of both man and animal which can be differentiated from the known vaccinia strains by the use of numerous biological markers. its reduced virulence for the chick embryo, for experimental animals and for man is a particularly characteristic feature. with the exception of chick embryo fibroblasts, the mva virus grows in cell cultures only abortively. this applies particularly to cells of human origin in which the cytopathic effect and pla ...1978219640
experimental smallpox in an attempt to prepare highly specific antiserum to variola virus, a chimpanzee was inoculated with a virulent human strain of this virus. three uninoculated chimpanzees were housed in the same room; two of these developed clinical disease with seroconversion, while the third developed no evidence of infection and no antibody. the three animals that became ill also developed antibody to vaccinia and monkeypox viruses. human contacts during the study and following a break in containment showed ...1979316740
widespread eczema vaccinatum acquired by contacts. a report of an autopsy case.a 4-month-old male infant predisposed to allergic dermatitis acquired wide-spread eczema vaccinatum by contacts with a recently vaccinated sibling. he died of acute purulent peritonitis following a perforation of multiple duodenal ulcers. fluorescence immunocytochemical and electron microscopic studies on the skin lesions revealed the presence of viral antigens and numerous virus particles compatible morphologically with those of the mature form from the same batch of smallpox vaccine given to t ...1979377910
vaccination against virus of the most important and most lasting benefits of medicine to human health and health expenditure is the controlled immunological interruption of the vicious cycle of infectious disease such as smallpox, poliomyelitis, yellow fever, measles. smallpox, with globally more than 2.5 million cases ten years ago, is gone. the incidence of infectious diseases with available immunoprophylaxis has been reduced by 90 % over the past two decades, while the incidence of diseases without vaccine has nea ...1979394510
antiviral drugs. 1977408279
[viral infections in children with neoplasms]. 1979506233
generation of virus-specific cytolytic activity in human peripheral lymphocytes after vaccination with vaccinia virus and measles virus.human peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) harvested after vaccination with vaccinia or measles virus showed a specific activity against virus-infected target cells. this activity peaked on day 7 and was specific for the target cells infected with the virus used for the vaccination. the cytotoxic activity was not related to hla markers. the cells involved in the cytolytic process were lymphocytes bearing fc receptors. in addition, the cytotoxic activity was abrogated by more than 90% by rabbit fab ...1978723792
epidemiology of diseases in adult males with the tri-state leukemia survey, the history of diseases in 605 adult male leukemia cases 15 years and older and in 668 adult male population controls was examined. these diseases occurred at least 1 year before leukemia was diagnosed. the data were based on respondents' answers that the disease was diagnosed by a physician; the respondent was either the subject or his spouse. of 30 diseases studied, 7 showed an excess among the patients with leukemia: infectious hepatitis, eczema, psoriasis, d ...1976994201
[an attenuated strain of vaccinia virus (mva). successful intramuscular immunization against vaccinia and variola (author's transl)].the attenuated mva strain of vaccinia virus was previously shown to be innocuous and immunogenic at intracutaneous injection. it was therefore suggested for clinical trial. preliminary results in human vaccinees are promising. the present experiments were initiated to study the intramuscular injection of the vaccine as a preferable route of administration. histological examination was done in rabbits and monkeys. at the site of injection there were but minor inflammatory reactions considerably l ...19751146441
animal poxviruses transmitted from cat to man: current event with lethal end.we report about the infection of an 18-year-old man with an orthopox virus (opv) which was transmitted by a cat. the infectious route from cat to man could be proved by epidemiological, virological and serological methods. the corresponding techniques are described. the patient had not been vaccinated against smallpox and was intensively immunosuppressed by medication on account of a severe endogeneous eczema combined with an allergic asthma bronchiale. a cyclic poxvirus disease developed with a ...19911659066
quaternary structure of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase.thymidine kinase enzymes isolated from a variety of sources are generally considered to have a native molecular weight of 80-90 kda composed of two 40-45 kda subunits. although these parameters may accurately describe the atypical deoxypyrimidine kinases expressed by members of the herpesviridae, the nucleotide sequences of thymidine kinase genes isolated from human, mouse, chicken and variety of poxviruses (vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus, variola virus, fowlpox virus and capripoxvirus) predict ...19902114104
