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biological properties of a canine distemper virus isolate associated with demyelinating encephalomyelitis.a canine distemper virus (cdv), designated r252, originally recovered from a dog with demyelinating encephalomyelitis was shown to reproduce this disease in gnotobiotic dogs with a high incidence as compared to other cdv strains, which produced an acute fatal infection. in this investigation, r252 was propagated for the first time in vero cells and compared to two known strains of cdv, snyder-hill (sh) and onderstepoort (ond). the results of this study revealed that intracellular r252 accumulate ...197547310
newer knowledge in comparative virology--its contribution to human health research.like other comparative sciences, and despite its recent beginning comparative virology has already contributed useful applications and observations to human health research. teachings derived from the study of marek's disease found application in that of burkitt's lymphoma, and may lead to a possible vaccine against the human disease. equally useful information came from the study of canine distemper in the development of a chorio-allantoic membrane attenuated measles vaccine, and in our knowled ...1975167504
virus infection in demyelinating diseases.several animal and human demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (cns) are associated with rna or dna viruses. these viruses infect cns cells lytically or persistently. they mainly belong to the group of envelope viruses which derive their envelope partly from the host cell membrane. the process of virus release may result in the appearance of new antigens of virus-infected cells or the incorporation of cell membrane material into the viral envelope. these changes may lead to an imm ...1978211825
mechanisms of heterotypic immunity against canine distemper.hep-2 cells infected with measles virus (mv) for as short as 6 h became refractory to superinfection with canine distemper virus (cdv) but not to vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). the exact mechanism of such interference is unknown but probably occurs after virus attachment and penetration. these results verify the suggestion that virus interference may be a mechanism of heterotypic protection against canine distemper.1979226395
immunofluorescence studies of canine distemper encephalitis on paraffin-embedded tissue.a paraffin-embedding technique for fluorescent antibody studies of canine distemper encephalitis was developed. specific fluorescence was demonstrated in all brain tissue from dogs with canine distemper, and when compared with tissue on cryostat sections, the paraffin-embedded tissue showed superior preservation of tissue architecture. the preservation of viral antigen was good, and the appearance of fluorescence in gray- and white-matter lesions was described. in gray matter, extensive fluoresc ...1978352204
neutralizing antibodies to canine distemper and measles virus in multiple sclerosis.serum neutralizing antibody to canine distemper virus (cdv) was measured in 142 patients with multiple sclerosis (ms), an equal number of age and sex-matched normal controls, and 75 patients with other neurological disorders. an elevated antibody titer was found in the ms population compared to controls. measles-neutralizing antibody was also found to be elevated in 128 patients with ms. the mean ratio of measles to cdv antibody was similar in the control and ms groups, but a wide range of measl ...1979438844
early events in canine distemper demyelinating encephalomyelitis.the early neuropathological development of demyelinating canine distemper encephalomyelitis (cde) was studied in spf dogs. neural tissues were examined up to 30 days post infection (pi). three phases of activity were observed. the primary event (first observed 8 days pi) was a nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis associated with the initiation of central nervous system (cns) infection by virus-laden lymphocytes. at 24 days pi noninflammatory demyelination occurred in well defined, subependymal foci. ...1979452851
vaccine-induced canine distemper virus in black-footed ferrets. 1977556720
serologic abnormalities in multiple sclerosis. 1978568747
canine distemper, measles, and sspe. 1978645705
distemper and measles vaccines--a comparative trial. 1978672200
effects of canine distemper virus infection on lymphoid function in vitro and in vivo.in the present study, the immunodepressive effects of canine distemper virus (cdv) infection of dogs on two parameters of lymphocyte function, namely phytomitogen-induced cellular proliferation and skin allograft rejection, were investigated. infection of susceptible gnotobiotic dogs with virulent r252-cdv resulted in a depression of peripheral blood lymphocyte mitogen response as measured by (3h)thymidine incorporation for up to 10 weeks after inoculation. this effect coincided with the appeara ...19751091560
