interferon-producing capacity of human tonsil cells and properties of interferon produced by these cells.tonsils excised from human beings for chronic tonsillitis have been shown to be an accessible and sufficiently rich source of human lymphocytes. tonsil cells produced interferon as intensively as blood leukocytes and the properties of this interferon were similar to those of leukocyte interferon. the optimal conditions for interferon production by tonsil cells were established.19765865
shared determinants between virus-infected and trinitrophenyl-conjugated h-2-identical target cells detected in cell-mediated lympholysis.infection of h-2-identical mice with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis (lcm) virus, vaccinia virus, or paramyxo (sendai) virus resulted in the generation of specifically sensitized cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl). ctl generated in vitro against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (tnp)-conjugated syngeneic stimulator cells were specifically cytotoxic for tnp-conjugated h-2k (d) region identical targets. both lcm and vaccinia-induced ctl, however, were found to be strongly cytotoxic towards tnp-conjugated, h-2k ...197663379
studies on cotia virus--an unclassified poxvirus.this paper is a report of studies on cotia virus; this had been first isolated in 1965 in brazil and was subsequently shown to be a poxvirus. cotia virus grew in a wide range of cell cultures and on the chick chorioallantois (cam), its growth characteristics are similar to those of other poxviruses. microscopy showed virus factories or type b inclusions appearing before infectious progeny virus could be demonstrated. type a inclusions appeared later, after development of progeny virus; these wer ...197880446
therapeutic control of viral infections: chemotherapy, interferon and gamma globulin. 197994280
[a contribution to the stabilisation of the mva-vaccine (author's transl)].the titre of the mva-vaccine remains constant at -20 degrees c with human serum albumin, sorbitol, haemaccel, rheomacrodex and cysteine within 8 month. at -20 degrees c the stability of the mva-virus is equivalent to the vaccinia-virus, stabilized by peptone and sorbitol. storing the mva-virus at +4 degrees c, +20 degrees c for 8 month or at 27 degrees c for 4 weeks, 1% human serum albumin and 5% sorbitol preserves the virustitre best, but the stability of vaccinia-virus with 5% peptone and 5% s ...197994967
human and primate poxviruses: i. growth characteristics of cytolytic and tumor variants.the dual potential of poxviruses to be cytolytic and tumorgenic has been extended. yaba monkey tumor virus formed foci on monkey and human embryonic cells. cytolytic or plaque-forming virus was isolated from yaba tumor homogenates by selective sucrose centrifugation and passage through monkey or human embryonic cells. monkey pox virus (mpv) was cytolytic for monkey cells or human embryonic cells, but upon passage onto young monolayers of human carcinoma cells, hela, produced a restricted cytopat ...1975167685
antibody titers by mixed agglutination to varicella-zoster, herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses in patients with multiple sclerosis.antibody titers to varicella-zoster (v-z), herpes simplex (hsv) and vaccinia viruses were determined in sera collected in buffalo, ny, from patients with multiple sclerosis (ms), patients with other diseases, and normal individuals. the mixed agglutination test employing cell cultures infected with one of the above viruses as a source of antigen was used to determine antibody titers. the geometric mean titer (gmt) for v-z in 59 ms cases was significantly higher than that observed in patients wit ...1975170625
viral-induced thymidine kinase isozymes. 1975174152
vaccinia virus meningitis in mice after intracerebral inoculation.the pathogenesis of experimental vaccinia virus infection in weanling mice after intracerebral inoculation was followed with virological, histological, and immunohistological methods. high-dose inoculation, virus spread from brain to thoracic and abdominal viscera probably by an undetected early viremia. virus did rise to detectable levels in blood by day 5 and was found to be associated with the mononuclear cell fraction. by day 12, 30% of the animals had died and no further deaths occurred. ri ...1976179952
evaluation of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine in the treatment of experimental viral infections.the potential antiviral activity of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine was evaluated in a coordinated study at five institutions. experimental models in five species, the mouse, rabbit, swine, cat, and ferret, were established with use of 10 viruses: herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2, murine cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, shope fibroma virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, swine influenza virus, feline viral rhinotracheitis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and ferret distemper virus. ...1976180189
factors involved in the expression of cowpox virus-specific antigen in sendai virus carrier cells.formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen (cpvs-ag) hvj (sendai virus) carrier cells compared to that in parent cells. temperature shifts from 32 to 35 to 37 degrees c for these carrier cultures reduced this enhancing activity, making them equivalent to parent cells. the eclips phase and one-step growth of cpv in the carrier cells were shorter than in normal cells. extracts of carrier cells exhibited a stimulating activity causing the temporary rise and subsequent lowering of cpv i ...1976185330
survival of some viruses in the sea-water samples collected from the gulf of gdaƄsk. preliminary studies. 1976189869
a new approach in specific, active immunotherapy.a vaccinia virus-lysed autochthonous tumor cell vaccine (vaccinia oncolysate) is introduced as a new specific, active immunotherapeutic agent against human cancer. mouse experiments showed the vaccine to be a safe and potent immune mechanism stimulator. human experimentation was undertaken in the knowledge of relative safety of the components of the vaccine, i.e. vaccinia vaccine and lysed, autochthonous tumor cells. vaccine-treated patients had advanced metastatic cancer but reacted to one or m ...1977189895
[prevention and therapy of viral diseases with special reference to interferon].human leukocyte interferon (hli) was used for treatment of human diploid fibroblasts before and after infection with vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), and varicella zoster virus (vzv). vero cells were infected with medical lake macaque herpes virus (mlmv), and treated with hli in the same way. in all of these systems hli exhibited an antiviral effect when administered before infection, and this effect could be increased by additional hli tr ...1977192653
effect of vaccinia virus and herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, on the chromosomal system of human lymphocytes, in cultures in vitro. 1977203354
ir-genes in h-2 regulate generation of anti-viral cytotoxic t cells. mapping to k or d and dominance of unresponsiveness.h-2 dependent and virus-specific ir genes regulate the generation of primary virus-specific k or d restricted cytotoxic t-cell responses in vivo. the following examples have been analyzed in some detail: first, dk restricted responses to vaccinia in sendai viruses are at least 30 times lower than the corresponding k-restricted responses irrespective of the h-2 haplotypes (k, b, d, dxs, dxq) of k and i regions; in contrast, lcmv infection generates high responses to dk. these findings are consist ...1978212503