[preparation of vaccines].a historical review on the preparation and use of vaccines is presented. the example of smallpox vaccination in man is interesting, as it affords an insight into the development of the principle of vaccination, the improvement of the vaccine and the eradication of the disease. moreover, the various stages of vaccinology were described. initially, vaccines were prepared on the basis of the attenuated or inactivated pathogens. after the introduction of animal cell culture techniques among others i ...19902186504
sequence and evolutionary relationships of african swine fever virus thymidine kinase.the thymidine kinase gene of african swine fever virus was mapped in a 1.4-kb ecori-psti fragment located in the left half of the eco ri k fragment of african swine fever virus dna by using degenerate oligonucleotide probes derived from regions of the thymidine kinase sequence conserved in several poxviruses, man, mouse, and chicken. the nucleotide sequence of this region revealed an open reading frame of 196 codons, whose translated amino acid sequence showed significant similarity to the thymi ...19902389555
pediatric aids: prevention of hiv infection in infants and children.the centers for disease control reported that 109,167 cases of aids had been diagnosed since 1981 and that approximately 40,000 persons were living with aids at the time of this writing. these numbers, however, are the tip of an iceberg that consists of approximately 1.5 million americans who are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). as we described in earlier articles of this series, the hiv infection/aids epidemic has invaded the domain of the american family through heterosexual ...19902408177
[tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].in accordance with recommendations of the global commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. the study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of equatorial africa, occurring most frequently in zaire. in a ...19892552712
perspectives on research and diseases of the tropics: an asian view.diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition account for most of mortality and morbidity in children in developing countries. the expanded program of immunization (epi) is making progress with more than 50% of children under the age of 1 year receiving vaccination against the 6 epi-listed diseases. the eradication of poliomyelitis by 2000 is realistic, so that the world could be smallpox- and polio-free by the 21st century. in july-august 1988 a cholera epidemic erupted in delhi, india in which sever ...19892698093
stochastic model for interhuman spread of monkeypox.with the eradication of smallpox, systematic routine vaccination with vaccinia has ceased and an increasing proportion of the human population in tropical rain forest areas of central and western africa lacks vaccinia-derived immunity to monkeypox virus. this raises the question of the ability of monkeypox virus to establish and maintain itself in an unvaccinated population through continuous man-to-man transmission. a computerized stochastic model of monte carlo type was constructed to assess t ...19872825518
human monkeypox: confusion with chickenpox.human monkeypox is a zoonosis occurring sporadically in the tropical rain forest of western and central africa. the exact incidence and geographical distribution are unknown, since many cases are not recognized. special surveillance was established in three regions in zaire in 1981 that led to a substantial increase in reported cases. the question arose as to the possibility that clinical diagnostic errors cause some cases of monkeypox to be misdiagnosed as other eruptive diseases. this paper pr ...19882907258
human monkeypox: a newly emerged orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forests of africa.during the course of the recently concluded smallpox eradication program, a new human orthopoxvirus infection was discovered which is caused by monkeypox virus. the disease occurs sporadically in remote villages within tropical rain forests of west and central africa. the disease is rare; only 155 cases having been reported from 1970 to 1983. the symptoms and signs of human monkeypox resemble those of smallpox, differing significantly only in the occurrence of lymphadenopathy with human monkeypo ...19852992305
a history of the discovery and clinical application of antiviral drugs. 19852996681
viral vaccines and antivirals: current use and future prospects.the evolution of viral vaccines from the time of jennerian prophylaxis to today's recombinant technology has been a continuing story of success. from the relatively crude or "first generation" vaccines for smallpox, rabies, and yellow fever followed a second and third generation of improved or new viral vaccines. the application of techniques for attenuating, inactivating, and partially purifying candidate viruses yielded safe, effective vaccines against influenza, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, ...19883288231
[diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic use of immunoglobulins. ii]. 19684174588
effect of heat-labile factors on the neutralization of vaccinia virus by human.the effect of unheated guinea pig and human prevaccination serum on the neutralization of vaccinia virus was studied. enhancement of neutralization was found in all sera containing antibody and was more marked (20- to 150-fold) in sera obtained in the first weeks after primary vaccination than in sera from immune adults or cord sera (4- to 25-fold). the enhancing factor was thought to be complement because it was destroyed by heating and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment. the fresh serum ...19734200542