[a case from general practice (2): conspicuous laboratory findings]. 19921462671
canine distemper virus increases procoagulant activity of macrophages.inflammatory demyelination in canine distemper has been proposed to be due to a "bystander" mechanism, in which macrophages play an important role. in the present work we studied whether infection of macrophages by canine distemper virus (cdv) results in changes of macrophage functions, including fc receptor-dependent and -independent phagocytosis, release of reactive oxygen species (ros), and procoagulant activity (pca). as a source of macrophages, dog bone marrow cells were seeded in teflon ba ...19921519355
correlation between humoral immune responses and presence of virus in the cns in dogs experimentally infected with canine distemper virus.the role of the humoral immune response in clearance or prevention of canine distemper viral encephalitis of dogs infected with a virulent strain of canine distemper virus has been evaluated. dogs that have demyelinating lesions, cdv proteins and infectious virus in their brains demonstrate an impaired humoral immune response. in dogs that recover from infection and contain no demyelinating lesions, viral proteins or infectious virus in the brain, antibodies to the internal proteins of cdv are o ...19911759903
comparison of in vitro replication and cytopathology caused by strains of canine distemper virus of vaccine and field origin.three biological properties of canine distemper virus were examined to determine if any would consistently differentiate field from vaccine strains of the virus. the properties were the ability to (1) infect macrophages and epithelial cells, (2) produce distinct cytopathologic effect in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages and vero cells, and (3) produce pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. four vaccine strains and 5 field isolates were used in the study. the 5 field ...19911892930
analysis of antigenic differences between sixteen phocine distemper virus isolates and other morbilliviruses.monoclonal antibodies against a phocine morbillivirus isolate (pdv 2558/han 88) were able to discriminate sixteen pdv isolates from any other morbillivirus species providing further evidence that pdv should be regarded a new species in the morbillivirus genus.19912069507
detection of canine distemper viral antigen in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of a fitch (mustela putorius), using an immunoperoxidase technique.the present study describes how a naturally infected fitch (mustela putorius) caused an outbreak of canine distemper in a colony of insufficiently vaccinated dogs. the detection of canine distemper virus (cdv) on paraffin sections of different organs of the fitch and one of the dead dogs was achieved using a monoclonal antibody against the nucleocapsid protein (np) of cdv and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (abc) technique.19902178907
mass mortality in seals caused by a newly discovered morbillivirus.during a recent disease outbreak among harbour seals (phoca vitulina) in the north and baltic seas, more than 17,000 animals have died. the clinical symptoms and pathological findings were similar to those of distemper in dogs. based on a seroepizootiological study, using a canine distemper virus (cdv) neutralization assay, it was shown that cdv or a closely related morbillivirus (phocid distemper virus-pdv) was the primary cause of the disease. the virus was isolated in cell culture from the or ...19902205971
phocid distemper virus--a threat to terrestrial mammals? 19902238399
[distemper in a population of the baikal seal]. 19902256402
growth of canine distemper virus in cultured astrocytes: relationship to in vivo persistence and disease.canine distemper virus (cdv) causes an encephalomyelitis in dogs which varies with the viral strain. the cdv cornell a75-17 strain produces a delayed, subacute to chronic, demyelinating cns disease. in contrast, the snyder hill (cdv-sh) strain-associated neurological disease is more acute in onset, is usually non-demyelinating and primarily produces lesions in the gray matter. in these studies we describe the effects of these two virulent and one avirulent cdv strain, rockborn (cdv-ro), on astro ...19902333034
