Publications

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chemical studies on host-virus interactions : i. the effect of bacteriophage adsorption on the multiplication of its host, escherichia coli b with an appendix giving some data on the composition of the bacteriophage, t2.the addition of active or irradiated t2 bacteriophage and t4 bacteriophage to e. coli b stops bacterial multiplication. the respiratory rate and respiratory quotient of the inhibited bacteria remained at the values observed just before infection. a respiratory rate decrease which occasionally appears can be roughly correlated with change of turbidity of the suspension. an intracellular inhibitor of multiplication appears to be liberated into lysates. a similar substance has been separated from n ...194619871584
the delayed origin of mutants induced by exposure of extracellular phage t4 to ethyl methane sulfonate. 196113708170
the physical characterization of dna molecules released from t2 and t4 bacteriophage. 196113776441
the kinetics of parental deoxyribonucleic acid replication, deoxyguanylate kinase formation and 32p-inactivation of the parental virus in escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage t4. 196114459099
the nature of the "deletion" mutants in the rii region of phage t4. 196114480261
rna metabolism in escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage t4. inhibition of host ribosomal and soluble rna synthesis by phage and effect of chloromycetin. 196214480263
glucosylation of deoxyribonucleic acid. iii. alpha- and beta-glucosyl transferases from t4-infected escherichia coli. 196214452558
inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid-directed ribonucleic acid polymerase in escherichia coli after infection with bacteriophage t4. 196414166762
the course of infection with abnormal bacteriophage t4 containing non-glucosylated dna on escherichia coli strains. 196414202283
reversal of restriction for host modified t2 and t4 dna upon conversion of non-permissive escherichia coli to spheroplasts. 19655319592
gene-specific messenger rna: isolation by the deletion method.messenger rna molecules, homologous to a small portion of the genome of bacteriophage t4, have been isolated. rna fragments specific to the rii a and the rii b cistrons have been separated by hybridization with dna isolated from appropriate deletion mutants. an rna species homologous in nucleotide sequence to a defined part of the rii a cistron has been identified.19665323418
the synthesis of deoxycytidylate deaminase and dihydrofolate reductase and its control in escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage t4 and t-4 amber mutants. 19665327746
in vivo stability of bacteriophage t4 messenger ribonucleic acid.cohen, paul s. (st. jude children's research hospital, memphis, tenn.), and herbert l. ennis. in vivo stability of bacteriophage t4 messenger ribonucleic acid. j. bacteriol. 92:1345-1350. 1966.-a mutant of escherichia coli b, defective in its transport and concentration of k(+), synthesizes ribonucleic acid (rna) without the simultaneous synthesis of protein when depleted of this cation. the mutant was used to study the in vivo stability of phage t4 messenger rna (mrna) in the presence and absen ...19665924268
limited genome expression in bacteriophage t4-infected escherichia coli. i. demonstration of the effect. 19665339599
characteristics of mutations appearing spontaneously in extracellular particles of bacteriophage t4. 19675341474
the infection of escherichia coli by t2 and t4 bacteriophages as seen in the electron microscope. ii. structure and function of the baseplate. 19675337969
amber mutants of bacteriophage t4 defective in deoxycytidine diphosphatase and deoxycytidine triphosphatase. on the role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. 19674319673
low-molecular-weight t4 phage-specific rna. 19674860429
studies on the mechanism of bacteriophage t4 interference with host metabolism. 19674860987
interference of bacteriophage t4 in the reproduction of rna-phage m12. 19674861612
the mechanism of lysis in phage t4-infected cells. 19674863172
effect of acridine orange on survival and capacity of escherichia coli b for t3 and t4 phage during anoxia. 19674863401
methylation of rna in bacteriophage t4 infected escherichia coli. 19674864798
transformation in phage t4: minmal recognition length between donor and recipient dna. 19674865571
on the requirement for formyl residues in the synthesis of bacteriophage t4 proteins. 19674866444
growth of a dihydrofolate reductaseless mutant of bacteriophage t4.a mutant of bacteriophage t4 was isolated which was unable to induce virus-specific dihydrofolate reductase in infected cells. the mutant was able to form several other early enzymes of pyrimidine metabolism. growth of the mutant in a wild-type host, escherichia coli b, was compared with that of the parent strain, t4bo(1), and t4td8, a mutant which lacks the ability to induce thymidylate synthetase. growth studies were carried out in minimal medium, which gave higher growth rates and phage yield ...19674912241