[suppression of viral reproduction by means of specific action on the cell]. 1978212895
the effect of mixed infections induced by adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia or smallpox virus, on the ultrastructure of kb cells ii. observations of changes in the ultrastructure of kb cells during 6--11 days infection with adenovirus type 5 and vaccinia virus. 1978215254
inhibition of a complete replication cycle of human cytomegalovirus in actinomycin pre-treated cells.the study of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) in cultures of human embryo lung fibroblasts, pre-treated with actinomycin d, has shown that under these conditions the virus infection does not proceed beyond the 'early' events of the virus replication cycle. in the same experimental conditions the growth of poliovirus type i, vaccinia virus and herpes simplex type i virus, was completely unaffected. these results suggest that the complete hcmv replication cycle requires some cellular function(s) betwe ...1979217966
activation of reticuloendothelial system macrophages and enhancement of host resistance to a transplantable osteogenic sarcoma in mice by an extract of brucella aqueous-ether extract of brucella abortus, bru-pel, enhanced resistance of mice to a transplantable osteogenic sarcoma (ogs). the results presented in this report suggest that bru-pel is an effective immunomodulator and that one mechanism through which it enhances host resistance is activation of phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. peritoneal macrophages from mice inoculated with bru-pel 14 days previously were cytotoxic for ogs cells in vitro, limited the multiplication of va ...1978282007
immune response in humans after vaccination with vaccinia virus: generation of a virus-specific cytotoxic activity by human peripheral lymphocytes.after vaccinia virus vaccination of human volunteers, local indurations developed within 10 days, and regional adenopathy was detected in half of the individuals. their peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) harvested at different days after vaccination showed specific activity against target cells infected with vaccinia virus with a peak activity at day 7. the specificity of the cytotoxic activity was not related to hla markers, since autologous, homologous, and heterologous infected target cells w ...1977302316
widespread eczema vaccinatum acquired by contacts. a report of an autopsy case.a 4-month-old male infant predisposed to allergic dermatitis acquired wide-spread eczema vaccinatum by contacts with a recently vaccinated sibling. he died of acute purulent peritonitis following a perforation of multiple duodenal ulcers. fluorescence immunocytochemical and electron microscopic studies on the skin lesions revealed the presence of viral antigens and numerous virus particles compatible morphologically with those of the mature form from the same batch of smallpox vaccine given to t ...1979377910
antiviral activity of extracts from marine algae.extracts of two species of marine algae, constantinea simplex and farlowia mollis, were tested for antiviral activity in tissue culture and in experimental infections of mice. treatment of confluent mouse embryo fibroblast cell monolayers with either compound before viral inoculation was effective in inhibiting the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, vaccinia virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus, but not encephalomyocarditis virus, semliki forest virus, or murine cytomegalovi ...1978686707
generation of virus-specific cytolytic activity in human peripheral lymphocytes after vaccination with vaccinia virus and measles virus.human peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) harvested after vaccination with vaccinia or measles virus showed a specific activity against virus-infected target cells. this activity peaked on day 7 and was specific for the target cells infected with the virus used for the vaccination. the cytotoxic activity was not related to hla markers. the cells involved in the cytolytic process were lymphocytes bearing fc receptors. in addition, the cytotoxic activity was abrogated by more than 90% by rabbit fab ...1978723792
cultured human endothelial cells and atherosclerosis. 1977920430
[the effect of human leukocyte interteron (hif) on experimental viral keratitis in monkeys (author's transl)].12 african green monkeys were inoculated in both eyes with herpes simplex virus typ 1 and 16 rhesus monkeys with vaccinia virus. the right eyes were treated with human leukocyte interferon (hif) while the left eyes served as controls and showed the typical keratitis, 7 out of 8 herpes eyes and all 9 vaccinia eyes which were treated prophylactically or simultaneiously with hif showed no signs of disease. when hif was given later in the course of the infection the keratitis was either little influ ...19751080375
[an attenuated strain of vaccinia virus (mva). successful intramuscular immunization against vaccinia and variola (author's transl)].the attenuated mva strain of vaccinia virus was previously shown to be innocuous and immunogenic at intracutaneous injection. it was therefore suggested for clinical trial. preliminary results in human vaccinees are promising. the present experiments were initiated to study the intramuscular injection of the vaccine as a preferable route of administration. histological examination was done in rabbits and monkeys. at the site of injection there were but minor inflammatory reactions considerably l ...19751146441
expression cloning of a human dual-specificity phosphatase.using an expression cloning strategy, we isolated a cdna encoding a human protein-tyrosine-phosphatase. bacteria expressing the kinase domain of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor (bek/fibroblast growth factor receptor 2) were infected with a fibroblast cdna library in a phagemid prokaryotic expression vector and screened with a monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. among several clones showing decreased anti-phosphotyrosine recognition, one displayed phosphatase activity toward the kin ...19921281549
decline in ctl and antibody responses to hiv-1 p17 and p24 antigens in hiv-1-infected hemophiliacs irrespective of disease progression. a 5-year follow-up study.ctl and antibody responses to hiv-1 p17 and p24 antigens were monitored from 1986-1991, in 4 hemophiliacs. the patients had been infected with hiv-1 between 1980 and 1984. two patients have remained asymptomatic while two progressed to aids in 1990. ctl were boosted by culturing with peptides from p17 aa 86-115, or p24 aa 265-279; and aa 270-373 or pha. lysis was measured on autologous or allogeneic targets pulsed with peptides or infected with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying hiv-1 gag or in ...19921281655
carbohydrate determinant neuac-gal beta (1-4) of n-linked glycans modulates the antigenic activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein the present study we investigated to what extent the peripheral carbohydrate structure of n-linked glycans influences the antigenic properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120). recombinant gp120 was purified from gmk cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing gp120. purified gp120 was then coated onto 96-well elisa microplates and subjected to sequential removal of peripheral monosaccharide units. modified or unmodified gp120 was then incubated ...19921281869
biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cdna-expressed human cyp1a2 and cyp2e1.six human cytochrome p450s expressed in hepg2 cells using vaccinia virus cdna-directed expression, were used to study the biotransformation of caffeine and its metabolites. cyp1a2 alone was responsible for caffeine 3-demethylation and paraxanthine 7-demethylation; in addition, 1a2 catalysed virtually all reactions related to caffeine and its metabolites. the metabolic profile of caffeine biotransformation by cyp1a2 averaged 81.5% for paraxanthine, 10.8% for theobromine and 5.4% for theophylline ...19921302044
mhv s peplomer protein expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus vector exhibits igg fc-receptor activity.we have previously shown that cells infected with mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) bind rabbit, mouse, and rat igg by the fc portion of the igg molecule. this fc-binding activity appeared to be mediated by the mhv s protein. s protein could also be precipitated from mhv-infected cells by a monoclonal antibody directed against the murine fc gamma receptor (fc gamma r). to prove definitively that the s protein mediates fc-binding activity, we have expressed the mhv s protein utilizing recombinant vacci ...19921309271
complexes of sendai virus np-p and p-l proteins are required for defective interfering particle genome replication in vitro.we present evidence that the formation of np-p and p-l protein complexes is essential for replication of the genome of sendai defective interfering (di-h) virus in vitro, using extracts of cells expressing these viral proteins from plasmids. optimal replication of di-h nucleocapsid rna required extracts of cells transfected with critical amounts and ratios of each of the plasmids and was three- to fivefold better than replication with a control extract prepared from a natural virus infection. ex ...19921321276
vaccinia virus encodes four putative dna and/or rna helicases distantly related to each analysis of the amino acid sequences of vaccinia virus proteins containing the purine ntp-binding pattern revealed the seven motifs typical of the dna (rna) helicase superfamily ii in the proteins i8r and a18r. together with the previously described putative helicases d6r and d11l, the number of putative helicases of this superfamily encoded by the genome of vaccinia virus now reaches four. aside from the helicase motifs, the sequences of i8r and a18r showed no strong similarit ...19921321883
domain structure of human 72-kda gelatinase/type iv collagenase. characterization of proteolytic activity and identification of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (timp-2) binding regions.the 72-kda gelatinase/type iv collagenase, a metalloproteinase thought to play a role in metastasis and in angiogenesis, forms a noncovalent stoichiometric complex with the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (timp-2), a potent inhibitor of enzyme activity. to define the regions of the 72-kda gelatinase responsible for timp-2 binding, a series of nh2- and cooh-terminal deletions of the enzyme were constructed using the polymerase chain reaction technique. the full-length and the truncated en ...19921322396
molecular cloning of natural paramyxovirus copy-back defective interfering rnas and their expression from dna.using the unique sequence organization of copy-back defective interfering (di) rnas of paramyxoviruses, sendai virus (sv), and measles virus copy-back di rnas were pcr amplified and cloned, without having to separate them from their helper nondefective genomes. the cloning was designed so that t7 polymerase transcription of the plasmids would generate di rnas with the exact 5' and 3' ends. the sv di clone, transcribed from the plasmid in bhk cells using t7 polymerase produced by a vaccinia virus ...19921329337
stimulation of lymphokines in jurkat cells persistently infected with vaccinia virus.the response of the human cd4+ t-cell line jurkat to infection with vaccinia virus was investigated. virus titers peaked approximately 3 to 4 days after infection, while cell growth paralleled that of uninfected cells, indicating that growth rates were not appreciably affected by viral infection. results from plaque assays and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (facs) analyses of virus antigens demonstrated that a persistent infection in which the percentage of infected cells and the virus titer ...19921347794
immunisation with canarypox virus expressing rabies glycoprotein.poxviruses have many useful features as vectors for genes that carry immunising antigens from other viruses, such as ease of production and induction of cellular and humoral immunity, but there is concern about the safety of vaccinia virus. we turned to an avian poxvirus (canarypox); this virus undergoes abortive replication in mammalian cells that enables presentation of early gene products to the immune system. canarypox virus was used as a vector for the rabies glycoprotein g gene. the safety ...19921351126
vaccinia and other poxvirus expression vectors.over the past year improvements have been made in recombinant vaccinia virus gene expression and a new method for inserting dna into the poxvirus genome has been developed, along with alternative methods for selecting recombinant viruses. attenuated and non-replicating vaccinia virus and avian poxvirus vectors are now being used successfully. field trials of an oral, wild-life rabies vaccine and phase 1 testing of human vaccines derived from vaccinia virus are underway.19921368937
a cd4+ cytotoxic t-lymphocyte clone to a conserved epitope on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24: cytotoxic activity and secretion of interleukin-2 and interleukin-6.a cd4+ cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) clone, established from the peripheral blood of a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-seropositive donor, lysed autologous target cells that were infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the gag gene of hiv type 1 and target cells pulsed with p24gag construct expressed in escherichia coli. the recognition of the hla-dq-restricted epitope by this clone was further defined by using overlapping synthetic peptides. the epitope recognized by this cd4+ c ...19921370094
volume-regulated chloride channels associated with the human multidrug-resistance p-glycoprotein.expression of p-glycoprotein, the product of the mdr1 gene, confers multidrug resistance on cell lines and human tumours (reviewed in refs 1,2). p-glycoprotein (relative molecular mass 170,000) is an atp-dependent, active transporter which pumps hydrophobic drugs out of cells, but its normal physiological role is unknown. it is a member of the abc (atp-binding cassette) superfamily of transporters, which includes many bacterial transport systems, the putative peptide transporter from the major h ...19921371598
mutation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at amino acid 585 on gp41 results in loss of killing by cd8+ a24-restricted cytotoxic t lymphocytes.a human leukocyte antigen a24-restricted cd8+ cytotoxic t-cell clone specific for gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was isolated from an infected individual. the epitope was localized to amino acids 584 to 591 (ylkdqqll, nl43 env sequence) of gp41 by using a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses that contain truncated env genes and synthetic peptides. the clone killed autologous b-lymphoblastoid cell lines pulsed with a synthetic peptide reflecting the sequence of the iiib and mn strai ...19921373204