humoral immune responses in seals infected by phocine distemper virus.recently the isolation and characterisation of a morbillivirus which caused high mortality in common seals (phoca vitulina) in 1988 have been reported. because of the clinical and pathological similarity of the disease in seals to that of distemper in dogs, the name phocine distemper virus (pdv) has been proposed. there are marked differences in the virus-induced proteins of pdv compared to other morbilliviruses and the humoral immune response of moribund and dead seals to pdv was restricted to ...19902382048
vaccine-associated canine distemper infection in a litter of african hunting dogs (lycaon pictus).four, 57 days old, african hunting dog puppies (lycaon pictus) from one litter died within three weeks following vaccination with modified-live canine distemper virus (cdv) and killed canine adenovirus type 1, canine parvovirus and leptospira icterohemorrhagiae and canicola. 18 days post vaccination, the animals developed neurologic disease characterized by episodes of grand mal seizures and circling. macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed acute systemic cdv infection ...19902385981
antiserum raised in pigs against canine distemper virus and its utility in diagnostic procedures for morbillivirus infections (canine distemper, phocine distemper, rinderpest).antiserum against canine distemper virus (cdv) was raised in pigs by intranasal inoculation with cdv strains cnd65 and rockborn. immunoglobulin fractions were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. peroxidase-conjugated anti-cdv immunoglobulin preparations were used for the detection and titration of cdv, seal-derived (phocine) distemper virus (pdv) and rinderpest virus (rpv) in vero cell cultures. for the detection and titration of corresponding neutralizing antibodies a direct neutralizing pe ...19902396484
demyelinating canine distemper encephalomyelitis: measurement of myelin basic protein in cerebrospinal fluid.beagle dogs were experimentally infected with the cornell a75-17 strain of canine distemper virus. at three time points post-infection (pi), immunoreactive myelin basic protein (mbp) was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (csf). levels were correlated with neuropathological findings, interferon in csf and virus isolation from the brain. csf from animals inoculated with cornell a75-17 strain often showed detectable immunoreactive mbp late in the disease course. as anticipated from earlier morphologi ...19872434527
bystander demyelination through antibody induced macrophage activation in canine distemper virus infection. 19892467368
electrophoretic determination of albumin and gamma globulin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with encephalomyelitis attributable to canine distemper virus infection: 13 cases (1980-1987).thirteen dogs with encephalomyelitis attributable to canine distemper virus infection were classified into 3 groups on the basis of histopathologic evidence of virus-induced lesions in cns tissue. analysis of data indicated a similarity within groups when arranged by age, clinical neurologic signs, and alterations in the csf electrophoretic protein values. comparison with results in dogs with experimentally induced canine distemper encephalomyelitis suggested that when grouped by age, csf electr ...19892477352
immunopathogenesis of arterial diseases in animals and man.this brief review summarizes our current understanding of vasculitis mediated by phlogistic immune complexes. the arthus reaction and serum sickness both represent experimental models for immune complex disease. immune complex phenomena occur in conjunction with c3 deficiency of dogs during canine distemper virus infection and, presumably, as a part of the beagle pain syndrome.19892665030
[macrophages in central nervous canine distemper: friends or foes?].brain macrophages play an important role in the cns. we review some biological aspects of brain macrophages in vivo and in vitro. the criteria and methods used for the identification of these cells are considered. they include some morphological features such as the use of histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques for internal and surface components. in the second part of this review, we describe the role of brain macrophages in canine distemper encephalitis as proposed earlier by us. stud ...19892672305
antiviral antibodies stimulate production of reactive oxygen species in cultured canine brain cells infected with canine distemper virus.canine distemper is characterized mainly by respiratory, enteric, and nervous symptoms. infection of the central nervous system results in demyelination, to which inflammation has been shown to contribute significantly. it has been proposed that macrophages play a major role as effector cells in this process. we report that cultured dog brain cells contain a population of macrophages capable of producing reactive oxygen species as measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. in cultures infe ...19892724413