molecular recombination in t4 bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. ii. single-strand breaks and exposure of uncomplemented areas as a prerequisite for recombination.deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) from several "dna-deficient" amber mutants was observed to be either nicked (amber 22, 82, 122, and wild type) or cut (amber 453) after injection into a nonpermissive host. this effect was inhibited by chloramphenicol (cm), indicating that it is due to phage-induced enzymes. although most of the mutants tested for replication in a density-label system were in fact dna-deficient (amber 22, 82, 122), one (amber 81) was found to replicate almost identically to the wild t ...19674912244
intermediates in t4 dna replication in a t4 ligase deficient strain. 19684891959
phage dna synthesis in bacteria infected with t4 light particles. 19684891977
dna polymerase and the cell membrane after t4 infection. 19684891988
an in vitro transversion by a mutationally altered t4-induced dna polymerase. 19684939629
exhaustive hybridization and its application to an analysis of the ribonucleic acid synthesized in t4-infected cells. 19684868543
specificity of polyribosomes in the synthesis of t4 bacteriophage head protein. 19684870334
studies on the morphopoiesis of the head of phage t-even. v. the components of the t4 capsid and of other, capsid-related structures. 19684870477
lysis of t4-infected bacteria in the absence of lysozyme. 19684871001
genetic transformation of the bacteriophage t4. ii. biological activity of dna fragments. 19684873555
genetic transformation of the bacteriophage t4. i. an outline and some properties of the phage transformation system. 19684873560
control of phage and host ribonucleic acid synthesis in phage t4 infected escherichia coli. 19684879187
a structural gene for bacteriophage t4-induced deoxycytidine triphosphate-deoxyuridine triphosphage nucleotidohydrolase. 19684881036
inhibition of host protein synthesis during infection of escherichia coli by bacteriophage t4. i. continued synthesis of host ribonucleic acid.the ribonucleic acid (rna) synthesized at specified intervals during infection of escherichia coli k-12 by bacteriophage t4 was hybridized to denatured e. coli or t4 deoxyribonucleic acids (dna). the reactions were performed under conditions that maximized the yield and at rna/dna inputs such that excess dna sites were available for all rna species. most of the rna synthesized at any time during the first 3 min of infection was host-specific. the fraction declined rapidly as infection progressed ...19684883015
recovery of uv-inactivated e. coli cells by the v-gene action of phage t4. 19684884675
purification of bacteriophage t4 lysozyme. 19684865643
visualization of replicating mammalian and t4 bacteriophage dna. 19684239597
control of lysis of t4-infected escherichia coli.the lysis of escherichia coli b/5 infected with t4dr48 could be delayed by addition of 9-aminoacridine (9aa). infected cells showed an early period of maximal response followed by a decline in sensitivity. the ultimate rate of lysis was also affected by the dye. deoxyribonucleic acid (dna), protein, and lysozyme synthesis began at the normal time in complexes inhibited by 9aa addition. the rates of synthesis of these macromolecules were lower in the presence of the dye, with dna and lysozyme syn ...19684911852
chain growth rate of messenger rna in escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage t4. 19684938556
effect of prophage w on the propagation of bacteriophages t2 and t4.studies have been undertaken to determine whether the temperate phage omega present in escherichia coli strain w is responsible for the inability of this strain to act as a host for t2 and t4. e. coli ws, cured of phage omega, was sensitive to t2 and t4. lysogenation of e. coli c and ws with phage omega resulted in loss of ability to plate t2 and t4. however, e. coli k-12 lysogens still served as hosts for the t -even phage. two of three ws lysogens studied resembled strain w at the biochemical ...19685701827
isolation and characterization of enzymes with nicking action from phage t4-infected escherichia coli. 19694309718
[attachment of lambda and t4 phage deoxyribonucleic acids to an escherichia coli membrane particle fraction and functions of the complex in transcription of dna to specific messenger rna]. 19694979265
nonsense mutants in the rii a cistron of bacteriophage t4.after in vitro treatment of bacteriophage t4 with hydroxylamine (ha), 54 nonsense mutants in the rii a cistron were isolated. these mutants were characterized by growth on suppressor strains of escherichia coli, and the mutational sites were mapped in the rii a cistron. twenty-five (9 sites) were amber (uag), 20 (6 sites) were opal (uga), and 9 (6 sites) were ochre (uaa). mapping experiments further indicated that there were three closely linked pairs of amber and opal mutations, conceivably inv ...196916789112
incorporation and phosphorylation of 5-azacytidine by normal and t4-phage-infected cells of e. coli. 19694889173
unbiased participation of t4 phage dna strands in replication. 19694890822
enzymatic activities on cell walls in bacteriophage t4. 19694891420