mechanism of interferon action: identification of a rna binding domain within the n-terminal region of the human rna-dependent p1/eif-2 alpha protein kinase.a molecular cdna clone of the human rna-dependent p1/eif-2 alpha protein kinase was expressed in escherichia coli. mutant p1 proteins were examined for rna binding activity by northwestern blot analysis using the reovirus s1 mrna, an activator of the kinase; the adenovirus vai rna, an inhibitor of kinase activation; or human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) tar rna as probe. analysis of trpe-p1 deletion mutant fusion proteins revealed that the 11-kda n-terminal region of the p1 protein bound reoviru ...19921373554
intracellular processing of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: amino acid substitutions affecting folding, transport and cleavage.the intracellular processing and transport of the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion (f) glycoprotein was examined by comparing the maturation and stability of wild-type f, uncleaved mutant f and chimeric f glycoproteins expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses to that of f protein expressed by rsv. one of the recombinant viruses, vf317, expressed f protein (f317) that was processed like the rsv f glycoprotein. f317 was synthesized initially as f0, the uncleaved glycosylated precursor of ...19921375280
hiv-1 env, nef, and gag-specific t-cell immunity in mice: conserved epitopes in nef p27 and gag p25 proteins.cellular immunogenicity of env gp160, nef p27, and gag p55 proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) was studied in mice immunized with vaccinia virus recombinants. proliferative responses of spleen cells were comparable against env gp160, nef p27, and gag p25 recombinant proteins. no specific activity was observed against gag p18 protein. env, nef, and gag-specific t-cell lines were generated by repeated stimulation of immune spleen cells with recombinant hiv-1 proteins. they were ...19921376136
immunization of mice with lipopeptides bypasses the prerequisite for adjuvant. immune response of balb/c mice to human immunodeficiency virus envelope vivo priming of ctl requires the association with mhc class i molecules of peptides derived from the processing of endogenously produced proteins. immunization with exogenous proteins or peptides rarely induces mhc class i-restricted ctl unless they are associated with lipidic compounds. the capacity to induce ctl was compared in synthetic peptides and simple lipopeptides containing the immunodominant mhc class i h-2dd-restricted t-cell epitope of hiv-1 gp160. in contrast with free peptides i ...19921385524
polylactosaminoglycan modification of the respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (sh) protein: a conserved feature among human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses.we investigated the nature of the oligosaccharide modification of the glycosylated forms of the small hydrophobic integral membrane protein, sh (previously designated 1a), of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. analysis of sh protein expressed in cells infected with rs virus or with a recombinant vaccinia virus revealed two glycosylated sh protein species, shg and shp, which contained n-linked carbohydrate residues. shp migrated diffusely on polyacrylamide gels, which suggested modification by pol ...19921413513
characterization of the antibody response to three different versions of the htlv-i envelope protein expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses: induction of neutralizing antibody.recombinant vaccinia viruses (rvv) designated rvv e1, rvv e2, and rvv e3, were constructed to express three different versions of the human t cell leukemia virus type i (htlv-i) envelope proteins to determine which configuration elicits an optimal antibody response. rvv e1 expressed the native htlv-i envelope proteins gp46 (surface protein) and gp21 (transmembrane protein), while rvv e2 expressed the envelope precursor with the proteolytic cleavage site deleted. the rvv e3 construct expressed on ...19921413516
evaluation of protective efficacy of recombinant subunit vaccines against simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques.simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) was used as a model to study the protective efficacy of an immunization regimen currently being evaluated as candidate vaccines against hiv in human subjects. four macaca fascicularis were first immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the envelope glycoprotein gp160 of sivmne and then boosted with subunit gp160. both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses against siv, including neutralizing antibodies, were elicited. the macaques were shown to ...19921433262
molecular characterisation of a dna ligase gene of the extremely thermophilic archaeon desulfurolobus ambivalens shows close phylogenetic relationship to eukaryotic ligases.a 3382 bp fragment containing a gene for a dna ligase from the extremely thermophilic, acidophilic, and facultatively anaerobic archaeon (archaebacterium) desulfurolobus ambivalens was cloned and sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequence (600 amino acids, 67619 molecular weight) showed 30-34% sequence identity with the atp-dependent eucaryal (eukaryotic) dna ligases of schizosaccharomyces pombe, saccharomyces cerevisiae, the human dna ligase i, and with the vaccinia dna ligase. distant similari ...19921437556
studies on processing, particle formation, and immunogenicity of the hiv-1 gag gene product: a possible component of a hiv vaccine.antigens in a particulate conformation were shown to be highly immunogenic in mammals. for this reason, the particle forming capacity of derivatives of the hiv-1 group specific core antigen p55 gag was assayed and compared dependent on various expression systems: recombinant bacteria, vaccinia- and baculoviruses were established encoding the entire core protein p55 either in its authentic sequence or lacking the myristylation consensus signal. moreover, p55 gag was expressed in combination with ...19921456888
immunological reactivity of a human immunodeficiency virus type i derived peptide representing a consensus sequence of the gp120 major neutralizing region reduce the opportunities for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) to evade vaccine induced immunity, the development of subunit vaccines must focus on the characterization of immunogenic epitopes, which are major targets for the immune system. the most dominant site for elicitation of neutralising immune response is located on the external envelope glycoprotein gp120 within the third variable domain (v3). to overcome virus type specificity of antibodies directed to the v3-domain we des ...19921456889
comparative clonal analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-specific cd4+ and cd8+ cytolytic t lymphocytes isolated from seronegative humans immunized with candidate hiv-1 vaccines.the lysis of infected host cells by virus-specific cytolytic t lymphocytes (ctl) is an important factor in host resistance to viral infection. an optimal vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) would elicit virus-specific ctl as well as neutralizing antibodies. the induction by a vaccine of hiv-1-specific cd8+ ctl in humans has not been previously reported. in this study, ctl responses were evaluated in hiv-1-seronegative human volunteers participating in a phase i acquired i ...19921460417
