[proteinuria in quartan malaria-infected aotus monkeys].this paper describes the characterization of proteinuria in aotus monkeys infected with quartan malaria (plasmodium brasilianum), using a micro-disc-electrophoresis system. in the post infection urine samples, increases in total proteinuria, albuminuria and gamma-globulinuria were noted a few weeks after peak parasitaemia. two new proteins also appeared in the urine of malaria infected animals. these findings are discussed with reference to the belief that the aotus-p. brasilianum system can be ...197556072
detection of circulating plasmodial antigens in human sera by sandwich elisa with monoclonal antibodies.two monoclonal antibodies (mabs), one produced against plasmodium falciparum (pf-ig8) and the other against p. cynomolgi (pc-ie12) schizont antigens were used in a sandwich elisa for the detection of circulating plasmodial antigens in sera of patients infected with either p. falciparum, p. vivax or p. malariae. the mean +/- sd optical density (od) values for the normal control group using pf-108 and pc-1e12 were 0.351 +/- 0.036 and 0.205 +/- 0.044, respectively. mean od values for the three infe ...19921298082
in vivo platelet aggregation in acute malaria.thirteen patients suffering from acute malaria attack and thirteen apparently healthy human volunteers (control) were used for the study. platelet aggregation was determined by platelet count ratio technique in which a reduction in platelet count ratio signified an increase in platelet aggregation. platelet count ratio in acute malaria patients was 0.75 +/- 0.03 (sem). platelet count ratio in subjects used as control was 0.88 +/- 0.02. this value was significantly higher than the former (p less ...19911685303
periodic and chaotic host-parasite interactions in human has been recognized since ancient times that malaria fever is highly periodic but the mechanism has been poorly understood. malaria fever is related to the parasite growth cycle in erythrocytes. after a fixed period of replication, a mature parasite (schizont) causes the infected erythrocyte to rupture, releasing progeny that quickly invade other erythrocytes. simultaneous rupture of a large number of schizonts stimulates a host fever response. febrile temperatures are damaging to plasmodium ...19912052590
a multiple antigen peptide from the repetitive sequence of the plasmodium malariae circumsporozoite protein induces a specific antibody response in mice of various h-2 haplotypes.the major repetitive epitopes of the surface circumsporozoite (cs) protein of malaria sporozoites represent candidates for the development of subunit vaccines against malaria. however, previous experimental work has shown that repetitive peptides from the cs proteins of plasmodium falciparum, p. vivax, p. yoelii and p. berghei are immunogenic only in mice with the h-2b or h-2k haplotype. this led to the conclusion that strong t helper epitopes from the non-repetitive cs sequences were required i ...19902201549
malaria transmission and vector biology in manarintsoa, high plateaux of evaluate the factors which determine the transmission level of falciparum malaria, entomological and parasitological surveys were conducted from october 1988 to february 1990 in manarintsoa in the central highland plateaux of madagascar. mosquitoes were collected for 928 man-nights in pit shelters and indoor resting sites. malaria vectors were anopheles arabiensis and an. funestus, with no evidence of the presence of an. gambiae sensu stricto. vectors were mainly exophilic and zoophilic. the ...19902202220
antibodies to the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen of plasmodium falciparum elicited by infection with plasmodium malariae.the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (resa) of plasmodium falciparum (resa-p), found in the membrane of erythrocytes infected with young asexual stages of p. falciparum, is a promising vaccine candidate. antibodies to resa-p were inducible by infection with another human malaria species, p. malariae. of 298 serum samples from inhabitants of three isolated localities in peru where p. vivax and p. malariae were endemic and p. falciparum had never been reported, 26% had anti-resa-p antibod ...19883278979
origin of proteinuria in human malaria.the prevalence and pathogenesis of renal involvement was investigated in 74 patients with malarial infections. a rise in proteinuria of 150 to 5,000 mg per day was seen in 12 out of 27 patients with plasmodium falciparum infections. sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed either an increase in albumin and high molecular weight proteins alone or an increase in low and high molecular weight proteins. serum creatinine and urea were increased in 5 patients. in p. vivax infections, 8 out of 4 ...19853890120
different malaria control activities in an area of liberia--effects on malariometric parameters.the epidemiology of malaria was studied in a west african mining town (yekepa) and three surrounding zones defined as close, middle and far areas. malariometric parameters were investigated in children two to nine years of age at the end of the rainy season. in yekepa, vector control measures and intense suppression of malaria with drugs had created an almost hypoendemic situation with a spleen rate of 11%. in close area, vector control was applied to some extent and malaria drugs were frequentl ...19853896168
