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late sigma factor of bacteriophage t4. formation and properties of rna polymerase-promoter complexes.bacteriophage t4 late gene promoters do not display sequence homology in the -35 region (christensen, a. c., and young, e. t. (1982) nature 299, 369-371), suggesting an unusual geometry of rna polymerase-promoter interaction. we have analyzed in vitro utilization of a late t4 promoter by rna polymerase reconstituted from e. coli core enzyme (e) and bacteriophage t4 late sigma factor (sigma gp55). the e sigma gp55 holoenzyme forms a stable promoter complex which lacks protein-dna contacts upstrea ...19883335538
cloning and purification of a unique lysozyme produced by bacillus phage phi 29.a dna fragment of the bacteriophage phi 29 chromosome, encoding the entire sequence of phi 29 gene 15, has been cloned into the escherichia coli expression vector pplc245 under the control of the phage lambda major leftward promoter, pl. upon heat induction, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 26 kda was overproduced. the molecular mass of this protein corresponds to the 28 kda predicted for the product of gene 15 from its nucleotide sequence. the overproduced protein has been purified ...19873469652
thymine glycol lesions terminate chain elongation by dna polymerase i in vitro.single-strand circular dna from bacteriophage m13mp9 was chemically modified with osmium tetroxide to introduce specifically cis-thymine glycol lesions, a major type of dna damage produced by ionizing radiation. an oligonucleotide primer was extended on damaged and undamaged templates using either the large fragment of e. coli pol i or t4 dna polymerase. the reaction products were analysed by electrophoresis alongside a dna sequence ladder. synthesis on the damaged templates terminated at positi ...19863511447
the relative cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in escherichia coli cells.in order to calculate the relative cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of (5-6) cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts, we have measured survival and mutation induction in uv-irradiated excision-deficient e. coli uvra cells, with or without complete photoreactivation of the (5-6) dimers. radioimmunoassays with specificity for (5-6) dimers or (6-4) photoproducts have shown that maximum photoreactivation eliminates all of the (5-6) dimers produced up to 10 jm-2 254-nm light, while it has ...19863517633
persistence of dna synthesis arrest sites in the presence of t4 dna polymerase and t4 gene 32, 44, 45 and 62 dna polymerase accessory proteins.dna synthesis by phage t4 dna polymerase is arrested at specific sequences in single-stranded dna templates. to determine whether or not t4 dna polymerase accessory proteins 32, 44, 45 and 62 eliminated recognition of these arrest sites, unique primer-templates were constructed in which dna synthesis began at a dna primer located at different distances from palindromic and nonpalindromic arrest sites. nucleotide positions that caused polymerase to pause or leave the template were identified by s ...19863517810
the dna scanning mechanism of t4 endonuclease v. effect of nacl concentration on processive nicking activity.t4 endonuclease v is a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which generates incisions in dna at the sites of pyrimidine dimers by a processive reaction mechanism. a model is presented in which the degree of processivity is directly related to the efficacy of the one-dimensional diffusion of endonuclease v on dna by which the enzyme locates pyrimidine dimers. the modulation of the processive nicking activity of t4 endonuclease v on superhelical covalently closed circular dna (form i) which cont ...19863525529
effects of exposure of dna to methyl mercury on its activity as a template-primer for dna polymerases.a previous publication [frenkel, cain, and chao, biochem. biophys. res. commun. 127, 849-856 (1985)] described the observation that double-stranded dna which was briefly exposed to methyl mercury (mehg) and purified to remove free methyl mercury was transcribed at a higher rate by rna polymerase ii from wheat germ. the specificity of this phenomenon has now been investigated by examining the activity of this mehg-exposed dna as a template-primer for dna polymerases. dna synthesis by the bacterio ...19863525750