[preventive vaccination in pregnancy]. 19744207879
[induction of the "stripping enzyme" in different viruses of the smallpox-vaccinia group]. 19664297720
virus infections of the upper respiratory tract (abridged). 19694303221
[sensitivity of various virus--cell systems to preparations of human interferon]. 19674303765
toward control of viral infections of man. 19694305076
[attempted use of the interference phenomenon for detection of probable human leukemia virus]. 19684310847
[virus infections and intrauterine pathology]. 19694312949
a study of new and old world monkeys to determine the likelihood of a simian reservoir of smallpox.the author presents data indicating that three species of new world monkeys (cebus apella, ateles paniscus, lagothrix lagothricha) are not susceptible to brazilian variola minor. although the number of animals tested was not large, no experimental evidence was obtained to suggest that these species could form a non-human reservoir for smallpox in the western hemisphere. the results also indicate that cercopithecus aethiops are not very susceptible to infection with either variola major or minor. ...19704317468
[relation of smallpox vaccination complications with infections caused by respiratory viruses]. 19724338576
human monkeypox.between october 1970 and may 1971, six cases of human infection with monkeypox virus were identified in liberia, nigeria, and sierra leone. four of the cases were confirmed by virus isolation and two were diagnosed on the basis of epidemiological and serological investigations. all the cases occurred in unvaccinated serological studies showed high haemagglutination-inhibition and neutralizing titres to pox group virus in four of the cases. repeated challenge vaccinatio ...19724340216
isolation and properties of the causal agent of a new variola-like disease (monkeypox) in man.the causal agent of a case of disease in man occurring in the democratic republic of the congo with a similar clinical picture to smallpox was isolated and studied. the agent was identified as monkeypox virus. a comparative study of the isolated strain (congo-8) and of viruses isolated from similar cases of illness in liberia (liberia-1 and liberia-2 strains) and sierra leone (v-70 1 266 strain) showed that they were identical. a number of local species of monkeys and apes were examined serologi ...19724340219
response of specific skin hypersensitivity and haemagglutination inhibiting antibody after smallpox vaccination in human newborns and adults. 19734358796
evaluation of virological laboratory methods for smallpox diagnosis.between july 1966 and may 1972 the vesicular disease laboratory, center for disease control, atlanta, ga., usa, tested specimens from 849 suspected smallpox cases by at least 2 methods, electron microscopy and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (cam) cultures. a smaller number of specimens was tested by each of 4 methods: electron microscopy, cam culture, agar gel precipitation, and tissue culture. for specimens handled in the field the cam culture method was less sensitive than electron micr ...19734359680
effect of interval between inoculation of live smallpox and yellow-fever vaccines on antigenicity in man. 19724672744
standardization of smallpox vaccines and human anti-vaccinia immunoglobulin. 19734808349
vaccinology and selected virus diseases. 19714950244
[tropical viral zoonoses]. 19694996396
[what is the present status of the common virus vaccines?]. 19725061188
[foreign virus contamination of human smallpox vaccines (dermo-vaccines from cattle and sheep)]. 19715168430
[thrombcytopenic purpura during viral infections]. 19675628932
[comparative study of the biological properties of swine and human leukocyte interferons]. 19806164159
[ancient history of viral diseases in man]. 19836202058
new emerging viral developments in the field of viral transmission from animal to man can be divided into four areas of study. first are the new viral zoonoses such as diseases caused by rotaviruses, lassa virus and the animal orthopox viruses which will be more prevalent after the cessation of mandatory vaccination against smallpox. secondly are the numerous ubiquitous viruses, such as adeno and herpesviruses, which in healthy animals lead only to clinically inapparent infections. a typical example of the thi ...19806254232
[advances in the field of antiviral vaccines].some problems concerning the use of antiviral vaccines are reviewed. particularly various aspects regarding both intensively used vaccines (small-pox, polio and influenza) and selectively used vaccines (measles, mumps, rubella, parainfluenza and adenovirus) as well as vaccines under testing (anti-v-z and hepatitis) are evidenced.19806264866
[detection of smallpox antibodies in human serum using the labeled-antibody technic].ninety-seven samples of human sera with various amounts of smallpox antibody were simultaneously compared in elisa and hi test, and 26 of them were also studied in nt. alongside with hi and nt, elisa was shown to be highly sensitive and reproducible, and useful for simultaneous examination of a large number of sera.19816266157
infectious diseases and immunizations. 19826280263