lineage-independent activation of immune system effector function by myeloid fc emerging theme in immunology finds receptors which initiate cellular effector programs forming multichain complexes in which the ligand recognition elements associate with one or more 'trigger molecules' whose aggregation initiates a signal transduction cascade. the sequence motifs constituting the active sites of these trigger molecules are found in the t cell and b cell antigen receptors, and some fc receptors, and appear to be central to effector function activation. for example, of the ma ...19921464313
stable expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in transfected l sv40-based expression vector was used to generate cd4-negative murine l cell lines which stably expressed the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein (env). despite the presence of abundant intracellular envelope glycoprotein, the expression of env gp120/41 was not detected on the cell surface. pulse-chase studies showed that the majority of the gp120 detected at the end of a 20-h chase was in the culture medium. therefore gp120 was shed and/or secreted from these cells. transfecte ...19921493050
molecular cloning and expression of a novel keratinocyte protein (psoriasis-associated fatty acid-binding protein [pa-fabp]) that is highly up-regulated in psoriatic skin and that shares similarity to fatty acid-binding proteins.analysis by means of two-dimensional (2d) gel electrophoresis of the protein patterns of normal and psoriatic unfractionated non-cultured keratinocytes has revealed a few low-molecular-weight proteins that are highly up-regulated in psoriatic skin. these include psoriasin; calgranulin b, also known as mrp 14, l1, or calprotectin; calgranulin a or mrp 8; and cystatin a or stefin a. here, we have cloned and sequenced the cdna (clone 1592) encoding a new member of this group of low-molecular-weight ...19921512466
expression of a cloned gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter in mammalian cells.the cdna clone gat-1, which encodes a na(+)- and cl(-)-coupled gaba transporter from rat brain, has been expressed in mammalian cells using three different systems: (1) transient expression upon transfection of mouse ltk- cells with a eukaryotic expression vector containing gat-1; (2) stable expression in l-cells transfected with the same vector; (3) transfection of hela cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing t7 rna polymerase. similar results both qualitatively and quantita ...19921536839
selective suppression of the catalytic activity of cdna-expressed cytochrome p4502b1 toward polycyclic hydrocarbons in the microsomal membrane: modification of this effect by specific amino acid substitutions.human hepatoma hepg2 cells were infected with recombinant vaccinia virus vectors containing cdnas encoding both known and variant rat cytochromes p450 (cyp). cyp2b1 and cyp2b2 cytochromes were equally well expressed (110-140 pmol/mg of microsomal protein) and catalyzed metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba). their regioselectivity for dmba metabolism paralleled that of the respective purified rat liver enzymes and reproduced previously reported regioselective differences between cyp ...19921547225
effect of neurotropin on the activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system.bradykinin (bk), an important mediator of allergic reactions and pain induction, is released by the activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin (k-k) cascade. neurotropin is a biological material obtained from inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus and is widely used clinically in japan as an effective agent for these disorders. since its mechanism of action is not clearly known, we have investigated the effects of neurotropin on the human plasma k-k system. in dextran sulfate-activat ...19921562287
nyvac: a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus.a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain, nyvac (vp866), was derived from a plaque-cloned isolate of the copenhagen vaccine strain by the precise deletion of 18 open reading frames (orfs) from the viral genome. among the orfs deleted from nyvac (vp866) are two genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, the thymidine kinase (orf j2r) and the large subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (orf i4l); the gene encoding the viral hemagglutinin (orf a56r); the remnant (orf a26l) of a highly expressed ge ...19921566575
molecular cloning and expression of a transformation-sensitive human protein containing the tpr motif and sharing identity to the stress-inducible yeast protein sti1.a transformation-sensitive human protein (ief ssp 3521) that is 2-fold up-regulated in sv40-transformed mrc-5 fibroblasts has been purified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, microsequenced, and cdna cloned using oligodeoxyribonucleotides. the 2.1-kilobase cdna encodes a 543-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 62.6 kda and a calculated pi of 6.77. expression of the cdna in ama cells using the vaccinia virus expression system followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis ...19921569099
rna packaging signal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the gag and pol regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome (vac-gag/pol) released human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-like particles containing hiv-specific rna. however, cells infected with another recombinant vaccinia, vac-gag/pol-dp, derived through the deletion of an 85-base region (nucleotide positions 679-763) of the hiv genome between the primer binding site and the gag initiation codon of vac-gag/pol, produced hiv-li ...19921585635
the transmembrane glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces syncytium formation in the absence of the receptor binding study the intracellular transport and biological properties of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) transmembrane glycoprotein (tm; gp41), we constructed a truncated envelope gene in which the majority of the coding sequences for the surface glycoprotein (su; gp120) were deleted. transient expression of this truncated env gene in primate cells resulted in the biosynthesis of two proteins with m(r)s of 52,000 and 41,000, respectively. immunofluorescence studies with antibodies to th ...19921602536
influenza virus hemagglutinin with multibasic cleavage site is activated by furin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease.many viruses have membrane glycoproteins that are activated at cleavage sites containing multiple arginine and lysine residues by cellular proteases so far not identified. the proteases responsible for cleavage of the hemagglutinin of fowl plague virus, a prototype of these glycoproteins, has now been isolated from madin-darby bovine kidney cells. the enzyme has a mol. wt of 85,000, a ph optimum ranging from 6.5 to 7.5, is calcium dependent and recognizes the consensus sequence r-x-k/r-r at the ...19921628614