expression of the bacteriophage t4 denv structural gene in escherichia coli.the expression of the t4 denv gene, which previously had been cloned in plasmid constructs downstream of the bacteriophage lambda hybrid promoter-operator olpr, was analyzed under a variety of growth parameters. expression of the denv gene product, endonuclease v, was confirmed in dna repair-deficient escherichia coli (uvra reca) by western blot analyses and by enhancements of resistance to uv irradiation.19863536845
prohead core of bacteriophage t4 can act as an intermediate in the t4 head assembly pathway.bacteriophage t4 assembly was impaired in escherichia coli hdb3-1 at an incubation temperature below 30 degrees c. naked prohead cores (head scaffold) bound to the inner surface of the plasma membrane accumulated, and the major shell protein (gp23) precipitated into visible intracellular aggregates in the cytoplasm. shifting the temperature to 42 degrees c allowed newly synthesized gp23 to assemble around the accumulated cores. we conclude that synchronous assembly of the scaffold and shell is n ...19873537341
expression of the denv gene of coliphage t4 in uv-sensitive rad mutants of saccharomyces cerevisiae.a plasmid containing the denv gene from bacteriophage t4, under the control of the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase i (adc1) promoter, conferred a substantial increase in uv resistance in the uv-sensitive saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants rad1-2 and rad3-2. the uv resistance of the denv+ yeast cells was cell cycle dependent and correlated well with the level of the denv gene product as measured by immunoblotting and by a photoreversal assay for pyrimidine dimer-dna glycosylase activity.19863540595
purification of the t4 endonuclease v.a new purification protocol has been developed for the rapid isolation to physical homogeneity of t4 endonuclease v. the enzyme was purified from an escherichia coli strain which harbors a plasmid containing the t4 denv structural gene downstream of the lambda rightward promoter. the purification of the enzyme was monitored by pyrimidine dimer-specific nicking activity, western blot analysis and silver or coomassie blue staining of sds-polyacrylamide gels. milligram quantities of the enzyme have ...19873547104
a new epistasis group for the repair of dna damage in bacteriophage t4: replication repair.the gene 32 mutation ama453 sensitizes bacteriophage t4 to the lethal effects of ultraviolet (uv) irradiation, methyl methanesulfonate and angelicin-mediated photodynamic irradiation when treated particles are plated on amber-suppressing host cells. the increased uv sensitivity caused by ama453 is additive to that caused by mutations in both the t4 excision repair (denv) and recombination repair (uvswxy) systems, suggesting the operation of a third kind of repair system. the mutation uvs79, with ...19873552872
isolation of altered reca polypeptides and interaction with atp and dna.in this paper we describe the partial proteolytic digestion of reca proteins from escherichia coli and proteus mirabilis and the production and isolation of truncated reca polypeptides. a proteolytic fragment of the p. mirabilis reca protein bound single-strand dna and atp normally but has altered duplex dna binding properties. this protein was shown to initiate but not complete dna strand transfer from a dna duplex to a complementary single strand. the product of the e. coli reca1 allele bound ...19853881430
nuclear magnetic resonance observation and dynamics of specific amide protons in t4 lysozyme.we have produced t4 lysozyme using a bacterial expression system which allows efficient incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids in lysozyme. by using conditions that repress the expression of various transaminases, we have incorporated 15n-labeled amino acid into the five phenylalanine residues of the protein. the relatively large spin--spin coupling (87 +/- 3 hz) between the 15n nucleus and the phenylalanine amide protons may then be exploited in a variety of ways to selectively obser ...19853888265
a defective phage system reveals bacteriophage t4 replication origins that coincide with recombination hot spots.plasmid transduction mediated by bacteriophage t4 has been used to study putative t4 dna replication origins cloned as inserts in the escherichia coli plasmid pbr322. two particular inserts from the t4 genome allow high-frequency plasmid transduction, suggesting that each insert might contain a t4 replication origin. t4 infection of these plasmid-containing cells produces large numbers of defective phage particles that contain long linear concatamers of the plasmid dna. during a second cycle of ...19853889905