search for optimal parent for recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines. study of three vaccinia virus vaccinal strains and several virus lines derived from them.three vaccinia virus strains (praha, dd--a dryvax wyeth vaccine-derived virus-and livp) were examined for growth in various cell cultures and for virulence and immunogenicity in mice. the viruses did not differ by their growth rates in monkey kidney cells (cv-1), human diploid cells (lep), rat tk cells (rat 2) or primary dog kidney cells. the immunogenicity of praha and dd viruses was similar, the virus livp was somewhat more immunogenic. in terms of virulence in 3-day-old mice, the dd virus was ...19957639016
enhanced immune responses and anti-tumor activity by baculovirus recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) in mice primed with the recombinant vaccinia cea.carcinoembryonic antigen (cea), a glycosylated protein of mr 180, is one of the most widely studied oncofetal antigens. a majority of gastrointestinal cancers as well as breast and non-small-cell lung carcinomas express cea. cea thus represents a potential target for immunotherapy of several carcinoma types. a recombinant vaccinia-cea virus (rv-cea) was previously shown to induce anti-tumor activity in an experimental murine model after three rv-cea inoculations. however, because the majority of ...19947881636
human cowpox 1969-93: a review based on 54 cases.this survey of the clinical and epidemiological features of human cowpox, a rare but relatively severe zoonotic infection, is based on 54 cases, many unpublished, which we have studied since 1969. patients present with painful, haemorrhagic pustules or black eschars, usually on the hand or face, accompanied by oedema, erythema, lymphadenopathy, and systemic involvement. severe, occasionally fatal, cases occur in eczematous and immunosuppressed individuals, although cowpox has not yet been report ...19947999588
human cytotoxic t-cell memory: long-lived responses to vaccinia virus.peripheral t lymphocytes can be classified into two groups: naive and memory t cells. the focus of this study was to examine the duration of t-cell memory in humans. vaccinia virus replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and is not thought to persist or become latent after the acute phase of infection. we identified long-lived vaccinia virus-specific memory cytotoxic t cells in adults who had been immunized against smallpox as children. initially, we detected vaccinia virus-specific t cell ...19968642697
genome sequence of a human tumorigenic poxvirus: prediction of specific host response-evasion genes.molluscum contagiosum virus (mcv) commonly causes asymptomatic cutaneous neoplasms in children and sexually active adults as well as persistent opportunistic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids)-associated disease. sequencing the 190-kilobase pair genome of mcv has now revealed that the virus potentially encodes 163 proteins, of which 103 have homologs in the smallpox virus. mcv lacks counterparts to 83 genes of the smallpox virus, including those important in suppression of host responses ...19968670425
[production of smallpox proteins, homologous to the human gamma-interferon receptor, in e. coli]. 19968754017
influence of the parental virus strain on the virulence and immunogenicity of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing hbv pres2-s protein or vzv glycoprotein i.five triple-plaque purified vaccinia virus (vv) lines generated from smallpox sevac varie vaccine (strain praha) and three vv virus lines similarly derived from wyeth dryvax vaccine were used for preparation of recombinants expressing the hepatitis b virus pres2-s gene. the same five praha-derived virus lines were used to construct recombinants expressing the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) glycoprotein i (gpi) gene. recombinants and their parental viruses were tested for the residual neurovirulenc ...19968879101
human monkeypox--kasai oriental, zaire, 1996-1997.monkeypox is an orthopoxvirus with enzootic circulation in rainforests of central and western africa; the virus can be transmitted to humans and cause a syndrome clinically similar to smallpox (e.g., pustular rash, fever, respiratory symptoms, and in some cases, death). from february through august 1996, a total of 71 clinical cases of monkeypox, including six deaths, occurred in 13 villages in africa in the katako-kombe health zone (1996 combined population: 15,698), sankuru subregion, kasai or ...19979132583
a novel imprinted gene, encoding a ring zinc-finger protein, and overlapping antisense transcript in the prader-willi syndrome critical region.we describe a complex imprinted locus in chromosome 15q11-q13 that encodes two genes, znf127 and znf127as. the znf127 gene encodes a protein with a ring (c3hc4) zinc-finger and multiple c3h zinc-finger motifs, the former being closely related to a protein from variola major virus, the smallpox etiological agent. these motifs allow prediction of znf127 function as a ribonucleoprotein. the intronless znf127 gene is expressed ubiquitously, but the entire coding sequence and 5' cpg island overlaps a ...199910196367
berna: a century of immunobiological the time the swiss serum and vaccine institute berne (berna) was found in 1898, few vaccines or immune globulins were available. this short list included vaccines against cholera, typhoid fever, plague, smallpox and rabies and equine anti-tetanus and diphtheria immune globulins. furthermore, their use was restricted due to limited production capacity, uncertainty regarding safety and no public health infrastructure to promote their utilization. today, safe and effective vaccines exist for mor ...199910506402