site- and gene-specific limited heterocatalytic expression in bacteriophage t4-infected escherichia coli.genetic evidence for site- and gene-specific variation in limited heterocatalytic expression in phage t4-infected escherichia coli is reported, and the implications of such variation are discussed.19694891752
[absence of a requirement for tryptophan in the bactericidal action of t4 phage ghosts]. 19694920134
studies of deoxycytidylate deaminase from t4-infected escherichia coli. 19694893683
[synthesis of early phage messengers in escherichia coli infected by t4 during a specific amino acid deficiency]. 19694894287
dna-dependent synthesis of rna by escherichia coli rna polymerase: release and reinitiation of rna chains from dna templates.rna synthesis in an in vitro rna polymerase system at low ionic strength soon ceases, due to inhibition by accumulated rna. measurement of rna chain initiation by the incorporation of gamma-(32)p-atp and gtp with native t2 or t4 dna as template shows that only one rna chain is formed per molecule of enzyme added. in contrast, when the polymerase reaction is carried out in 10 mm mg(++) and 0.2 m kcl, rna synthesis proceeds nearly linearly for hours, resulting in a marked increase in accumulated r ...19694901708
mutagenic effect of sensitized irradiation of bacteriophage t4. 19694902206
enzymic joining of polynucleotides. 8. structure of hybrids of parental t4 dna molecules. 19694904104
selective translation of t4 template rna by ribosomes from t4-infected escherichia coli.the present studies indicate that t4 infection induces an alteration in host ribosomes which restricts the translation of host and other t4-unrelated template rnas but permits normal translation of t4 rna. a heat-labile factor has been isolated from t4-infected cell ribosomes which, when combined with normal cell ribosomes, confers upon the latter the property of selective t4 template rna translation.19694904642
transcription specificity of e. coli and t4 rna polymerase. 19694906604
in vitro synthesis of t4 proteins: lysozyme and the products of genes 22 and 57. 19694909532
terminal cross-linking of dna strands by an enzyme system from escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage t4.an enzyme system, purified 560-fold from escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage t4, catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the original 5'-phosphoryl end-group of a dna strand and a 3'-hydroxyl group of the complementary strand. the product, a terminally cross-linked, spontaneously renaturable dna duplex, has been characterized by chromatographic analysis, by sedimentation analysis, and by enzymatic digestion. essential components of the enzyme system, which requires both ...19704910852
isolation of double-stranded rna from t4 phage infected cells. 19704911222
suppression of adsorption properties of a z mutant of bacteriophage t4 by r mutations.the products of bacteriophage t4 r genes influence the organization of the phage-adsorption apparatus in a noncatalytic way.19704911703
initiation and release of rna by dna-dependent rna polymerase.during in vitro transcription of t4 dna by e. coli rna polymerase, chain initiation stops coincidentally with synthesis at low ionic strength (0.11) with an average of one rna chain initiated per 24s polymerase molecule. at high ionic strength (0.37), initiation as well as synthesis continues for several hours, with an average of four chains initiated per enzyme molecule in two hours. the rna product is released from the t4 dna template at both low and high ionic strength. at high ionic strength ...19704913208
double-strand scissions in bacteriophage t4 deoxyribonucleic acid as a result of 32p decay.double-strand scissions produced by decay of (32)p incorporated into t4 deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) were detected in cross-linked dna and dna containing (32)p in only one strand of the double helix.19704916325
possible function of rii genes of bacteriophage t4. 19704919868
analysis of t4 phage proteins. i. conversion of precursor proteins into lower molecular weight peptides during normal capsid formation.radioisotopically labeled t4-proteins extracted from purified capsids and phage and from infected cells were separated by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a reducing reagent. they were identified by autoradiography and by counting of the fractionated gels. four major protein bands (f, a, d, and e) were detected in capsid and phage. these accounted for more than 90% of the total capsid protein and 70% of the phage protein (60% of the total capsid protein was in a- ...19704920094
transcription of the bacteriophage t4 template. obligate synthesis of t4 prereplicative rna in vitro. 19704907328
intergenic suppression of amber polynucleotide ligase mutation in bacteriophage t4. 19704909415
unbiased synthesis of pulse-labeled dna framents of bacteriophage lambda and t4. 19704922215
on the fidelity of phage t4-induced polynucleotide ligase in the joining of chemically synthesized deoxyribooligonucleotides. 19704923217
control of synthesis of glucosyl transferase and lysozyme messengers after t4 infection. 19704923861
a preferred origin and direction of bacteriophage t4 dna replication. i. a gradient of allele frequencies in crosses between normal and small t4 particles. 19704924010