dogs and paget's disease. 19852866320
[diagnostic problems posed by respiratory infections of dogs].the following viruses as well as bacteria and mycoplasma have been isolated from dogs with contagious respiratory disease: canine distemper virus; canine adenoviruses (type 1 and 2); parainfluenza type 2 (sv5); reovirus type 1; canine herpesvirus; bordetella bronchiseptica, streptococcus, pasteurella, staphylococcus and mycoplasma. the occurrence of these agents can be in direct relationship with: the evolution of a systemic disease; respiratory disorders being a regular or inconsistant symptom ...19852998696
[an outbreak of dog distemper among seals (2)].serological findings which had showed that the primary cause of the recent outbreak of serious disease of seals in the seas of north-western europe, is infection with canine distemper virus, were confirmed by in vivo and in vitro isolation of the virus from seals which had died at different locations during the outbreak. the virus which proved to be pathogenic for dogs, was characterised as canine distemper virus on the basis of immunofluorescence, virus neutralisation and electron microscopical ...19883176011
immunosuppression by canine distemper virus: modulation of in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis, interleukin release and prostaglandin e2 production.in vitro or in vivo infection of canine mononuclear cells by canine distemper virus (cdv) in short-term microcultures resulted in suppression of lectin-induced 3h-thymidine incorporation. this suppressive effect was also evident in pokeweed mitogen-driven in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis and release. lectin-induced interleukin-2 production by monocyte-depleted lymphocyte cultures was marginally affected by cdv, whereas interleukin-1 production by adherent mononuclear cells was significantly dep ...19873498254
[possible involvement of the canine distemper virus in the epidemiology of multiple sclerosis]. 19853832280
spread and distribution of viral antigen in nervous canine distemper.canine distemper virus (cdv) antigen was demonstrated immunocytochemically in the central nervous system (cns) of 19 dogs killed from 16 to 170 days after infection. in the earliest lesions, infection of glial cells preceded demyelination, and the degree of myelin destruction correlated with the amount of viral antigen in the tissue. it was concluded that initial demyelination in distemper is directly viral-induced, but the nature of the infected glial cells remains uncertain. ependymal infectio ...19854050335
ultrastructural features of canine distemper virus infection of the chorioallantoic membrane of the hen's egg. 19704099306
electron microscopic study of nuclear and nucleolar changes in cells infected with canine distemper virus (cdv). 19724112842
canine distemper virus in ferret, dog and bovine kidney cell cultures. 19654160642
a microneutralization test for canine distemper virus. 19734201293
presence of neutralizing antibody to canine distemper virus in sera of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. 19734201376
experience with an established cell line for veterinary vaccine production. 19684305440
viral antibody patterns in laboratory dogs with respiratory disease. 19704314338
the role of lysosomes in virus-induced cell fusion. 1. cytochemical studies. 19714354975
experimental canine distemper virus-induced demyelination. 19744413368
the ultrastructure of inclusions in blood cells of dogs with distemper. 19744457569
studies of old dog encephalitis. ii. electron microscopic and immunohistologic findings. 19734588526
proceedings: preliminary evaluation of pathogenic and immunogenic properties of the flury lep and hep strains of rabies virus multiplied in chick embryo fibroblasts. 19744828510
pathogenesis of canine distemper. 19694894003
comments on pathogenesis of canine distemper. 19704912307
a note on the use of plaque reduction to test serums for canine distemper antibodies. 19704991501
the growth and cytopathogenicity of virulent and attenuated strains of canine distemper virus in dog and ferret macrophages. 19715090886
the antibody response and the protection obtained by using different types of vaccines in two genotypes of mink. 19715169534
fluorescent antibody technique as a diagnostic test for canine distemper infection: detection of viral antigen in epithelial tissues of experimentally infected dogs. 19675340996
ultrastructure of canine distemper virus in explant tissue cultures of canine cerebellum. 19705464974
