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clinical trials of rotavirus vaccines.the clinical efficacy of candidate rotavirus vaccines has been tested in tampere, finland, over four winter and spring rotavirus epidemic seasons in 1983-1986. testing against natural challenge has demonstrated that heterologous oral rotavirus vaccines induce cross-protection to human rotavirus diarrhoea. the trials have also given insight into mechanisms of protection in human rotavirus diarrhoea. after the oral vaccination of infants aged six to 12 months the highly attenuated bovine rotavirus ...19873036442
antigenic comparisons of two new rotaviruses from rhesus monkeys.two rotavirus strains isolated in cell culture from infant rhesus monkeys with diarrhea were closely related to sa 11 virus and to each other by plaque reduction neutralization tests. however, results of immune electron microscopy suggested possible antigenic differences between the two rhesus rotavirus strains.19806244332
infection of cultured human intestinal cells by monkey rrv and human wa rotavirus as a function of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.rotaviruses display in vivo a specific tropism for enterocytes of the small intestine. we examined here the infection of cultured human intestinal epithelial caco-2 cells by rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) and human wa rotavirus. the maximal infection of these cells was obtained when trypsin was present both in the viral inoculum before adsorption to the cells and in the culture medium during the course of cell infection. since the differentiation process of caco-2 cells in culture closely mimics ...19958578006
jennerian and modified jennerian approach to vaccination against rotavirus diarrhea using a quadrivalent rhesus rotavirus (rrv) and human-rrv reassortant vaccine.rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea of infants and young children world-wide. deaths from rotavirus diarrhea occur infrequently in developed countries; however, in developing countries, rotaviruses are estimated to cause over 870000 deaths in the under five-year age group. there is, therefore, a vital need for a vaccine to prevent severe rotavirus diarrhea in infants and young children. the most extensively evaluated strategy for rotavirus vaccination has been the ...19969015113
generation and characterization of six single vp4 gene substitution reassortant rotavirus vaccine candidates: each bears a single human rotavirus vp4 gene encoding p serotype 1a[8] or 1b[4] and the remaining 10 genes of rhesus monkey rotavirus mmu18006 or bovine rotavirus uk.the global disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in infants and young children has stimulated interest in the biological and clinical characteristics of these agents, leading to intensive efforts to develop a vaccine. a rhesus rotavirus (rrv)-based quadrivalent vaccine ("rotashield") was licensed and administered to about 1 million infants and found to be highly effective. however, it was withdrawn because of a link with intussusception. this vaccine was developed according to a modified "jenneri ...200212297404
construction and characterization of rhesus monkey rotavirus (mmu18006)- or bovine rotavirus (uk)-based serotype g5, g8, g9 or g10 single vp7 gene substitution reassortant candidate vaccines.group a rotaviruses are the single most important etiologic agents of severe diarrhea of infants and young children worldwide and have been estimated to be responsible for approximately 650,000-800,000 deaths annually in children <5-year-old in the developing countries. thus, the development of a safe and effective rotavirus vaccine has been a global public health goal. epidemiologic surveillance of rotavirus vp7 (g) serotypes-genotypes conducted in various populations throughout the world has r ...200312798644
a cyclic amp protein kinase a-dependent mechanism by which rotavirus impairs the expression and enzyme activity of brush border-associated sucrase-isomaltase in differentiated intestinal caco-2 cells.we undertook a study of the mechanism by which rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) impairs the expression and enzyme activity of brush border-associated sucrase isomaltase (si) in cultured, human, fully differentiated, intestinal caco-2 cells. we provide evidence that the rrv-induced defects in the expression and enzyme activity of si are not related to the previously observed, rrv-induced, ca2+ -dependent, disassembly of the f-actin cytoskeleton. this conclusion is based on the facts that: (i) the in ...200415236639
an nsp4-dependant mechanism by which rotavirus impairs lactase enzymatic activity in brush border of human enterocyte-like caco-2 cells.lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (lph, ec 3.2.1.23-62) is a brush border membrane (bbm)-associated enzyme in intestinal cells that hydrolyse lactose, the most important sugar in milk. impairing in lactase activity during rotavirus infection has been described in diseased infants but the mechanism by which the functional lesion occurs remains unknown. we undertook a study to elucidate whether rotavirus impairs the lactase enzymatic activity in bbm of human enterocyte cells. in this study we use cultur ...200717506819