continuous requirement for host p10 protein during bacteriophage t4 infection.the escherichia coli 30s ribosomal protein p10, the product of the str gene, known to be involved only in the initiation of protein syntehsis, is required for all bacteriophage t4 protein synthesis.19704925776
resistance of escherichia coli to penicillins. 8. physiology of a class ii ampicillin-resistant mutant.class ii ampicillin-resistant mutants of escherichia coli are defined as having a twofold increase in penicillinase-mediated ampicillin resistance when determined by colony formation tests on plates. in this paper, one class ii mutant has been compared to its parent strain. in liquid medium, the mutant was less resistant than the parent strain both in the absence and in the presence of r1 and r-factor mediating penicillinase activity. the penicillinase activity was found to be almost completely ...19704985589
template properties of complementary fractions of denatured microbial deoxyribonucleic acids.dna preparations from seven bacterial species and from e. coli phage t4, and also the complementary l and h fractions into which these dna specimens, after denaturation, were separated by chromatography on methylated albumin-kieselguhr columns, were studied as templates in the rna polymerase system, and the nucleotide composition of the rna products was determined. the rna transcripts of the separated l and h fractions were found to be faithful copies of the respective dna fractions. this sugges ...19704985881
early intracellular events in the replication of t4 bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid. vii. 32p suicide stabilization.the relationship between (32)p suicide stabilization and deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) replication during infection of escherichia coli by bacteriophage t4 was reinvestigated. replication of the parental phage dna was detected at early stages of stabilization.19704989103
properties of bacteriophage t4 mutants defective in gene 30 (deoxyribonucleic acid ligase) and the rii gene.in escherichia coli k-12 strains infected with phage t4 which is defective in gene 30 [deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) ligase] and in the rii gene (product unknown), near normal levels of dna and viable phage were produced. growth of such t4 ligase-rii double mutants was less efficient in e. coli b strains which show the "rapidlysis" phenotype of rii mutations. in pulse-chase experiments coupled with temperature shifts and with inhibition of dna synthesis, it was observed that dna synthesized by gen ...19714939059
partial suppression of bacteriophage t4 ligase mutations by t4 endonuclease ii deficiency: role of host ligase.endonuclease ii-deficient, ligase-deficient double mutants of phage t4 induce considerably more deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) synthesis after infection of escherichia coli b than does the ligase-deficient single mutant. furthermore, the double mutant can replicate 10 to 15% as well as wild-type t4, whereas the single mutant fails to replicate. when the e. coli host is also deficient in ligase, the double mutant resembles the single mutant. the results indicate that host ligase can substitute for p ...19714939389
hycanthone: a frameshift mutagen.rapid spot-test screening of antischistosomal agents reveals that hycanthone is a potent frameshift mutagen while the closely related compound, miracil d, is nonmutagenic in salmonella. both hycanthone and miracil d are frameshift mutagens for t4 bacteriophage during growth in escherichia coli.19715573958
repair of alkylated bacteriophage t4 deoxyribonucleic acid by a mechanism involving polynucleotide ligase.methyl methanesulfate-induced lesions in bacteriophage t4 are repaired primarily by a mechanism involving polynucleotide ligase. apparently, other recombinational and ultraviolet repair functions aren't involved.19714927528
dark repair of ultraviolet-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid by bacteriophage t4: purification and characterization of a dimer-specific phage-induced endonuclease.the purification and properties of an ultraviolet (uv) repair endonuclease are described. the enzyme is induced by infection of cells of escherichia coli with phage t4 and is missing from extracts of cells infected with the uv-sensitive and excision-defective mutant t4v(1). the enzyme attacks uv-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) containing either hydroxymethylcytosine or cytosine, but does not affect native dna. the specific substrate in uv-irradiated dna appears to be pyrimidine dimer site ...19714929862
synthesis of ribonucleic acid and protein in plasmid-containing minicells of escherichia coli k-12.unlike the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna)-deficient minicells produced by f(-) parents, minicells produced by plasmid-containing strains contain significant amounts of plasmid dna. we examined the ability of plasmid-containing minicells to synthesize ribonucleic acid (rna) and protein. in vivo, minicells produced by f(-) parents are unable to incorporate radioactive precursors into acid-insoluble rna or protein, whereas minicells produced by f', r(+), or col(+) parents are capable of such synthesis ...19714935321