recovery of canine distemper virus from subcultured primary dog kidney cell culture. 19685651194
studies with an attenuated canine distemper vaccine derived from chick embryo cultures. 19685693317
potency of an attenuated canine distemper vaccine derived from chick embryo cell cultures. 19685693318
persistence of antibodies following vaccination against canine distemper and the effect of re-vaccination. 19666006405
introduction to the symposium on canine distemper immunization. 19666008141
potentiation of neurovirulence of canine distemper virus in guinea pigs by sensitization with neural antigen.establishment of animal model of virus-induced encephalomyelitis was attempted in strain 13 guinea pigs sensitized with the homologous spinal cord antigen. intracerebral inoculation of canine distemper virus alone or sensitization with the neural antigen alone did not induce significant clinical signs. mild histological lesions were found in both the meninges and parenchyma of the central nervous system (cns) of virus-infected animals, and in the meninges of the sensitized ones. in contrast, com ...19816172611
antigen requirements and specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of canine igg against canine distemper viral antigens.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detection of specific immunoglobulin g (igg) against canine distemper virus (cdv) antigens. sucrose gradient separation of viral and cellular proteins was required to produce coating antigens for the elisa. the specificity of the elisa was demonstrated by blocking cdv-positive canine sera with cdv-specific antisera produced in goats and rabbits and adsorption of positive sera with cdv antigens. a comparison of the elisa with the seru ...19826187248
glial proteins in canine distemper virus-induced demyelination. a sequential immunocytochemical study.a temporal series of demyelinating lesions in experimental canine distemper virus (cdv) infection was examined with immunohistological techniques demonstrating myelin basic protein (mbp), myelin-associated glycoprotein (mag), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap) on serial sections. the earliest lesions were characterized by decreased mbp and mag and increased gfap. during the further progression of the disease, mbp and mag losses continued to match each other. there was no indication of ma ...19836191513
viral antibody studies of laboratory dogs with diarrheal disease.viral antibody studies were done on laboratory dogs in an epizootic of gastrointestinal disease. increased hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers to a parvovirus (pv) antigenically related to feline panleukopenia virus were found in convalescent serum specimens of 78% (20/26) of the affected dogs and in 83% (5/6) of apparently healthy dogs. with one exception, all dogs tested had significant levels of hemagglutination-inhibition antibody to this pv. similar increased antibody titers were fo ...19816275746
serologic survey for canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis in wolves in alaska.sera from 57 wolves (canis lupus) in three areas of alaska were evaluated for evidence of previous exposure to infectious canine hepatitis virus (ichv) and canine distemper virus (cdv). fifty-four sera (94.7%) were positive for ichv exposure and four (7%) were positive for cdv exposure. all four cdv-reacting wolves also had titres to ichv. the relatively common occurrence of ichv exposure may be due to the greater resistance of ichv to chemical and physical agents and its transmissibility via th ...19826296469
astrocytic infection in canine distemper virus-induced demyelination.acute canine distemper virus (cdv)-induced demyelinating lesions were examined with double-labelling immunocytochemistry simultaneously demonstrating cdv antigen and glial fibrillary acidid protein (gfap) as marker for astrocytes. it was shown that 64% of all astrocytes within the demyelinating lesions were infected and that 95% of all infected cells counted in the lesions were astrocytes. these results suggest that the astrocyte is the main target for cdv and that astroglial infection may play ...19892922996
secondary degeneration of oligodendrocytes in canine distemper virus infection in vitro.to study the pathogenesis of demyelination in canine distemper virus (cdv) infection, primary canine brain cell cultures were infected with cdv to examine specific virus-induced glial cell changes. cultures were harvested at regular intervals after inoculation and were immunostained for the specific demonstration of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and cdv antigen. the infection spread slowly with moderate cytolysis and cell fusion. soon after inoculation, infection of astrocytes was found by means ...19862421102