plasmid-dependent inhibition of growth of bacteriophage t4 ndd mutants.mutants of bacteriophage t4 that fail to induce nuclear disruption (ndd mutants) are unable to grow in the wild-type escherichia coli strain ct447. this inhibition of the growth of ndd mutants occurs only in the presence of a large (ca. 80-megadalton) plasmid resident in ct447 cells.19853897193
nucleotide sequences of two serine trnas with a gga anticodon: the structure-function relationships in the serine family of e. coli trnas.we have determined the nucleotide sequence of the major species of e. coli trnaser and of a minor species having the same gga anticodon. these two trnas should recognize the ucc and ucu codons, the most widely used codons for serine in the highly expressed genes of e. coli. the two sequences differ in only one position of the d-loop. neither trna has a modified adenosine in the position 3'-adjacent to the anticodon. this can be rationalized on the basis of a structural constraint in the anticodo ...19853898020
oligodeoxynucleotides covalently linked to intercalating agents: a new class of gene regulatory substances.oligodeoxynucleotides have been covalently linked to a 9-aminoacridine derivative via their 3'-phosphate group. specific complexes are formed with the complementary sequence of the oligonucleotide. the stability is strongly increased due to intercalation of the acridine derivative. absorption, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism have been used to characterize complex formation. the stability of the complexes depends on the length of the linker between the acridine der ...19853910111
purification of bacteriophage t7 dna-membrane complex and its application to the in vitro recombination reaction.in order to construct an in vitro recombination system of t7 dna, the reaction products of which resemble those in vivo in structure, t7 dna-membrane complex which is free from concomitant dnase activity was purified from t7 phage-infected cells. t7-infected cells were lysed with t4 lysozyme/brij58, and t7 dna-membrane complex was purified through three successive density gradient centrifugations. the properties of the complex on exposure to defined nucleases and observation of the complex by el ...19853912387
[hybrid plasmid with bacterial and fungal markers carrying the denv gene of t4 phage and restoring the uv-resistance of e. coli uvra].the hybrid plasmid pybp2 with bacterial (ampr), yeast (leu2) and bacteriophage t4 (denv) genes has been constructed. the plasmid transformed escherichia coli csr603 uvra reca amps leua phr- to ampicillin resistance, leucine independence, uv-resistance similar to the one of uvra+ reca strain. cell-free extracts of transformed escherichia coli cells contain low level of ultraviolet-endonuclease activity in contrast to nontransformed cells containing no enzyme.19853916217
nucleotide sequence of the thymidylate synthetase gene (thyp3) from the bacillus subtilis phage phi 3t.the thyp3 gene, encoding thymidylate synthetase, from the bacillus subtilis phage phi 3t has been cloned and the nucleotide sequence determined. the derived amino acid sequence indicates a subunit mr of 32 748. the primary amino acid sequence is compared with the sequences of the analogous proteins specified by escherichia coli (thya), lactobacillus casei, (thya) and phage t4 (td). extensive conservation exists in all four sequences implying a shared tertiary structure.19853924741
influence of template primary and secondary structure on the rate and fidelity of dna synthesis.high resolution gel electrophoresis was used to monitor the successive addition of dnmp residues onto the 3'-oh ends of discrete 5'-32p-primers, during dna synthesis on natural templates. resulting autoradiographic banding patterns revealed considerable variation in the relative rates of incorporation at different positions along the template. the pattern of "pause sites" along the template was unique for each of three different dna polymerases (polymerase i (the "large fragment" form of escheri ...19853972819
new control elements of bacteriophage t4 pre-replicative transcription.bacteriophage t4 pre-replicative genes are transcribed, by escherichia coli rna polymerase, in two alternative modes: an early mode and a middle mode. middle mode transcription is under the control of at least one viral protein, pmota. we have identified two additional viral genes, motb and motc, that map in the dispensable region of the t4 genome, between genes 39 and 56. pmotb and pmotc are diffusible factors which provide an alternative to the mota dependent mode of middle transcription of ma ...19853999145