t4 bacteriophage-specific dihydrofolate reductase: purification to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. 19714936128
specific cleavage of an escherichia coli leucine transfer rna following bacteriophage t4 infection. 19714937193
genetic distances separating adjacent base pairs in bacteriophage t4. 19714937995
role of gene 46 in bacteriophage t4 deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis.in an attempt to establish whether escherichia coli b infected with n130 (an amber mutant defective in gene 46) is recombination-deficient, the postinfection fate of (14)c-labeled n130 parental deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) was followed, its amount in complex with the host cell membrane being determined in sucrose gradients after mild lysis of the infected cells. the parental dna was found to undergo gradual detachment from the membrane during infection. pulse-chase experiments similarly showed th ...19714940242
suppression of temperature sensitive mutants of bacteriophage t4 by bacterial opal suppressors. 19714940425
bacteriophage t4 inhibits colicin e2-induced degradation of escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid. i. protein synthesis-dependent inhibition.the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) of escherichia coli b is converted by colicin e2 to products soluble in cold trichloroacetic acid; we show that this dna degradation (hereafter termed solubilization) is subject to inhibition by infection with bacteriophage t4. at least two modes of inhibition may be differentiated on the basis of their sensitivity to chloramphenicol. the following observations on the inhibition of e2 by phage t4 in the absence of chloramphenicol are described: (i) simultaneous ad ...19714940930
structure of the dna ligase-adenylate intermediate: lysine (epsilon-amino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate.proteolytic degradation of the escherichia coli dna ligase-adenylate intermediate releases adenosine 5'-monophosphate linked to the epsilon-amino group of lysine by a phosphoamide bond. measurements of the rate of hydroxylaminolysis of the ligase-adenylate provide further support for a phosphoamide linkage in the native enzyme. lysine (epsilon-amino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate has also been isolated from the t4 phage-induced ligase-adenylate intermediate. these results indicate that an ...19714944632
phospholipid hydrolysis before the onset of lysis in t4-infected escherichia coli. 19714944865
resistance of escherichia coli to penicillins. ix. genetics and physiology of class ii ampicillin-resistant mutants that are galactose negative or sensitive to bacteriophage c21, or both.ampicillin-resistant mutants of class ii are determined by a doubling of chromosomally and episomally mediated ampicillin resistance on agar plates. several mutants were isolated from a female as well as from an hfr strain. the mutants differed from each other in various properties such as response to colicin e2 and sodium cholate, response to the phages t4 and c21, and fermentation of galactose. by conjugation and transduction experiments, it was shown that mutations in at least four loci gave ...19714945191
a reduced activity of a deoxyribonuclease requiring atp in escherichia coli infected by bacteriophage t4. 19714946708
interruption of the phage t4 chromosome transfer into the cell. cyclic permutations of genes, and infective activity of the fragmented genome. 19714949478
localization of parental deoxyribonucleic acid from superinfecting t4 bacteriophage in escherichia coli.high-resolution autoradiography has been employed to localize the nonsolubilized but genetically excluded deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) of t4 bacteriophage superinfecting endonuclease i-deficient escherichia coli. this dna was found to be associated with the cell envelope (this term is used here to include all cellular components peripheral to and including the cytoplasmic membrane); in contrast, t4 dna in primary infected cells, like host dna in uninfected e. coli, was found to be near the cell c ...19714950703
control of the synthesis of t4 phage deoxynucleotide kinase messenger ribonucleic acid in vivo. 19724264135
biochemical changes during mixed infections with bacteriophages t2 and t4. 19724342040
deoxyribonucleic acid repair in bacteriophage t4: observations on the roles of the x and v genes and of host factors.studies were carried out to determine the effect of mutation in the host pol i gene on survival of ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated bacteriophage t4. whereas a slightly reduced survival was observed in escherichia coli strain p-3478 (pol a(1)) compared to strain w-3110 (pol a(+)), no such difference was observed in two strains isogenic except for the pol a gene. it was also shown that, whereas bacteriophage t4x is sensitive to uv irradiation, x irradiation, and treatment with methyl-methanesulfonate ...19724343548
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