influence of transplacentally acquired antibody on neonatal susceptibility to canine distemper virus in gnotobiotic dogs.in utero acquistion of protective levels of neutralizing antibody to canine distemper virus (cdv) was observed in four litters of colostrum-deprived gnotobiotic and specific-pathogen-free puppies. pregnant bitches with high antibody titers passively transferred antibody to these pups transplacentally in average titers of 1:7 to 1:16 per litter. maternally derived antibody protected neonatal pups from otherwise fatal infection with virulent cdv. protection was associated with a transient lymphope ...1978659917
canine distemper virus-associated hypocalcemia.a retrospective study was done to correlate serum calcium concentrations and parathyroid gland ultrastructure to clinical, immunologic, and pathologic changes experimentally induced in gnotobiotic dogs by canine distemper virus (cdv). dogs infected with cdv had significantly reduced serum calcium concentrations associated with ultrastructural evidence of parathyroid gland inactivity, degeneration, and viral inclusions. although cdv-infected dogs exhibited neurologic signs, minimal lesions were p ...1979453678
serologic response of domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) to canine distemper and rabies virus vaccines.nine unrelated 12-week-old naive domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were used to evaluate the serologic responses to commercial canine distemper virus (cdv) and rabies virus (rv) vaccines. five of the ferrets (group 1) were inoculated 3 times at 2-week intervals with a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine of canine cell-line origin, containing cdv and an inactivated rv vaccine. four of the ferrets (group 2) were inoculated once with the multivalent modified-live virus vaccine containing ...19892537273
canine distemper virus: the early blood-brain barrier lesion.experimental infection of gnotobiotic beagle dogs with neurovirulent r252 canine distemper virus (cdv) resulted in hematogenous dissemination of virus to the central nervous system (cns). viral antigen was first detected within cns capillary and venular endothelia and/or perivascular astrocytic foot processes and pericytes. the number of primary infection sites was evenly distributed throughout the neuraxis. leukocytic infiltrations followed cns endothelial cell infection by 1-2 days and were co ...19873434212
immunoperoxidase study of canine distemper virus pneumonia.forty-two cases of canine pneumonia were examined for the presence of canine distemper virus. for that purpose canine distemper virus inclusion bodies were located. the histopathological lesions were related to the presence of canine distemper antigen, as demonstrated with an immunoperoxidase technique. this technique was more sensitive for detecting canine distemper infection in lung tissue than was the study of inclusion bodies. attention was also paid to combined infection with canine adenovi ...19836304834
comparison of cytoskeletal organization in canine distemper virus-infected and uninfected cells.the organization of vimentin filaments, keratin filaments, microtubules and microfilaments was compared in canine distemper virus (cdv)-infected and uninfected cells by indirect immunofluorescence. infection of tissue culture cells with cdv caused a total reorganization of all the cytoskeletal structures with the most notable changes in the microtubules and intermediate filaments. during virus infection two different patterns of staining were observed for both the intermediate filaments and micr ...19836358405
measles virus and inactivated canine distemper virus induce incomplete immunity to canine distemper.pairs of specific pathogen free dogs were immunized with two injections of heat inactivated canine distemper virus (cdv) or one injection of a live cdv or live measles virus (mv) vaccine. three unimmunized dogs were used as controls. all 9 dogs were challenged with virulent cdv (snyder hill strain). the three unimmunized dogs developed severe signs of disease with a lethal infection in one. the two dogs immunized with live cdv vaccine developed a strong humoral as well as cellular immune respons ...19846497659
an immunological study of infection of hamsters with large and small plaque canine distemper viruses.the small plaque virus (spv), derived from the onderstepoort strain of canine distemper virus (cdv) does not cause a lethal encephalitis in weanling hamsters. when we immunosuppressed hamsters infected with this virus they developed an acute disease, similar to that produced by the large plaque virus (lpv). passive transfer of maternal antibody from spv infected mothers to their offspring was effective in preventing acute disease following lpv infection. co-infection of animals with both lpv and ...19836683494