escherichia coli mutants permissive for t4 bacteriophage with deletion in e gene (phage lysozyme).escherichia coli mutants have been isolated that are permissive for the infection by t4 phage with deletion in the cistron for the phage lysozyme, the e gene. some, but not all, of these mutants are simultaneously permissive for the infection by t4 phage defective in the t gene, the product of which has also been implicated in the release of progeny phages. most of these mutants shared the following properties: temperature sensitivity in growth and cell division, increased sensitivity towards a ...19734196251
bacteriophage-coded thymidylate synthetase. evidence that the t4 enzyme is a capsid protein. 19734205742
bacterial mutation affecting t4 phage dna synthesis and tail production. 19744215034
visualization of replicating mammalian and t4 bacteriophage dna. 19684239597
control of the synthesis of t4 phage deoxynucleotide kinase messenger ribonucleic acid in vivo. 19724264135
inhibition of t4 growth by an rna polymerase mutation of escherichia coli: physiological and genetic analysis of the effects during phage development. 19744278501
isolation and characterization of enzymes with nicking action from phage t4-infected escherichia coli. 19694309718
amber mutants of bacteriophage t4 defective in deoxycytidine diphosphatase and deoxycytidine triphosphatase. on the role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. 19674319673
biochemical changes during mixed infections with bacteriophages t2 and t4. 19724342040
deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage t4: observations on the roles of the x and v genes and of host factors.studies were carried out to determine the effect of mutation in the host pol i gene on survival of ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated bacteriophage t4. whereas a slightly reduced survival was observed in escherichia coli strain p-3478 (pol a(1)) compared to strain w-3110 (pol a(+)), no such difference was observed in two strains isogenic except for the pol a gene. it was also shown that, whereas bacteriophage t4x is sensitive to uv irradiation, x irradiation, and treatment with methyl-methanesulfonate ...19724343548
initiation characteristics for the synthesis of five t4 phage-specific messenger rnas in vitro.the involvement of the nucleoside triphosphates in the initiation of the synthesis of the messenger ribonucleic acid of five t4 specific enzymes has been studied. only one of these, the messenger rna for deoxynucleosidemonophosphate kinase, can be initiated in the presence of one nucleoside triphosphate, namely atp. all of the remaining four require the presence of at least two nucleoside triphosphates during the initiation period. the combination of atp and utp was best for the initiation of me ...19744360943
the induction of deoxythymidine kinase by bacteriophage t4. 19744367304
transcriptional regulation of t4 bacteriophage-specific enzymes synthesized in vitro.in contrast to dihydrofolate reductase and four other phage-specific enzymes, the initiation of deoxynucleotide kinase is essentially prevented if rifampin is added to a culture of escherichia coli b cells within 1.5 min after infection with t4. deoxynucleotide kinase thus belongs to a group of so-called delayed-early enzymes that is not initiated from an immediate-early promoter site. we prepared crude extracts from infected cells in a manner designed to maintain the integrity of the complexes ...19744367905
suppression of dna-arrested synthesis in mutants defective in gene 59 of bacteriophage t4. 19724550789
bacteriophage lysozyme synthesis in escherichia coli k-12(lambda) infected with rii mutant of bacteriophage t4.when escherichia coli k-12(lambda) was infected with a t4rii bacteriophage, synthesis of lysozyme appeared at the normal time but stopped 15 min after infection. the lysozyme produced was 1% of the normal level.19724552555
control by bacteriophage t4 of the reduction of adenosine nucleotide to deoxyadenosine nucleotide. 19724554915
hydrolysis of template and newly synthesized deoxyribonucleic acid by the 3' to 5' exonuclease activity of the t4 deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase. 19724555423
a new gene of bacteriophage t4 determining immunity against superinfecting ghosts and phage in t4-infected escherichia coli. 19724555610
