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fatal necrotizing esophagitis due to penicillium chrysogenum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.although blue-green molds of the genus penicillium are ubiquitous in the human environment, invasive penicilliosis is uncommon and primarily encountered among immunosuppressed patients. a patient with hiv infection who died of severe necrotizing esophagitis caused by penicillium chrysogenum is reported and the relevant english language literature on human penicilliosis is reviewed. although infectious esophagitis is commonly associated with aids, penicillium esophagitis has not been described in ...19921291312
case report: cutaneous penicilliosis due to penicillium chrysogenum.a case of cutaneous penicilliosis in a young man, without immunological compromise is reported. the lesions in the neck were characterized by two exudative reddish-purple pruriginous and painless spots. penicilliosis was diagnosed after serial laboratory studies based on the observation of hyphae by direct microscopic examination and histopathology. cultures of the tissue obtained from the lesions, developed mould colonies with typical conidia of penicillium chrysogenum, which was thermotolerant ...199910424109
hair and scalp mycobiota in school children in nablus area.hair and scalp mycobiota of 1389 clinically normal children aged 6-12 years attending 12 schools in the nablus district, palestinian authority, was assessed on three occasions over 8-month period (october 1998-may 1999) using the hair brush technique. one hundred and one fungal species belonging to 33 genera were recovered: 6 dermatophytes, 16 dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungi, and 79 other keratinophilic fungal species. species varied considerably in their frequency of occurrence and abund ...200111469760
production of penicillin by fungi growing on food products: identification of a complete penicillin gene cluster in penicillium griseofulvum and a truncated cluster in penicillium verrucosum.mycobiota growing on food is often beneficial for the ripening and development of the specific flavor characteristics of the product, but it can also be harmful due to the production of undesirable compounds such as mycotoxins or antibiotics. some of the fungi most frequently isolated from fermented and cured meat products such as penicillium chrysogenum and penicillium nalgiovense are known penicillin producers; the latter has been shown to be able to produce penicillin when growing on the surf ...200211872470
sensitivity of different zygomycetes to the penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein (paf).the effects of the penicillium. chrysogenum low molecular mass antifungal protein (paf) on selected fungal species belonging in the zygomycetes were investigated. a total of 21 fungal isolates from 15 different genera (absidia, actinomucor, cokeromyces, gilbertella, micromucor, mortierella, mucor, mycotypha, rhizomucor, rhizopus, saksenaea, syncephalastrum, thamnostylum, umbelopsis and zygorhynchus) were tested. the inhibitory potentials of paf at 50 microg ml(-1) on the germination of the spora ...200515812858
intestinal invasion and disseminated disease associated with penicillium chrysogenum.penicillium sp., other than p. marneffei, is an unusual cause of invasive disease. these organisms are often identified in immunosuppressed patients, either due to human immunodeficiency virus or from immunosuppressant medications post-transplantation. they are a rarely identified cause of infection in immunocompetent hosts.200516371150
interactions between statins and penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein (paf) to inhibit the germination of sporangiospores of different sensitive zygomycetes.this study reports on the antifungal activities of statins combined with an antifungal compound secreted by penicillium chrysogenum, paf. several species belonging in the class zygomycetes are considered to be agents of human or animal mycoses; other species have significance as postharvest plant pathogens. in the present work, four species (rhizopus stolonifer, mortierella wolfii, syncephalastrum racemosum and mycotypha africana) that exhibited different sensitivities to lovastatin and paf in p ...200717302920
pen ch 13 major fungal allergen decreases cd44 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.pen ch 13 is an alkaline serine protease major allergen from penicilliumchrysogenum. cd44 adhesion molecules play important roles in resolving lung inflammation and repairing epithelial damages during bronchial asthma. the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pen ch 13 on cd44 of human bronchial epithelial cells.201020559002
the human ku autoantigen shares amino acid sequence homology with fungal, but not bacterial and viral, proteins.context: molecular mimicry between autoantigens and microbial antigens is a possible triggering mechanism of autoimmunity. human ku is a dna-associated autoantigen targeted by autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders; available data are consistent with a role of molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of anti-ku autoimmunity, but no research exist on this topic. objective: we aimed to define the most probable microbial triggers of anti-ku autoimmunity via ...201120718578
secondary metabolites from a marine-derived endophytic fungus penicillium chrysogenum qen-24s.penicillium chrysogenum qen-24s, an endophytic fungus isolated from an unidentified marine red algal species of the genus laurencia, displayed inhibitory activity against the growth of pathogen alternaria brassicae in dual culture test. chemical investigation of this fungal strain resulted in the isolation of four new (1-3 and 5) and one known (4) secondary metabolites. their structures were identified as two polyketide derivatives penicitides a and b (1 and 2), two glycerol derivatives 2-(2,4-d ...201021339945
minimization of a eukaryotic mini-intein.inteins are internal protein splicing elements that can autocatalytically self-excise from their host protein and ligate the protein flanks (exteins) with a peptide bond. large inteins comprise independent protein splicing and endonuclease domains whereas mini-inteins lack the central endonuclease domain. to identify mini-intein domains that are essential for protein splicing, deletions were introduced at different sites of the 157-aa prp8 mini-intein of penicillium chrysogenum. the removal of e ...200818054328