immunogenicity in mice of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein i expressed by a vaccinia virus-varicella-zoster virus recombinant.several vaccinia virus (vv)-varicella-zoster virus (vzv) recombinants expressing glycoprotein i (gpi) of vzv were isolated from the prague strain of vv. one of these, v46, was inoculated intraperitoneally into mice. groups of mice were bled 4 and 8 weeks later and their sera were examined for anti-vzv and anti-vv antibodies by elisa. at 4 weeks, all mice inoculated with the three largest virus doses (10(7), 10(6) and 10(5) p.f.u.), and at 8 weeks all mice inoculated with the four highest virus d ...19911646285
effects of protein kinase c inhibitors on viral entry and infectivity.the protein kinase c inhibitor h-7 (2-20 microm) inhibited dose-dependently the infectivity of the vesicular stomatitis virus on cultured human fibroblasts. electron microscopy showed that h-7 inhibited the viral entry. h-7 also inhibited the infectivity of four other enveloped viruses, herpes simplex i, turkey herpes, vaccinia and sindbis. similar results were obtained using staurosporine (2.5 nm), tamoxifen (40 microm), phloretin (140 microm), or w-7 (40 microm). however, the infectivity of no ...19911659999
the hygromycin-resistance-encoding gene as a selection marker for vaccinia virus recombinants.hygromycin b (hy), an inhibitor of rna translation, was shown to block the replication of vaccinia virus (vv) in cultured cell lines. insertion of the escherichia coli hy resistance-encoding gene (hph) into the vv genome under control of early or late synthetic vv promoters could overcome inhibition of viral replication. when hph was inserted into vv in tandem with the human papillomavirus type 16 (hpv16) l1 open reading frame, hph recombinant viruses could be selected which expressed hpv16 l1.19911660832
bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase cdna. complete coding sequence and expression in mammalian cells with vaccinia virus vector.we have isolated cdna clones for bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase from an adrenal medulla cdna library and have determined the complete coding sequence. the largest cdna clone isolated from the library is 2.4 kilobase pairs (kb) and contains an open reading frame of 1788 bases, coding for a protein of 597 amino acids and mr = 66,803. the predicted amino acid sequence of the bovine cdna contains 85% identity with human dopamine beta-hydroxylase (lamouroux, a., vingny, a., faucon biquet, n., darmo ...19901688549
chemically induced cd4 mutants of a human t cell line. evidence for dissociation between binding of hiv i envelope and susceptibility to hiv i infection and syncytia formation.this study describes the derivation of a series of mutants from the human leukemic cell line cem using the frame shift mutagen ethyl-methanesulfonate followed by negative selection with multiple treatments of okt4a + c, and sorting into cd4-, cd4-dull, and cd4-intermediate mutants. these mutants express reduced cd4 levels ranging from 0 to 60% of the parental line. the mutants were analyzed by staining with a battery of cd4-specific mab, by assessing their ability to bind soluble gp120, and by t ...19901690235
in vitro binding and internalization of hiv envelope glycoproteins by human epidermal langerhans cells does not require the cd4-gp120-binding site.langerhans cells (lc) are epidermal dendritic cells which express several surface antigens, among them the cd4 antigens. recent data demonstrated that lc constitute target and storage cells for hiv. to better understand the interactions between hiv and lc, we investigated, in the present work, the fate of hiv envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp160) incubated with healthy human trypsinized lc in suspensions. after trypsin treatment, only the epitope for okt4 appeared to be resistant on lc. in th ...19901693220
monocyte-mediated lysis of hiv-infected tumor cells.peripheral blood monocytes (pbm) can selectively lyse malignant or virus-infected cells. we investigated the effects of target cell infection with hiv-1 on pbm cytolytic function. cytokine-activated pbm lysed uninfected, hsv-1-infected or vaccinia virus-infected tumor cells, but did not lyse the same cell lines when infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). hiv did not impair pbm viability, and actinomycin d (act d) pretreatment of hiv-infected target cells restored their su ...19901699572
characterization and large production of human monoclonal antibodies against the hiv-1 envelope.peripheral blood lymphocytes from a volunteer immunized with a recombinant vaccinia virus vsc-25 expressing the gp160 env protein of htlv-iiib strain and from an asymptomatic hiv-infected individual were immortalized by epstein-barr (ebv). clones which secrete human monoclonal antibodies from the two individuals (dz, igg1, lambda and c31, igg1, kappa) were obtained and were stable for more than 2 years. the two monoclonals were directed against the gp160 env protein of hiv, dz directed against t ...19911706239
human cytotoxic t lymphocytes against the plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) against the circumsporozoite (cs) protein of malaria sporozoites protect against malaria in rodents. although there is interest in developing human vaccines that induce ctl against the plasmodium falciparum cs protein, humans have never been shown to produce ctl against any plasmodium species protein or other parasite protein. we report that when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from three of four volunteers immunized with irradiated p. falciparum sporozoit ...19911707538
identification of a neutralization epitope on the envelope gp46 antigen of human t cell leukemia virus type i and induction of neutralizing antibody by peptide immunization.we have generated a number of mab against various epitopes on the external envelope glycoprotein, gp46, of human t cell leukemia virus type i (htlv-i) from a wka rat immunized with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the htlv-i env gene. among these mab, one group of mab, represented by a mab designated lat-27, could neutralize the infectivity of htlv-i, as determined by a htlv-i-mediated cell fusion inhibition assay. lat-27 also interfered with transformation of normal t lymphocytes by htlv ...19911711082
an hla-c-restricted cd8+ cytotoxic t-lymphocyte clone recognizes a highly conserved epitope on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag.a unique epitope on the gag protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), located at amino acid 145 to 150, has been mapped by using a cd8+ cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) clone. this epitope is highly conserved among 18 hiv-1 strains. the hiv-1 gag-specific human leukocyte antigen (hla) class i-restricted cd8+ ctl clone was generated from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an hiv-seropositive donor by stimulation with gamma-irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cell ...19911712857
[mechanism of the antimutagenic effect of interferon in human fibroblasts based on induced protein analysis].proteins induced in human fibroblasts after treatment of some antimutagens (interferon, p-aminobenzoic acid, heating and vaccinia virus infection) were identified by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (10-15%) followed by fluorography of the gel. influenza virus proteins (a/wsn/33) were used as markers to determine the molecular weights of the new proteins. the results obtained suggest that interferon, p-aminobenzoic acid, heating and vaccinia virus infection induced proteins with mol. ...19911713724
