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identification and study of a poxvirus isolated from wild rodents in turkmenia.a new poxvirus was isolated in 1974 from the kidney of a wild big gerbil (rhombomys opimus) caught in turkmenia, where these gerbils are wide-spread. the virus resembles cowpox virus and is markedly different from the virus of infectious ectromelia, the best-known poxvirus of rodents. the new virus is apparently identical to other poxvirus isolates made from white rats and felidae in the moscow zoo. experimental inoculation of the natural hosts--big gerbils and yellow susliks (citellus fulvus)-- ...1978204271
[the biotype and genetic characteristics of an isolate of the cowpox virus causing infection in a child].a virus, identified as cowpox virus by its biological properties and the results of the analysis of its dna, was isolated from a sick 4-year-old child with a clinical picture of pox, though having had no contacts with known natural carriers of the causative agent of this infection. at the same time the isolated virus was found to differ from the reference strain, as well as from other isolates of vaccinia virus by some biological markers (and in particular by the structure of cytoplasmic inclusi ...19969027179
gene for a-type inclusion body protein is useful for a polymerase chain reaction assay to differentiate orthopoxviruses.orthopoxvirus species were identified and differentiated by polymerase chain reaction amplification of genome dna using a single primer-pair based on sequences coding for the major protein component of the cowpox virus acidophilic-type inclusion body (ati). dna available for 6 of 8 old world (cowpox, variola, monkeypox, camelpox, ectromelia and vaccinia viruses) and 3 new world (skunkpox, volepox, and raccoonpox) resulted in amplicons that ranged in size from 510 to 1673 base pairs depending on ...19979079767
expression of secreted cytokine and chemokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus.the production of secreted proteins that bind cytokines and block their activity has been well characterized as an immune evasion strategy of the orthopoxviruses vaccinia virus (vv) and cowpox virus (cpv). however, very limited information is available on the expression of similar cytokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus (ev), a virulent natural mouse pathogen that causes mousepox. we have characterized the expression and binding properties of three major secreted immunomodulatory activities in 1 ...200010954546
rat-to-human transmission of cowpox infection.we isolated cowpox virus (cpxv) from the ulcerative eyelid lesions of a 14-year-old girl, who had cared for a clinically ill wild rat that later died. cpxv isolated from the rat (rattus norvegicus) showed complete homology with the girl's virus. our case is the first proven rat-to-human transmission of cowpox.200212498670
[a study of neutralizing activity and cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to ectromelia virus with orthopoxviruses pathogenic for man].an extensive collection of 125 rat hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to ectromelia virus (ev) polypeptide (poxviridae family, orhtopoxvirus genus) was set up. a significant portion of mabs (37 types) recognized epitopes of the 14 kda polypeptide as well as the 37 and 35 kda polypeptides. however, a majority of mabs interacted with conformation-dependent epitopes, which were destroyed in immunoprecipitation. one hundred and thirteen of mabs cross-interacted with antigenic determin ...200415455686
cowpox virus transmission from rats to monkeys, the netherlands.we report an outbreak of cowpox virus among monkeys at a sanctuary for exotic animals. serologic analysis and polymerase chain reaction were performed on blood and swab samples from different rodent species trapped at the sanctuary during the outbreak. sequence comparison and serologic results showed that brown rats (rattus norvegicus) transmitted the virus to monkeys.200616707063
exogenous expression of fas-ligand or crma prolongs the survival in rat liver transplantation.modulation of donor organs by transfection of a gene encoding immmunosuppresive molecules has been recognized as a less toxic approach to prevent allograft rejection. fas-ligand (fasl) plays a critical role in activation-induced cell death of activated cytotoxic lymphocytes. this may provide a potential for induction of "immune privileged sites" to escape the host immune surveillance system. cytokine response modifier a (crma), a gene product of cowpox virus, blocks caspase as well as perforin/g ...200617098047
cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, france.in early 2009, four human cases of cowpox virus cutaneous infection in northern france, resulting from direct contact with infected pet rats (rattus norvegicus), were studied. pet rats, originating from the same pet store, were shown to be infected by a unique virus strain. infection was then transmitted to humans who purchased or had contact with pet rats.200919402968
human to human transmission of poxviruses have been observed previously. 200919890422