on the direction of reading of bacteriophage t4 gene 43 (deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase).amber (am) mutants of the two closely linked sites, b22 and c125, in bacteriophage t4 gene 43 [deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) polymerase] synthesize in the nonpermissive (su(-)) escherichia coli host gene 43 products which are devoid of dna polymerase activity, but which retain a 3'-exonuclease activity. diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatographic analysis of dna polymerase and deoxyribonuclease activities from extracts of su(-) cells infected with single- and double-am mutants of t4 gene 43 showed ...19724556512
effect of ionic strength, ph, amines and divalent cations on the lytic activity of t4 lysozyme. 19724559097
bacteriophage t4 transformation: an assay for mutations induced in vitro. 19724559688
in vitro complementation as an assay for new proteins required for bacteriophage t4 dna replication: purification of the complex specified by t4 genes 44 and 62.we have developed an in vitro complementation assay for six t4 bacteriophage gene products believed to be components of the t4 dna replication apparatus. this assay is based upon the fact that dna synthesis in an infected cell lysate that lacks a given gene product is specifically stimulated by addition of the missing product. by the use of such an assay, two proteins that appear to be the products of t4 genes 44 and 62 have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity as a single complex of the ...19724560698
initial step of excision repair in escherichia coli: replacement of defective function of uvr mutants by t4 endonuclease v. 19724561346
transcription of bacteriophage t4 dna by escherichia coli rna polymerase in vitro: identification of some immediate-early and delayed-early genes. 19724562318
effect of bacteriophage ghost infection on protein synthesis in escherichia coli.the rate of protein synthesis by escherichia coli markedly decreased within 1 min after phage t4 infection, whereas a complete cessation of protein synthesis was observed within at least 25 sec after t4 ghost infection. the cellular level of amino acids and aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (trna) did not change drastically upon infection with ghosts, indicating that the inhibition of protein synthesis took place at a step(s) beyond aminoacyl-trna formation. the host messenger rna remained int ...19724563594
on the direction of translation of the t4 deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase gene in vivo. 19724564567
ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase induced by bacteriophage t4. ii. allosteric regulation of substrate sepecificity and catalytic activity. 19724565081
intracellular events in canavanine-treated, t4-infected escherichia coli. 19724565615
on the role of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase in determining mutation rates. characterization of the defect in the t4 deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase caused by the ts l88 mutation. 19734568816
t4 phage and t4 ghosts inhibit f2 phage replication by different mechanisms. 19734570288
effect of inhibition of macromolecule synthesis on the association of bacteriophage t4 dna with membrane.the "mg(2+)-sarkosyl crystals" (m band) technique distinguishes between membrane-bound and free intracellular dna. this procedure was employed to investigate the nature of the reactions necessary to convert input t4 dna to a rapidly sedimenting form. energy poisoning inhibits this attachment reaction. neither protein nor dna synthesis appears to be required, but experiments with rifampin and extensively irradiated t4 suggest that rna synthesis is involved. these results were confirmed by a secon ...19734573364
differential effects of sigma factor, ionic strength, and ribonucleoside triphosphate concentration on the transcription of phage t4 dna with ribonucleic acid polymerase of escherichia coli. 19734575182
nondiscrimination of rna viral message in binding to 30s ribosomes derived from t4 phage infected escherichia coli. 19734575786
multiple and specific initiation of t4 dna replication.partially replicated t4 dna molecules (prm) whose parental or progeny dna was labeled with bromodeoxyuridine budr was analyzed by gradual shearing followed by cscl banding of the sheared product. analysis of prm containing 18-mum replicated dna showed that each replicated region was 3- to 6-mum long, indicating three to 6 replicative sites per molecule. analysis of prm containing 9-mum replicated dna similarly indicated two to three replicated regions per molecule. dna from the replicated region ...19734579821