transgenic mouse lines that are immunologically tolerant and nontolerant to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d.a construct containing the gene for glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus (hsv-gd), under the control of the simian virus 40 early promoter, was microinjected into single-cell embryos, and four transgenic mouse lines were established. three were homozygous (lines 75, 111, and 113) and one was hemizygous (line 108) for the hsv-gd gene. examination of sera revealed that only one of the lines (line 75) spontaneously produced antibody to hsv-gd. immunization of the other three lines with vaccinia v ...19911717714
specific lysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells by a hla-a3.1-restricted cd8+ cytotoxic t-lymphocyte clone that recognizes a conserved peptide sequence within the gp41 subunit of the envelope protein.a hla-a3.1-restricted cd8+ cytotoxic t-cell clone, e7.20, that lyses cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was isolated from an infected individual. the epitope was localized to amino acids 768-778 (rlrdlllivtr, nl43 env sequence) of the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 by successive use of a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses that express truncated env genes and synthetic peptides. the epitope is conserved on 7 (nl43, bru, hxb2, brva, sc, jh3, and jfl) of 13 human immunodeficienc ...19911719555
altered chloride ion channel kinetics associated with the delta f508 cystic fibrosis mutation.cystic fibrosis is associated with a defect in epithelial chloride ion transport which is caused by mutations in a membrane protein called cftr (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). heterologous expression of cftr produces cyclicamp-sensitive cl(-)-channel activity. deletion of phenylalanine at amino-acid position 508 in cftr (delta f508 cftr) is the most common mutation in cystic fibrosis. it has been proposed that this mutation prevents glycoprotein maturation and its transpor ...19911722027
expression of epstein-barr virus nuclear antigens in anti-igm-stimulated b cells following recombinant vaccinia infection and their recognition by human cytotoxic t cells.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) recognizing epstein-barr virus (ebv) nuclear antigens (ebna) are an important host defence mechanism in restricting the proliferation of ebv-infected b cells. previously, b-type lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcl) infected with vaccinia recombinants encoding for the ebna proteins have been used to identify a-type-specific ctl epitopes. however, to localize the ctl epitopes encoded by both a- and b-type transformants, b-type lcl are an inappropriate host for vaccinia. in ...19911722774
regulation of viral and cellular rna turnover in cells infected by eukaryotic viruses including hiv-1.the following reviews the role of mrna stability in the regulation of both viral and cellular gene expression in virus-infected cells. indeed, several eukaryotic viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus, hiv-1, regulate cellular protein synthesis via such control mechanisms. the following systems will be discussed: (i) the degradation of viral and cellular mrnas in cells infected by herpes simplex virus (hsv) and advances made using the hsv virion host shutoff mutant; (ii) the degrada ...19901724218
conserved cysteine residues in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane envelope protein are essential for precursor envelope cleavage.the transmembrane (tm) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been demonstrated to be involved in viral infectivity and syncytium formation. two highly conserved cysteine residues in the extracellular region of the tm protein are shown to be essential for processing the 160-kda envelope precursor into the active 120- and 41-kda mature forms.19921731099
cross-neutralizing antibodies in rabbits immunized with hiv-1 gp160 purified from simian cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus.a recombinant vaccinia virus in which the transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (bru isolate) env gene is driven by the 11k late vaccinia promoter yields about 10-fold higher amounts of gp160 env protein upon infection of monkey cells than does a recombinant in which gp160 is expressed using the 7.5k early-late promoter. the gp160 was purified from detergent lysates of infected cells by lentil lectin affinity chromatography followed by immunoaffinity chromatography, and was ob ...19911742074
neutralizing antibodies against hiv-1 bru and sf2 isolates generated in mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing hiv-1 (bru) envelope glycoproteins and boosted with homologous gp160.anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-hiv-1) antibody response was compared in four groups of mice following inoculation with hiv-1 gp160, with live recombinant vaccinia virus expressing hiv-1 envelope glycoproteins, or with both immunogens in alternate orders for primary or secondary immunizations. both subunit and recombinant virus immunogens induced similar levels of antibody response following primary immunization. however, after secondary immunization, mice primed with live recombi ...19911768463
characterization of a vaccinia-derived recombinant hiv-1 gp160 candidate vaccine and its immunogenicity in chimpanzees.the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) envelope glycoprotein gp160 was produced in large-scale microcarrier cultures of vero cells, using a system involving coinfection with two recombinant vaccinia viruses. the immunogenicity of this material was studied in conjunction with a number of different adjuvant formulations, and chimpanzees were then immunized with gp160 in conjunction with al(oh)3, al(oh)3 and sodium deoxycholate, and a lipid-based adjuvant. the al(oh)3-gp160 vaccine formulation el ...19911845126
immunization against human papillomavirus type 16 tumor cells with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing e6 and e7.papillomaviruses are etiological agents of epithelial proliferative disease. in man, neoplastic transformation of the uterine cervix has been linked to infection with specific subtypes of human papillomavirus, particularly types 16 and 18. we previously reported that live vaccinia virus recombinants expressing early transforming proteins of other tumor viruses can immunize against challenge with cognate tumor cells and we have extended this approach to hpv16. neoplastic transformation by papillo ...19911847269
in vivo delivery of interleukin-6 using vaccinia virus: effects on t lymphocytes in nude mice.we have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (vv) expressing the human interleukin-6 (il-6) gene, vv(il-6). after injection of vv(il-6) i.v. into balb/c mice, circulating il-6 was detected during 3 days with the peak activity on day 4, indicating that vv injection is an effective method to deliver lymphokines in vivo. we have further examined the effects of il-6 in vivo in immunodeficient mice. nude mice were injected i.v. with vv(il-6). ten days after the injection, mice were sacrificed and ...19911873489
alloreactive cytotoxic t cells recognize mhc class i antigen without peptide this report, experiments are described to differentiate between three potential models of class i mhc allorecognition, namely 1) recognition of peptide-free mhc, 2) peptide-mhc-specific recognition, and 3) peptide-mhc-nonspecific recognition. using a nucleoprotein peptide (npp) with a sequence derived from influenza virus nucleoprotein with high affinity for kd class i mhc molecules, it is shown that target cells rapidly become lysable by kd-npp self-restricted cytotoxic t (tc) cells, and ret ...19911890303