fatal cowpox virus infection in captive banded mongooses (mungos mungo).cowpox virus infections have been described in various domestic and exotic animal species. this report is the first on an outbreak of fatal generalized cowpox virus infection among captive banded mongooses (mungos mungo, suborder feliformia). all animals of a colony of 8 mongooses showed a fulminant course of disease. the whole population died (n=7) or was euthanized (n=1) within 11 days. postmortem examinations were performed on 4 animals. all animals showed extensive necrotizing inflammation o ...201020472807
[importation of infectious diseases to europe via animals and animal products: risks and pathways].importation of tropical infectious diseases to europe via animals and animal products. most emerging and resurgent diseases observed in france in recent decades have been zoonoses, and some have caused unprecedented health crises. the growing international trade in domestic and wild animals and foodstuffs of animal origin is contributing to the emergence or resurgence of such zoonoses, along with accidental or deliberate introduction of certain species into new geographical areas, and the recent ...200920669546
recovery of infectious virus from full-length cowpox virus (cpxv) dna cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac).abstract: transmission from pet rats and cats to humans as well as severe infection in felids and other animal species have recently drawn increasing attention to cowpox virus (cpxv). we report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain brighton red (br) as a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) in escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned dna. generation of a full-length cpxv dna clone was achieved by first introducing a mini-f vector, which allows maintena ...201121314965
tyrosine-based 1-(s)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine and -adenine ((s)-hpmpc and (s)-hpmpa) prodrugs: synthesis, stability, antiviral activity, and in vivo transport studies.eight novel single amino acid (6-11) and dipeptide (12, 13) tyrosine p-o esters of cyclic cidofovir ((s)-chpmpc , 4) and its cyclic adenine analogue ((s)-chpmpa, 3) were synthesized and evaluated as prodrugs. in vitro ic(50) values for the prodrugs (<0.1-50 μm) vs vaccinia, cowpox, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex type 1 virus were compared to those for the parent drugs ((s)-hpmpc, 2; (s)-hpmpa, 1; ic(50) 0.3-35 μm); there was no cytoxicity with kb or hff cells at ≤100 μm. the prodrugs ...201121812420
severe ear chondritis due to cowpox virus transmitted by a pet rat.we describe a case of cowpox virus infection leading to severe acute inflammation and chondritis of the outer ear, complicated by local necrosis and facial cellulitis. secondary lesions occurred on a finger and the abdomen. apart from scarring, outcome was favorable after repeated surgical excision of necrotic tissue.201121723880
the munich outbreak of cutaneous cowpox infection: transmission by infected pet rats.cowpox virus infection of humans is an uncommon, potentially fatal, skin disease. it is largely confined to europe, but is not found in eire, or in the usa, australasia, or the middle or far east. patients having contact with infected cows, cats, or small rodents sporadically contract the disease from these animals. we report here clinical aspects of 8 patients from the munich area who had purchased infected pet rats from a local supplier. pet rats are a novel potential source of local outbreaks ...201122041995
survey for zoonotic pathogens in norway rat populations from europe.the norway rat rattus norvegicus is an important reservoir of various zoonotic pathogens, such as cowpox virus and leptospira, but also for agents of no or unknown zoonotic potential. we describe a survey of 426 norway rats originating from five european countries and different habitats for leptospira spp., rickettsiae, orthopoxvirus (opv), avian metapneumovirus subtypes a and b (ampv) and rat polyomavirus (rat pyv).201727299665
clinical course and pathology in rats (rattus norvegicus) after experimental cowpox virus infection by percutaneous and intranasal application.recently, several cases of human cowpox virus (cpxv) infections were reported in france and germany, which had been acquired through close contact with infected pet rats. the animals exhibited respiratory signs or skin lesions and died shortly after purchase. after natural infection of white rats with cpxv in the ussr in 1978, a peracute pulmonary form, a milder dermal form, and a mixed form exhibiting features of both have been described. to the best of the authors' knowledge, 3 experimental co ...201222411549
outbreak of pox disease among carnivora (felidae) and edentata.an outbreak of pox disease in carnivora of the family felidae occurred in the moscow zoo. two forms of the disease were found: (1) fatal, fulminant pulmonary without skin lesions and (2) dermal with rash. the severity of the dermal form varied from subclinical to lethal. the pulmonary form was characterized by pneumonia and exudative pleuritis, and large concentrations of virus were observed in the lungs and exudate. in addition to carnivora of the family felidae, two giant anteaters had a sever ...1977191538
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