mechanism of persistence with canine distemper virus: difference between a laboratory strain and an isolate from a dog with chronic neurological disease.the mechanism of persistence in culture was different with canine distemper virus (cdv) isolated from a dog with chronic neurological disease (ode; old dog encephalitis) compared to a laboratory strain (cdv/ond). cdv/ond persistence was achieved after seven undiluted passages while cdv/ode-8, the recent isolate, showed immediate persistence in vero cells. both persistent infections resisted challenge with lytic cdv/ond but not with unrelated vesicular stomatitis virus. the medium from cdv/ond in ...19846698761
canine distemper encephalomyelitis: variation with virus strain.disease induced by 3 virulent strains of canine distemper virus (cdv) was compared in specific pathogen-free beagle dogs. all strains produced an encephalomyelitis but variation was observed in the severity, clinical course and resulting neuropathology. infection with snyder hill strain of cdv was consistently acute; dogs either succumbed 14 to 19 days post-inoculation (pi) or recovered. lesions in the neuraxis were those of a polioencephalomyelitis. in contrast, cdv strain a75-17 produced subac ...19846699231
comparison of subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of a live attenuated distemper virus vaccine in ferrets. 19846719805
viruria in dogs infected with canine distemper. 19816914857
canine parvovirus infection potentiates canine distemper encephalitis attributable to modified live-virus vaccine.twelve gnotobiotic dogs from 2 litters were allotted to 3 groups. group a dogs received a modified-live polyvalent (canine distemper, adenovirus type 2, and parainfluenza virus and leptospira -canicola-icterohemorrhagiae bacterin) vaccine 3 days prior to oral inoculation with canine parvovirus (cpv). group b dogs received cpv alone. group c dogs received 1 dose of vaccine only. in none of the 9 cpv-inoculated dogs did clinical signs of cpv infection develop, although high serum antibody titers f ...19827061309
distemper and multiple sclerosis in sitka, alaska. 19827073251
demyelination in experimental canine distemper virus infection: immunological, pathologic, and immunohistological studies. 19827090737
polypeptides of canine distemper virus strains derived from dogs with chronic neurological diseases. 19827135831
development of a modified live, canine origin parvovirus vaccine.a modified live, canine origin parvovirus vaccine was tested for safety, efficacy, and clinical performance. the vaccine protected dogs from challenge of immunity with canine parvovirus (cpv) that caused clinical illness in all nonvaccinated dogs. vaccinates all developed cpv serum neutralization antibody titers, with a mean value of 1,664. challenge virus was not isolated from vaccinates, but feces from nonvaccinated dogs were cpv-positive for up to 4 days following challenge. in a pathogenicit ...19827141990
induction of chronic neurologic disease in mice with canine distemper virus.the capacity of a mouse-adapted strain of canine distemper virus (cdv) to induce central nervous system (cns) disease in weanling mice was investigated. lethality of infection was found to be mouse-strain-dependent. in sensitive strains, an acute meningoencephalomyelitis developed. brain tissue from acutely ill animals demonstrated numerous foci of viral antigen, and extracts yielded infectious virus. mice of resistant strains, notably the sjl strain, survived the effects of acute infection, app ...19807190253
vaccination-induced distemper in kinkajous.following vaccination for distemper, using a modified live-virus vaccine developed for dogs, 2 young kinkajous (potos flavus) developed diarrhea, then central nervous system disease. clinical signs included myoclonus, head trembling, loss of muscular coordination, and convulsions. one kinkajou gradually recovered; the other seemed to recover, then relapsed and was euthanatized. microscopic lesions included those of interstitial pneumonia and enteritis and multifocal lymphocytic inflammation, gli ...19817199035
the effect of surgery in dogs on the response to concomitant distemper vaccination. 19807247892
parvovirus infection and distemper vaccination. 19817275741
no increase in multiple sclerosis among veterinarians. 19817278893