modified vaccinia virus ankara for delivery of human tyrosinase as melanoma-associated antigen: induction of tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific human leukocyte antigen a*0201-restricted cytotoxic t cells in vitro and in vivo.vaccination with tumor-associated antigens is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. because the majority of these antigens are normal self antigens, they may require suitable delivery systems to promote their immunogenicity. a recombinant vector based on the modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva) was used for expression of human tyrosinase, a melanoma-specific differentiation antigen, and evaluated for its efficacy as an antitumor vaccine. stable recombinant viruses (mva-htyr) were constr ...199910519409
[viruses and civilization].a few million years ago, when primates moved from the east african forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime homo species. however it was much later with the building of the first large cities in mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the egyptian, greek, roman, and arab empires around the mediterranean. discovery of the new world in 1492 l ...199910901842
[antiviral vaccines].vaccination has been successful in controlling numerous diseases in man and animals. smallpox has been eradicated and poliomyelitis is on the verge of being eradicated. the traditional immunization arsenal includes vaccines using live, attenuated, and inactivated organisms. dna recombinant technology has added two new types of vaccines, i.e. subunit vaccines based on purified antigens produced by genetic engineering in bacterial, yeast, or animal-cell cultures and live recombinant vaccines based ...199910901858
the immune response to vaccinia virus is significantly reduced after scarification with tk- recombinants as compared to wild-type virus.although it is unlikely that large-scale vaccination against smallpox will ever be required again, it is conceivable that the need may arise to vaccinate against a human orthopoxvirus infection. a possible example could be the emergence of monkey poxvirus (mpv) as a significant human disease in africa. vaccinia virus (vv) recombinants, genetically modified to carry the immunogenic proteins of other pathogenic organisms, have potential use as vaccines against other diseases present in this region ...200011155357
improving human health means eliminating microbial pathogens. 199911207737
cowpox virus in a 12-year-old boy: rapid identification by an orthopoxvirus-specific polymerase chain reaction.although smallpox was eradicated 20 years ago, other members of the genus orthopoxvirus (opv), such as cowpox virus (cpxv) or monkeypox virus, are still a threat to humans. because human cpxv infection is rare, it is seldom suspected on clinical grounds only. we report a boy who presented with two necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema. infection with opv was suspected, as antibiotic treatment had not produced improvement and smears were negative for anthrax. an opv was isolated and an opv-sp ...200111453925
human monkeypox and smallpox viruses: genomic comparison.monkeypox virus (mpv) causes a human disease which resembles smallpox but with a lower person-to-person transmission rate. to determine the genetic relationship between the orthopoxviruses causing these two diseases, we sequenced the 197-kb genome of mpv isolated from a patient during a large human monkeypox outbreak in zaire in 1996. the nucleotide sequence within the central region of the mpv genome, which encodes essential enzymes and structural proteins, was 96.3% identical with that of vari ...200111734207
past behaviour change success.discussions of behavior change involve values, cultural norms, power, ideology, manipulation, oppression, and human rights. coercion and force can induce behavior change. authority figures all inject their values when one debates what is right and wrong for the individual, community, or nation. we tend to agree on what should be good values in human rights (e.g., liberty, health and speech). global standards are acceptable for some areas of health (e.g., smallpox, water safety, and drug puri ...199312159251
polio eradication nearing its conclusion, but not 1971, the americas reported their last case of smallpox. by the end of the decade, the disease had been eradicated. if polio follows the same pattern, its elimination should be eminent: the last case was reported in the americans in 1991. a major battle was joined against polio in the americas and was spearheaded by the pan american health organization at a cost of approximately $500 million. worldwide, vaccination coverage has increased from less than 5% in 1970 to approximately 80% in ...199412179182
inhibition of type 1 cytokine-mediated inflammation by a soluble cd30 homologue encoded by ectromelia (mousepox) virus.cd30 is up-regulated in several human diseases and viral infections but its role in immune regulation is poorly understood. here, we report the expression of a functional soluble cd30 homologue, viral cd30 (vcd30), encoded by ectromelia (mousepox) virus, a poxvirus that causes a severe disease related to human smallpox. we show that vcd30 is a 12-kd secreted protein that not only binds cd30l with high affinity and prevents its interaction with cd30, but it also induces reverse signaling in cells ...200212235215