membrane curvature during peroxisome fission requires pex11.pex11 is a key player in peroxisome proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms of its function are still unknown. here, we show that pex11 contains a conserved sequence at the n-terminus that can adopt the structure of an amphipathic helix. using penicillium chrysogenum pex11, we show that this amphipathic helix, termed pex11-amph, associates with liposomes in vitro. this interaction is especially evident when negatively charged liposomes are used with a phospholipid content resembling that of ...201021113128
characterization of the penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein paf.the filamentous fungus penicillium chrysogenum abundantly secretes the small, highly basic and cysteine-rich protein paf ( penicillium antifungal protein). in this study, the antifungal activity of paf is described. paf inhibited the growth of a variety of filamentous fungi, including opportunistic human pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, whereas bacterial and yeast cells were unaffected. paf reduced the conidial germination and hyphal extension rates in a dose-dependent manner and induced se ...200312856109
cloning and disruption of caplb1, a phospholipase b gene involved in the pathogenicity of candida albicans.the candida albicans plb1 gene was cloned using a polymerase chain reaction-based approach relying on degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed according to the amino acid sequences of two peptide fragments obtained from a purified candidal enzyme displaying phospholipase activity (mirbod, f., banno, y., ghannoum, m. a., ibrahim, a. s., nakashima, s., yasuo, k., cole, g. t., and nozawa, y. (1995) biochim. biophys. acta 1257, 181-188). sequence analysis of a 6.7-kilobase pair ecori-clai genomic ...19989748287
serine 228 is essential for catalytic activities of 85-kda cytosolic phospholipase a2.the ca(2+)-sensitive cytosolic phospholipase a2 (cpla2) displays both a phospholipase a2 and a lysophospholipase activity. numerous hydrolases, including lipases, catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds by means of an active site triad of amino acids that includes a serine or a cysteine residue. we have examined whether human cpla2 belongs to this class of enzymes by using site-directed mutagenesis. although chemical inactivation of cpla2 by the sulfhydryl reagent n-ethylmaleimide made it appear ...19948083230
enumeration and detection of aerosolized aspergillus fumigatus and penicillium chrysogenum conidia and hyphae using a novel double immunostaining technique.the identification of collected airborne unicellular fungal conidia and hyphae using nonviable techniques is subjective and an imprecise process. similarly, to determine whether an individual is allergic to a particular genus requires a separate immunodiagnostic analysis. this study demonstrates the development of a novel double immunostaining halogen assay, which enables (1) the simultaneous identification of collected airborne fungal conidia and hyphae of aspergillus fumigatus and penicillium ...200516280129
nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. an association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. in this study we investigated whe ...200516210651
double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds: exposure system and clinical results.the objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (brs) at work. from three water-damaged schools eight employees with a positive histamine release test to penicillium chrysogenum were exposed double- blinded to either placebo, approximately 600,000 spores/m3 air of p. chrysogenum or approximately 350,000 spores/m3 of tri ...200515926947
the penicillium chrysogenum-derived antifungal peptide shows no toxic effects on mammalian cells in the intended therapeutic concentration.certain filamentous fungi, such as the penicillin-producing strain penicillium chrysogenum, secrete small, highly basic and cysteine-rich proteins with antifungal effects. affected fungi include a number of important zoopathogens, including those infecting humans. recent studies, however, have pointed to a membrane-perturbing effect of these antifungal compounds, apparent as a potassium efflux from affected fungal cells. if present on mammalian cells, this would severely hinder the potential the ...200515702351
berkeleydione and berkeleytrione, new bioactive metabolites from an acid mine organism.[structure: see text] two novel hybrid polyketide-terpenoid metabolites were isolated from a penicillium sp. growing in the berkeley pit lake of butte, montana. their structures were deduced by spectroscopic analysis and confirmed by single-crystal x-ray analysis on berkeleydione (1). both compounds inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-3 and caspase-1, and berkeleydione showed activity toward non-small-cell lung cancer in nci's human cell line antitumor screen.200415012097
regulated system for heterologous gene expression in penicillium chrysogenum.a system for regulated heterologous gene expression in the filamentous fungus penicillium chrysogenum was established. this is the first heterologous expression system to be developed for this organism. expression of a recombinant fungal xylanase gene (xylp) and the cdna for the human tear lipocalin (lcni) was achieved by placing the encoding sequences under the control of the repressible acid phosphatase gene (phoa) promoter of p. chrysogenum. secreted recombinant proteins were detected in the ...19979023952
using human sera to identify a 52-kda exoantigen of penicillium chrysogenum and implications of polyphasic taxonomy of anamorphic ascomycetes in the study of antigenic proteins.we are interested in isolating and identifying antigenic fungal proteins from species that grow on damp building materials. the indoor clade of penicillium chrysogenum, the so-called fleming clade, is the most common species of penicillium on moldy building materials. we have identified a 52-kda marker protein for the indoor clade of p. chrysogenum not present in a taxonomically diverse selection of fungi. it is found in high concentrations in protein extracted from the fungus grown on paper-fac ...200919590977
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