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host feeding patterns of connecticut mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).blood-engorged coquillettidia perturbans, psorophora ferox, culex, culiseta, and aedes mosquitoes were collected principally by sweep net from salt marsh and woodland habitats in connecticut. of the 570 mosquitoes tested, precipitin tests identified the origins of 517 blood meals and revealed distinct host feeding patterns. aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals; a. abserratus, a. cantator, and a. vexans showed selectivity for cattle and (or) horses. a. cantator also obtained blood from avian h ...197717310
trajectory analysis of winds and eastern equine encephalitis in usa, 1980-5.backward trajectories of winds were determined to identify possible sources of eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with isolation of virus from mosquitoes or birds or outbreaks in horses between 1980 and 1985 in maryland, new jersey, new york and michigan, usa. the results of the trajectory analyses suggested that eastern equine encephalitis virus could have been carried by infected mosquitoes on surface winds at temperatures 13 degrees c or higher from north carolina north-eastwards al ...19901969804
oral transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus by a northern indiana strain of coquillettidia perturbans. 19872904935
eastern equine encephalitis virus in ohio during 1991.during august and september of 1991, an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus in horses occurred in wayne and holmes countries, oh. this was the first recorded epizootic of eee virus in the state. twelve horses were confirmed positive for eee virus through virus isolation or seroconversion, and seven additional horses with compatible symptoms were in close spatial and temporal proximity to the confirmed cases and were presumed to have died from eee virus. the outbreak was centered ...19938094461
population size, parity structure, and wing length of coquillettidia perturbans in an ohio focus of eastern equine encephalitis.adult female density, parity status, and wing length were determined weekly for a population of coquillettidia perturbans in an area enzootic for eastern equine encephalitis virus in central ohio. samples were collected in co2-baited cdc miniature light traps from the first week in june through the 2nd week of september 1992. population density indicated a single emergence peak during the 2nd week in july. however, parity rates showed 2 peaks, occurring in the first week of august (70.9% parous) ...19968723260
vector competence of mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) from massachusetts for a sympatric isolate of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.we tested susceptibility to per os infection and potential salivary transmission for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in aedes canadensis (theobald), aedes vexans (meigen), anopheles quadrimaculatus (say), anopheles punctipennis (say), coquillettidia perturbans (walker), and culex salinarius (coquillett). culiseta melanura (coquillett), the documented enzootic vector of eee virus, was our control. based on these estimates of laboratory vector competence and other behavioral and ecolo ...19979151501
sampling methods for potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in massachusetts.to determine which of 11 trapping methods best sampled populations of 6 potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared new jersey (nj) light trap, cdc light trap, cdc with octenol, cdc with co2, cdc with co2 plus octenol, american biophysics light trap with flickering light (ab flicker), ab steady light, ab flicker with octenol, ab flicker with co2, ab flicker with co2 plus octenol, and 3 resting boxes. there was no significant difference between cdc and ...19979474560
sampling with light traps and human bait in epidemic foci for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in southeastern massachusetts.to estimate human exposure to potential vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared collections of putative eee virus vectors from human biting collections with collections from cdc, ab (american biophysics), and new jersey light traps and resting boxes in enzootic/epidemic foci of eee virus in southeastern massachusetts. human biting collections caught significantly more host-seeking females than resting boxes or unbaited light traps (p < 0.05). regression analysis of h ...19979474561
multiple isolations of eastern equine encephalitis and highlands j viruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) during a 1996 epizootic in southeastern connecticut.thirty-six isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus were obtained from 8 species of mosquitoes collected from 5 september through 18 october 1996 during an epizootic in southeastern connecticut. these included culiseta melanura (coquillett) (19 isolates), culex pipiens l. (8), culiseta morsitans (theobald) (3), aedes sollicitans (walker) (2), aedes cantator (coquillett) (1), aedes trivittatus (coquillett) (1), aedes vexans (meigen) (1), and coquillettidia perturbans (walker) (1). isolatio ...19989615549
toward the incrimination of epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in massachusetts: abundance of mosquito populations at epidemic foci.putative epidemic/epizootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) vector populations were compared at 15 recent (1982-90) human and horse case sites in bristol and plymouth counties in southeastern massachusetts. carbon dioxide-baited american biophysics corporation light traps were used for trapping adult mosquitoes to estimate biting risk in these foci of known transmission. population data suggest that coquillettidia perturbans, aedes canadensis, and culex salinarius are more likely ve ...199910612612
application of geographic information technology in determining risk of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission.geographic information system (gis) technology and remote sensing were used to identify landscape features determining risk of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) transmission as defined by the abundance of culiseta melanura (the enzootic vector) and 6 putative epidemic-epizootic vectors in massachusetts. landsat thematic mapper data combined with aerial videography data were used to generate a map of landscape elements at epidemic-epizootic foci in southeastern massachusetts. geographi ...200010757488