aids in wider perspective. aids and population policy.the 1989 "amsterdam declaration," one of the first documents to refer explicitly to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) in the context of population policy, stressed the need for attention to the interrelationships among sexually transmitted disease control (including aids), maternal and child health, family planning, and population education and information activities. as of 1989, half of the member states of the united nations had identified aids as a major priority for mortality policy ...199012316751
history and prospects for viral disease eradication.edward jenner first articulated the concept of eradication when he first inoculated the vaccinia. before considering a disease for eradication some factors should be considered, such as the biological characteristics of the infectious agent: does the infectious agent infects only humans? does it have a non-human reservoir and induce long-life immunity after infection? is there a tool or intervention that effectively interrupts the chain of transmission from one individual to another? the first d ...200212410345
a model for a smallpox-vaccination policy.the new reality of biologic terrorism and warfare has ignited a debate about whether to reintroduce smallpox vaccination.200312496353
vaccinology: past achievements, present roadblocks and future promises.of all the branches of modern medicine, vaccinology can claim to be the one that has contributed most to the relief of human misery and the spectacular increase in life expectancy in the last two centuries. it is the only science that has eradicated an infectious disease-smallpox-responsible for 8-20% of all deaths in several european countries in the 18th century. other disabling and lethal diseases, like poliomyelitis and measles, are targeted for eradication. currently, it is estimated that i ...200312531323
therapeutic options for diseases due to potential viral agents of bioterrorism.the etiologic agents of smallpox and viral hemorrhagic fever have emerged as potential agents of bioterrorism due to their virulence, potential for human to human dissemination and limited strategies for treatment and prevention. cidofovir has shown significant promise in animal models, and limited case reports in humans are encouraging. ribavirin is the treatment of choice for certain hemorrhagic fever viral infections, but has no current application to ebola and marburg infections. current vac ...200312669378
recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. supplemental recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (acip) and the healthcare infection control practices advisory committee (hicpac).this report supplements the 2001 statement by the advisory committee on immunization practices (acip) (cdc. vaccinia [smallpox] vaccine: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices [acip], 2001. mmwr 2001;50[no. rr-10]:1-25). this supplemental report provides recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program in the united states. to facilitate preparedness and response, smallpox vaccination is recommended for persons designated by public heal ...200312710832
[smallpox virus as biological weapon].smallpox, because of its high case-fatality rate, easy transmission from human to human, lack of specific treatment represents nowadays one of the main threats in bioterrorist attacks. over the centuries, naturally occurring smallpox with its case-fatality over 30 percent and its ability to spread in any climate and season has been treated as the most dangerous infectious disease. but it is now, 25 years after the last documented case of smallpox and cessation of routine vaccination in present m ...200312728678
vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by jenner gained wide acceptance. until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. these strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. effective and safe vaccines now used worldw ...200312757257
frequencies of 32 base pair deletion of the (delta 32) allele of the ccr5 hiv-1 co-receptor gene in caucasians: a comparative analysis.the ccr5 gene encodes for the co-receptor for the major macrophage-tropics strains of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1), and a mutant allele of this gene (delta 32) provide to homozygotes a strong resistance against infection by hiv. the frequency of the delta 32 allele was investigated in 40 populations of 8842 non-infected subjects coming from europe, the middle-east and north africa. a clear north-south decreasing gradient was evident for delta 32 frequencies, with a significant correlatio ...200212798016
feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human.we report the case of a 56-year-old female patient who presented with an inflamed, ulcerated lesion on the left side of her neck after contact (scratch) with a cat living in the patient's house. satellite lesions developed despite local treatment and parenteral clindamycin. histopatholgic examination and the tzanck test showed evidence of a viral infection. subsequent transmission electron microscopy of scrap tissue and material from a fresh pustule exhibited multiple typical poxvirus particles, ...200312963921