multiple sclerosis and distemper in iceland 1966-1978.a highly restricted epidemic of canine distemper occurred in southwest iceland in 1966-67. we have determined the extent of dog contact and exposure to dogs during the distemper epidemic in icelandic ms patients with onset since 1966. further, age of onset, and annual incidence of ms from 1966 through 1978 have been determined. thirty-five of 36 ms patients had close dog contact prior to onset of their illness, and 34 were in the area of the distemper epidemic during 1966-67. a significant decre ...19807376823
phylogenetic evidence of canine distemper virus in serengeti's lions.recently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the tanzanian serengeti national park. a morbillivirus phosphoprotein (p) gene fragment was amplified by pcr from tissue samples of several affected lions. sequencing of the amplificates and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that a wild-type strain of canine distemper morbillivirus (cdv) was involved. vaccination of the local domestic dog population with proven safe cdv vaccines is pro ...19957483771
a mimotope from a solid-phase peptide library induces a measles virus-neutralizing and protective antibody response.a solid-phase 8-mer random combinatorial peptide library was used to generate a panel of mimotopes of an epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody to the f protein of measles virus (mv). an inhibition immunoassay was used to show that these peptides were bound by the monoclonal antibody with different affinities. balb/c mice were coimmunized with the individual mimotopes and a t-helper epitope peptide (from mv fusion protein), and the reactivity of the induced anti-mimotope antibodies with the ...19957494275
detection of canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by rt-pcr.for a rapid diagnosis of canine distemper virus (cdv) infection, the reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) was carried out to detect cdv nucleoprotein (np) gene from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs). two sets of primers were targeted to two regions of np gene of cdv onderstepoort strain. the np gene fragments were well amplified by the rt-pcr in each of the rna extracts from vero cells infected with 6 laboratory strains of cdv including onderstepoort strain, and from pbmcs of a dog ...19957548395
comments about frequency of vaccination. 19957559036
generation of multinucleated osteoclast-like cells from canine bone marrow: effects of canine distemper virus.recent evidence has implicated canine distemper virus (cdv) as a possible aetiologic agent in paget's disease of bone and the canine bone disorder, metaphyseal osteopathy. we have therefore examined the effects of cdv on the formation of multinucleated osteoclast-like cells in cultures of canine bone marrow mononuclear cells. marrow cells from a distemper-infected dog and from five uninfected dogs were cultured in the presence of 1 alpha, 25-(oh)2 vitamin d3 and the number of tartrate resistant ...19957577157
ultrastructural study of unidentified inclusions in the cornea and iridocorneal angle of dogs with pannus.the corneas and/or the iridocorneal angles of 13 dogs were examined morphologically by use of transmission electron microscopy. virologic identification techniques also were used for tissue from 2 dogs. four dogs had clinical signs of chronic superficial keratitis or pannus, 9 dogs had normal eyes. in the tissue from 7 dogs (4 german shepherd dogs with chronic superficial keratitis; 2 german shepherd dogs and 1 mixed-breed dog with normal eyes) we found unusual cytoplasmic inclusions. inclusions ...19957653888
restricted expression of viral surface proteins in canine distemper encephalitis.sixteen dogs with naturally occurring acute and chronic canine distemper virus (cdv) encephalitis were examined immunohistochemically for the presence of the five major cdv-specific proteins in the central nervous system. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against two, three, four and five epitopes of the nucleo- (n), phospho- (p), fusion (f), and hemagglutinin (h) protein, respectively, and a polyclonal monospecific antibody recognizing the matrix (m) protein were used. both core proteins an ...19937687812
canine distemper virus persistence in the nervous system is associated with noncytolytic selective virus spread.canine distemper virus (cdv), a negative-strand rna morbillivirus, causes a progressive demyelinating disease in which virus persistence plays an essential role. the antiviral immune response leads to virus clearance in the inflammatory lesions. however, cdv can replicate and persist outside these inflammatory lesions within the brain. how cdv is capable of persisting in the presence of an effective antiviral immune response is poorly understood. in the present investigation, we studied several ...19957853504
paramyxoviruses in paget's disease. 19948009235
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