steroid hormone hydroxylase specificities of eleven cdna-expressed human cytochrome p450s.steroid hydroxylation specificities were determined for 11 forms of human cytochrome p450, representing four gene families and eight subfamilies, that were synthesized in human hepatoma hep g2 cells by means of cdna-directed expression using vaccinia virus. microsomes isolated from the p450-expressing hep g2 cells were isolated and then assayed for their regioselectivity of hydroxylation toward testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. four of the eleven p450s exhibited high steroid hydro ...19911898086
heterologously expressed serotonin 1a receptors couple to muscarinic k+ channels in cardiac atrial cells, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate a k+ current directly via a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (g protein). serotonin type 1a receptors may activate a similar pathway in hippocampal neurons. to develop a system in which receptor/g protein/k+ channel coupling can be experimentally manipulated, we have used a highly efficient recombinant vaccinia virus vector system to express human serotonin 1a receptors in primary cultures of rat atrial myocytes. the expresse ...19911905814
identification of a novel murine iap-promoted placenta-expressed gene.we have cloned and characterized a novel cellular gene that is promoted by an intracisternal a-particle (iap) ltr and expressed in the mouse placenta (mouse iap promoted placental gene, mipp). a 1067bp cdna clone containing an iap ltr u5 region duplicated in its 5' terminus and an orf coding for a potential 202 amino acids protein was isolated from an 8.5 day old mouse embryo cdna library. sequence analysis of the 5' region of a genomic clone revealed the presence of a solo iap ltr with the same ...19911906605
role of the gag and pol genes of human immunodeficiency virus in the morphogenesis and maturation of retrovirus-like particles expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus: an ultrastructural ultrastructural study was performed on rabbit epithelial rk-13 cells and cd4+ human t lymphocyte lines infected with various recombinant vaccinia viruses (rvvs) expressing genes of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv): the mature p17 or p24 gag domain alone, the entire or truncated gag gene, the reverse transcriptase domain, or the gag-pol genes with a frameshift mutation. cells infected with rvvs that produced the gag polyprotein with a predicted mr of more than 48k showed budding and release ...19911919528
phosphorylation and rapid turnover of hepatitis b virus x-protein expressed in hepg2 cells from a recombinant vaccinia virus.the human hepatitis b viral (hbv) genome contains a conserved open reading frame known as the x-gene which is capable of encoding a polypeptide of 16.565 kda. the corresponding protein has so far not been identified directly in hbv-infected cells, but in transient transfection assays the x-gene encodes a product that functions as a transcriptional transactivator. to characterize the subcellular distribution, stability and post-translational modifications of x-protein in human hepatoma hepg2 cell ...19911923499
molecular cloning, occurrence, and expression of a novel partially secreted protein "psoriasin" that is highly up-regulated in psoriatic skin.analysis of the protein patterns of normal and psoriatic noncultured unfractionated keratinocytes has revealed several low-molecular-weight proteins that are highly up-regulated in psoriatic epidermis. here, we have cloned and sequenced the cdna (clone 1085) for one of these proteins that we have termed psoriasin. the deduced sequence predicted a protein of molecular weight of 11,457 daltons and a pi of 6.77. the protein co-migrated with psoriasin as determined by two-dimensional (2d) gel analys ...19911940442
the quaternary structure, antigenicity, and aggregational behavior of the secretory core protein of human hepatitis b virus are determined by its signal sequence.human hepatitis b virus encodes a secretory core protein, referred to as the hbe protein, whose secretion is mediated by the pre-c signal sequence. here we examined whether this sequence is important only for translocation of the hbe precursor (the precore protein) or whether it also contributes to the structural and biophysical properties of the mature hbe protein. when a truncated hepatitis b virus precore protein, lacking the basic c-terminal domain which is cleaved from the wild-type protein ...19911942254
the amino terminus of the adenovirus fiber protein encodes the nuclear localization signal.using a recombinant vaccinia virus vector, the fiber protein from adenovirus serotype 2 has been expressed in human cells; the protein expressed was correctly assembled into trimers, glycosylated, and transported to the nucleus. deletion of amino acids 2-5 (krar) resulted in accumulation of fiber in the cytoplasm; fusion of the sequence tkrvrl, found at the beginning of ad7 fiber, to the n-terminus of this mutant restored correct targeting. changing the charge of amino acids 91 and 92 within ano ...19911962447
a possible role for glycoprotein gpv in the pathogenesis of varicella-zoster virus. 19901963048
expression of hbv envelope and nucleocapsid proteins in human cells using vaccinia virus vectors.we have analysed the expression of hbv envelope (large, middle, major) and nucleocapsid (core and precore) proteins in human skin fibroblasts and epstein-barr virus-transformed human b-cell lines infected with recombinant vaccinia virus vectors. the large envelope protein was not secreted and barely detectable in the cytosol, whereas middle s and major s where both water soluble and efficiently secreted in abundant quantities. the precore polypeptide was also secreted whereas the core protein wa ...19901966705
cdna-directed expression of rat p450s iia1 and iia2. catalytic activities toward steroids and xenobiotics and comparison with the enzymes purified from liver.cytochromes p-450iia1 and iia2 are steroid hydroxylases that are expressed in rat liver. the cdnas for these enzymes were recently sequenced and compared. to study and compare the catalytic activities of iia1 and iia2, their cdnas were inserted into a vaccinia virus expression vector and expressed in human hepatoma hep g2 cells. iia2 was able to efficiently catalyze ethoxycoumarin o-deethylation and propoxycoumarin o-depropylation, while iia1 was inactive toward these substrates. neither enzyme ...19901974203
biological and immunological properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein: analysis of proteins with truncations and deletions expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses.the effects of c-terminal and internal deletions on the synthesis, transport, biological properties, and antigenicity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein were determined. a family of recombinant vaccinia viruses that express n-terminal overlapping env proteins of 204, 287, 393, 502 (full-length gp120), 635, 747, and 851 (full-length gp160) amino acids was constructed. all of the proteins were detected in intra- and extracellular forms which differed in the extent of glyco ...19911985202
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