control of t4 endonuclease iv by the d2a region of bacteriophage t4. 19734579886
purification of thioredoxin from escherichia coli and bacteriophage t4 by immunoadsorbent affinity chromatography. 19734582821
control of bacteriophage t4 dna polymerase synthesis. 19734583371
replication of t4 dna in escherichia coli treated with toluene.deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates are incorporated into t4 dna in infected cells treated with toluene. under the proper conditions the incorporation is controlled by the known t4 dna polymerase and proceeds by a semiconservative mechanism. both strands of the phage dna are replicated into a high molecular weight progeny molecule. the replication system is accessible to extracellular pancreatic dnase added to the reaction mixture. at early times after infection a second replication system, not un ...19734586770
an electron microscopic analysis of pathways for bacteriophage t4 dna recombination. 19734588574
t4-induced activity required for specific cleavage of a bacteriophage protein in vitro.we have examined the acid-soluble products formed during incubation of labeled substrate protein from t4-infected cells with unlabeled phage-infected cell extracts. if the substrate protein is prepared from cells infected with a t4 mutant blocked in cleavage of phage head precursor proteins, the products formed in vitro include a peptide indistinguishable by several criteria from one of the t4 internal peptides. denatured as well as undenatured protein can serve as the substrate for the formatio ...19744589856
pyrimidine-ribonucleotide pools and their turnover in phage t4-infected escherichia coli cells. 19734590122
transcription units in bacteriophage t4.we have investigated the possibility of assigning genes of t4 bacteriophage to their units of transcription (scriptons) by studying gene expression from uv-irradiated dna templates. since rna chains are prematurely terminated on uv-irradiated dna templates and since the promotor distal part of the rna chain is deleted, the expression of any gene is inversely proportional to the distance between the promotor and the promotor distal end of the gene. we find that the early genes, 43, 45 and riib, a ...19734591053
excision of thymine dimers in vitro by extracts of bacteriophage-infected escherichia coli.extracts of dna polymerase i defective escherichia coli infected with phage t4 contain an exonuclease activity that removes thymine dimers from uv-irradiated dna previously nicked with t4 uv endonuclease. this activity is not expressed if cells are infected in the presence of chloramphenicol. the enzyme has a requirement for divalent cation and is not affected by caffeine, but excision is inhibited in the presence of proflavine. the enzyme is present in all phage t4 mutants thus far examined, in ...19744596298
effects of mutator, antimutator and wild-type dna polymerase of t4 bacteriophage on mutation rates in rii cistrons of its own genome and in complemented amber mutants of gene 43. 19744597551
r-factor-mediated nuclease activity involved in thymineless elimination.r-factor 1818 (r-1818) had no effect on the efficiency of plating of ligase-deficient phage t4 mutants on strains of escherichia coli containing excess, normal, or defective ligase. however, if the r(+) bacterial strain that overproduced ligase was first starved of thymine, its ability to propagate ligase-deficient phage was reduced by as much as fivefold compared with the burst size on the thymine-starved r(-) strain. in contrast, it was found that after ultraviolet irradiation of the host the ...19744598004
recoverable potassium fluxes variations following adsorption of t4 phage and their ghosts on escherichia coli b. 19744598767
nonreplicated dna and dna fragments in t4 r- bacteriophage particles: phenotypic mixing of a phage protein."conservative phage" containing a genome derived from an infecting phage particle which has not undergone replication in the cell but nevertheless has become encapsulated and released in a normal phage particle, are found after infection of escherichia coli with rii(-) or ri(-) mutants under conditions which result in rapid lysis. if such conservative phage are derived from a mixed infection with v(+) and v(1) phage, they display phenotypic mixing of the v gene product (an endonuclease carried i ...19744598783