smallpox and related virus infections in man. 195313094021
[problems of live vaccines against virus diseases in man]. 196314119910
effect of variola and vaccinia viruses on human amnion cell culture. 196314120852
recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral diseases of the skin. 196414121491
[chemotherapy of virus diseases]. 196414176103
[the current status of our knowledge of the viral etiology of malformations, with special reference to congenital cardiopathies]. 196414183070
clinical potential of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates cidofovir, adefovir, and tenofovir in treatment of dna virus and retrovirus infections.the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates hpmpc (cidofovir), pmea (adefovir), and pmpa (tenofovir) have proved to be effective in vitro (cell culture systems) and in vivo (animal models and clinical studies) against a wide variety of dna virus and retrovirus infections: cidofovir against herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus [cmv], epstein-barr virus, and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8), polyomavirus, papillomavirus, adenovirus, and poxvirus (variola ...200314557287
human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis.human monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis endemic to central and western africa that has recently emerged in the usa. laboratory diagnosis is important because the virus can cause disease that is clinically indistinguishable from other pox-like illnesses, particularly smallpox and chickenpox. although the natural animal reservoir of the monkeypox virus is unknown, rodents are the probable source of its introduction into the usa. a clear understanding of the virulence and transmissibility of human ...200414720564
selective killing of vaccinia virus by ll-37: implications for eczema vaccinatum.possible bioterrorism with smallpox has led to the resumption of smallpox (vaccinia virus) immunization. one complication, eczema vaccinatum, occurs primarily in patients with atopic dermatitis (ad). skin lesions of patients with ad, but not psoriasis, is deficient in the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (ll-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hbd-2). we hypothesized that this defect may explain the susceptibility of patients with ad to eczema vaccinatum. the wyeth vaccine strain of vaccinia virus ...200414734759
subcutaneous administration of a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine expressing multiple envelopes of hiv-1.a critical goal of hiv vaccine development is the identification of safe and immunogenic vectors. recombinant vaccinia virus is a highly effective vaccine vector, with demonstrated capacity to protect animals from various viral pathogens, including rabies. unlike many other candidate vaccine vectors, vast human experience exists with the parenteral smallpox vaccine. however, consideration of recombinant vaccinia virus as a modern vaccine is complicated by the relatively high prevalence of immuno ...200414735404
[phylogenetic analysis of chemokine-binding protein gene from orthopoxviruses].poxviruses, belonging to the genus of orthopoxviruses and leporipoxviruses, express a protein that binds a wide spectrum of cc-chenokines. the above viral protein (vcci) has no homology by the amino acid sequence with the known cellular receptors of chemokines or with any other proteins represented in databases. sixty-nine nucleotide sequences of the vcci protein gene of 4 orthopoxviruses, which are pathogenic to man, and of 2 species, to whom man is immune, as well as 16 of such sequences borro ...200415025002
[cowpox virus infection in a child].although human cowpox virus infection is rare nowadays, an animal reservoir of this virus still exists. the general course of cowpox virus infections is usually benign but the diagnosis is difficult and often late. case report: an 11-year-old boy, owner of two cats, presented with an infected sacral wound lesion associated with fever and lymph nodes. the wound became necrotic and other cutaneous and mucous membrane lesions developed secondarily. blood tests did not show hyperleukocytosis or a sy ...200415051092
interleukin-18 and glycosaminoglycan binding by a protein encoded by variola virus.poxvirus interleukin (il)-18 binding proteins (il-18bps) are soluble decoys that inhibit the activity of il-18. the aim of this study was to demonstrate il-18 binding activity of the variola virus protein d7l. d7l effectively inhibited the biological activity of il-18 in a bioassay. we compared the affinity and kinetics of d7l and the ectromelia virus il-18bp, p13, for human and murine il-18 using surface plasmon resonance and no differences were detected, indicating that the differences in amin ...200415105546
monitoring of human immunological responses to vaccinia virus.for the last 30 yr, interest in vaccinia virus immune monitoring has focused on the use of the vaccinia virus as a recombinant vaccine vector and the potential detrimental effect of antivector immunity on subsequent vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus. however, interest in this area has intensified after the publication of reports suggesting that smallpox may be a major pathogen selected for bioterrorist activities. owing to the unacceptably high incidence of complications induced by p ...200415114020
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