effect of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus on the survival of aedes albopictus, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and coquillettidia perturbans (diptera: culicidae).the effect of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus on the survivorship of aedes albopictus (skuse), anopheles quadrimaculatus say, and coquillettidia perturbans (walker) was determined experimentally. female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on eee viremic chicks, and survival rates were compared for infected and uninfected mosquitoes. additionally, the survival of female cq. perturbans and an. quadrimaculatus intrathoracically (i.t.) inoculated with eee was compared with controls receivin ...200011004781
arbovirus surveillance in south carolina, 1996-98.arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in south carolina (usa) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee), st. louis encephalitis virus (sle), flanders virus, tensaw virus (ten), and a variant of jamestown canyon virus (jc). mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 south carolina counties beginning in june 1996, and ending in october 1998, and tested for arboviruses. of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mo ...200111345423
habitat preference of host-seeking coquillettidia perturbans (walker) in relation to birds and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in new jersey.coquillettidia perturbans (walker) has been implicated as a bridge vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in north america. eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus epizootics occur regularly in wild birds in new jersey with little or no involvement of susceptible dead end hosts even though high populations of cq. perturbans are present. several factors may limit eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus transfer from birds to mosquito bridge vectors like cq. perturbans (walker), incl ...200111469178
mosquitoes captured in a horse-baited stable trap in southeast louisiana.a mosquito study based on collections from horse-baited stable traps was conducted in 1993 and 1994 at 3 sites in geographically and ecologically distinct areas of st. tammany parish (southeastern louisiana) to determine the major horse-feeding mosquito species that could be possible bridging and epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. a total of 4,535 mosquitoes in 1993 and 23,906 in 1994 involving 26 species were collected, of which, depending on the site, culex salinarius, ...200312825665
transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central alabama.a site near tuskegee, alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in 2001. more than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, culiseta melanura, aedes vexans, coquillettidia perturbans, culex erraticus, and uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for eee virus. each species was infected at vario ...200312875303
mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997-2002 in a wetland in northeastern mississippi.the species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near iuka, ms, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a pcr-based method that allows identification of the host to species. culex erraticus (dyar & knab) composed 51.9% of the population during the 6-yr period with 295 f ...200415185956
eastern equine encephalitis--new hampshire and massachusetts, august-september 2005.during august-september 2005, the new hampshire department of health and human services reported seven cases of human eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) disease, the first laboratory-confirmed, locally acquired cases of human eeev disease reported from new hampshire in 41 years of national surveillance. also during august--september 2005, the massachusetts department of public health reported four cases of human eeev disease, five times the annual average of 0.8 cases reported from massach ...200616810146
comparative analysis of distribution and abundance of west nile and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus vectors in suffolk county, new york, using human population density and land use/cover data.five years of cdc light trap data from suffolk county, ny, were analyzed to compare the applicability of human population density (hpd) and land use/cover (luc) classification systems to describe mosquito abundance and to determine whether certain mosquito species of medical importance tend to be more common in urban (defined by hpd) or residential (defined by luc) areas. eleven study sites were categorized as urban or rural using u.s. census bureau data and by luc types using geographic informa ...200818533453
host associations of mosquitoes at eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in connecticut, usa.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus, with active transmission foci in freshwater hardwood swamps in eastern north america, where enzootic transmission is maintained between the ornithophilic mosquito, culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds. the role of other locally abundant mosquito species in virus transmission and their associations with vertebrate hosts as sources of blood meals within these foci are largely unknown but are of importa ...201627577939
insights into the recent emergence and expansion of eastern equine encephalitis virus in a new focus in the northern new england usa.eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds in freshwater hardwood swamps in the northeastern u.s. epidemic/epizootic transmission to humans/equines typically occurs towards the end of the transmission season and is generally assumed to be mediated by locally abundant and contiguous mammalophagic "bridge vector" mosquitoes.201526453283
detection of eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies in moose (alces americana), maine, 2010.moose sera were collected from harvested animals during the 2010 hunting season in maine. of the 145 serum samples screened by plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt), 16 (11%) had antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev). positive samples were collected from aroostook county (n=13), somerset county (n=2), and piscataquis county (n=1) in northern and central maine. preliminary mosquito surveillance revealed the presence of enzootic and bridge vectors mosquitoes, including culis ...201424359417
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