coiled rings of dna released from cells infected with bacteriophages t7 or t4 or from uninfected escherichia coli.the replicating intracellular dna of phage t7 was labeled at high specific activity with tritiated thymidine. the dna of uninfected escherichia coli was similarly labeled. portions of cells which contained replicating phage t7 or e. coli dna were lysed by a lysozyme, freeze-thaw, sodium lauryl sulfate procedure, and the dna was spread on millipore membranes for visualization by autoradiography. the dna of phage t7 appeared to be highly concatenated reaching lengths of up to 721 mum. much of the ...19744598784
post-transcriptional regulation of t4 enzyme synthesis. 19744601316
in vitro repair of apurinic sites in dna.apurinic sites disappear from dna during an incubation of the dna with the escherichia coli endonuclease specific for apurinic sites, dna polymerase i (ec 2.7.7.7.), and t4 ligase (ec 6.5.1.1). omission of any one of these three enzymes and, in particular, omission of the endonuclease specific for apurinic sites prevents this in vitro repair.19744601584
phage phi80psu3+-directed tyrosine trna synthesis in escherichia coli: effects of t4 phage superinfection on tyrosine suppressor-gene transcription. 19744604897
detection of anti-estradiol antibodies and of 17beta-estradiol by means of a 17beta-estradiol-bacteriophage t4 conjugate. dependence of the haptenated phage reaction on several physical parameters. 19744606422
studies of the possibility that rna polymerase participates in mutagenesis in bacteriophage t4. 19744607112
maturation of the head of bacteriophage t4. iii. dna packaging into preformed heads. 19744610158
evidence for a complex regulating the in vivo activities of early enzymes induced by bacteriophage t4. 19744612038
the transformation of tau particles into t4 heads. ii. transformations of the surface lattice and related observations on form determination. 19744612249
the effects of freeze-drying on bacteriophage t4. 19744615882
low-molecular-weight t4 phage-specific rna. 19674860429
studies on the mechanism of bacteriophage t4 interference with host metabolism. 19674860987
interference of bacteriophage t4 in the reproduction of rna-phage m12. 19674861612
the mechanism of lysis in phage t4-infected cells. 19674863172
effect of acridine orange on survival and capacity of escherichia coli b for t3 and t4 phage during anoxia. 19674863401
methylation of rna in bacteriophage t4 infected escherichia coli. 19674864798
transformation in phage t4: minmal recognition length between donor and recipient dna. 19674865571
purification of bacteriophage t4 lysozyme. 19684865643
on the requirement for formyl residues in the synthesis of bacteriophage t4 proteins. 19674866444
exhaustive hybridization and its application to an analysis of the ribonucleic acid synthesized in t4-infected cells. 19684868543
specificity of polyribosomes in the synthesis of t4 bacteriophage head protein. 19684870334
studies on the morphopoiesis of the head of phage t-even. v. the components of the t4 capsid and of other, capsid-related structures. 19684870477
lysis of t4-infected bacteria in the absence of lysozyme. 19684871001
genetic transformation of the bacteriophage t4. ii. biological activity of dna fragments. 19684873555
genetic transformation of the bacteriophage t4. i. an outline and some properties of the phage transformation system. 19684873560
control of phage and host ribonucleic acid synthesis in phage t4 infected escherichia coli. 19684879187
a structural gene for bacteriophage t4-induced deoxycytidine triphosphate-deoxyuridine triphosphage nucleotidohydrolase. 19684881036
inhibition of host protein synthesis during infection of escherichia coli by bacteriophage t4. i. continued synthesis of host ribonucleic acid.the ribonucleic acid (rna) synthesized at specified intervals during infection of escherichia coli k-12 by bacteriophage t4 was hybridized to denatured e. coli or t4 deoxyribonucleic acids (dna). the reactions were performed under conditions that maximized the yield and at rna/dna inputs such that excess dna sites were available for all rna species. most of the rna synthesized at any time during the first 3 min of infection was host-specific. the fraction declined rapidly as infection progressed ...19684883015
recovery of uv-inactivated e. coli cells by the v-gene action of phage t4. 19684884675
incorporation and phosphorylation of 5-azacytidine by normal and t4-phage-infected cells of e. coli. 19694889173
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