rotavirus vaccine: current status and future prospects.rotavirus is the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. efforts to develop a vaccine have concentrated on live oral vaccines, especially with attenuated animal viruses. because studies with rhesus monkey rotavirus and bovine rotavirus rit 4237 or wc3 were inconsistent, reassortant rhesus and bovine vaccines have been developed that include the gene encoding the neutralising protein, vp7, of several human strains. these efforts culminated in the licensur ...200018034573
rotavirus acceleration of murine type 1 diabetes is associated with a t helper 1-dependent specific serum antibody response and virus effects in regional lymph nodes.rotavirus infection in at-risk children correlates with production of serum autoantibodies indicative of type 1 diabetes progression. oral infection with rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) accelerates diabetes onset in mice. this relates to their rotavirus-specific serum antibody titre and local pro-inflammatory cytokine induction without pancreatic infection. our aim was to further investigate the roles of serum antibodies and viral extra-intestinal spread in diabetes acceleration by rotavirus.201323238791
rotavirus activates lymphocytes from non-obese diabetic mice by triggering toll-like receptor 7 signaling and interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.it has been proposed that rotavirus infection promotes the progression of genetically-predisposed children to type 1 diabetes, a chronic autoimmune disease marked by infiltration of activated lymphocytes into pancreatic islets. non-obese diabetic (nod) mice provide a model for the human disease. infection of adult nod mice with rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) accelerates diabetes onset, without evidence of pancreatic infection. rather, rrv spreads to the pancreatic and mesenteric lymph nodes where ...201424676425
rotavirus acceleration of murine type 1 diabetes is associated with increased mhc class i-restricted antigen presentation by b cells and elevated proinflammatory cytokine expression by t cells.rotavirus infection has been proposed to enhance progression towards type 1 diabetes in at-risk children. rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) accelerates diabetes onset in non-obese diabetic (nod) and t cell receptor transgenic nod8.3 mice. infected nod mice show virus spread to pancreatic lymph nodes (pln) and mesenteric lymph nodes (mln), induction of a serum t helper 1-biased specific antibody response and proinflammatory cytokine mrna expression in pln and islets. here, we analysed the effects of ...201424246305
rotavirus impairs the biosynthesis of brush-border-associated dipeptidyl peptidase iv in human enterocyte-like caco-2/tc7 cells.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. this virus infects mature enterocytes in the small intestine, and induces structural and functional damage. in the present study, we have identified a new mechanism by which rotavirus impairs a brush border-associated intestinal protein. we show that infection of enterocyte-like caco-2/tc7 cells by rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) impairs the biosynthesis of dipeptidyl peptidase iv (dpp iv), an i ...200717081193
field trial of rhesus rotavirus or human-rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine of vp7 serotype 3 or 1 specificity in infants. the elmwood, panorama, and westfall pediatric groups.orally administered live rhesus monkey rotavirus vaccine (rrv, vp7 serotype 3) and human-rhesus reassortant rotavirus vaccine (dxrrv, vp7 serotype 1) were evaluated in a placebo-controlled field trial of 223 infants 2-4 months old. both vaccines were mildly reactogenic but were generally well tolerated in the 10 days after vaccination. rrv and dxrrv were immunogenic, inducing serum antibody responses in 78% and 71% of the vaccines, respectively. efficacy of rrv vaccine was 66% (p = .01) and of d ...19921321858
vp7 of rhesus monkey rotavirus rrv contributes to diabetes acceleration in association with an elevated anti-rotavirus antibody response.t cell-receptor transgenic nod8.3 mice provide a model for spontaneous type 1 diabetes development. infection of 5 week-old nod8.3 mice with rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) accelerates the onset of their diabetes. this acceleration requires virus replication and relates to the presence and level of serum anti-rotavirus antibodies, but the role of individual rrv genes is unknown. here we assessed the importance for diabetes acceleration of the rrv genes encoding vp4 and vp7, by infecting nod8.3 mic ...201425262468
a protein kinase a-dependent mechanism by which rotavirus affects the distribution and mrna level of the functional tight junction-associated protein, occludin, in human differentiated intestinal caco-2 cells.we found that at the tight junctions (tjs) of caco-2 cell monolayers, rhesus monkey rotavirus (rrv) infection induced the disappearance of occludin. confocal laser scanning microscopy showed the disappearance of occludin from the cell-cell boundaries without modifying the expression of the other tj-associated proteins, zo-1 and zo-3. western immunoblot analysis of rrv-infected cells showed a significant fall in the levels of the nonphosphorylated form of occludin in both triton x-100-insoluble a ...200717553883
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