[usefulness of the p. berghei antigen compared with those of p. vivax and p. malariae in evaluating the immune response in human malaria]. 19853903951
simian malarias in man: facts, implications, and predictions. 19684869108
antibody responses of patients with natural malaria to human and simian plasmodium antigens measured by the fluorescent antibody test. 19684968381
comments on the ultrastructure of human erythrocytes infected with plasmodium malariae. 19705500107
[in vitro cultivation of plasmodium falciparum. applications and limits.- methodology].five years after trager and jensen fixed the requirements for a continuous culture of exo-erythrocytic stages in a semisynthetic medium, major advances have been realized. however all practical applications of this method have not yet been investigated. its main interest is to offer the observation of the intraerythrocytic asexual multiplication and the beginning of the sexual cycle in monitored conditions, beyond the organism regulating processes, and with endless possibility to modify these co ...19826755144
[malaria indices, larval ecology and trophic activity of anopheles mosquitoes in djohong (adamaoua, cameroon) in the rainy season].in djohong in the wet season the prevalence of malaria is 17.5% for plasmodium falciparum and 1.1% for plasmodium malariae. in children 2 to 9 years of age the plasmodic index is 38.6% (mesoendemicity) for the children of the peasants and 9.4% for those belonging to other socioeconomical groups. in infants less than 12 months old, the plasmodic index is 9.3%, this relatively high rate corresponding to the high transmission period of the rainy season. anopheles gambiae is the mosquito species mos ...19938289630
high annual and seasonal variations in malaria transmission by anophelines and vector species composition in dielmo, a holoendemic area in senegal.we conducted a three-year entomologic study in dielmo, a village of 250 inhabitants in a holoendemic area for malaria in senegal. anophelines were captured on human bait and by pyrethrum spray collections. the mosquitoes belonging to the anopheles gambiae complex were identified using the polymerase chain reaction. malaria vectors captured were an. funestus, an. arabiensis, and an. gambiae. anopheles funestus was the most abundant mosquito captured the first year, an. arabiensis in the following ...19979129525
[biology of the vectors and transmission of plasmodium falciparum, p. malariae and p. ovale in a village in the savanna of west africa (dielmo, senegal)].from april 1990 to march 1992 a longitudinal entomological study was carried out in dielmo village, senegal, an area of sudan-type savanna. mosquitoes were sampled by night-bite collections and pyretnrum spray collections. seven anopheles species were identified: an. gambiae s.s. an. arabiensis, an. funestus, an. pharoensis, an. rufipes, an. squamosus and an. ziemanni. present throughout the year, an. gambiae s.l. and an. funestus represented more than 98% of anopheles captured on man. a yearly ...19949235206
high prevalence of plasmodium malariae and plasmodium ovale in malaria patients along the thai-myanmar border, as revealed by acridine orange staining and pcr-based diagnoses.the prevalence of the four human malaria parasites was investigated among malaria patients at northern, central and southern towns in thailand along the border with myanmar between september 1995 and may 1996. thin smears obtained from 548 thai and burmese patients were reviewed by an acridine orange staining method, and many mixed infections with two to four species, including p. malariae and p. ovale, were detected. these diagnostic results were compared with those by two pcr-based diagnoses, ...19989623932
semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of human malaria parasites and evidence of plasmodium vivax infection in equatorial guinea.a semi-nested, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based on the amplification of the sequences of the 18s small subunit ribosomal rna (ssrrna) gene was tested in a field trial in equatorial guinea (a hyperendemic focus of malaria in west central africa). the method uses a primary pcr amplification reaction with a universal reverse primer and two forward primers specific for the genus plasmodium and to mammals (the mammalian-specific primer was included as a positive control to distinguish ...199910072133
malariometric update for the rainforest and savanna of ashanti region, ghana.the epidemiological features of human infection with plasmodium were studied in a community-based survey of 35 villages in the ashanti region of ghana. the overall prevalences of malarial parasitaemia in subjects aged > or = 2 years were 50.72% in forest areas and 49.72% in savanna. plasmodium falciparum was the predominant species everywhere, followed by p. malariae in the savanna and p. ovale in the forest. the highest prevalence of asexual parasitaemia (of any species) occurred in the younges ...200010723520
monkeys of the rainforest in french guiana are natural reservoirs for p. brasilianum/p. malariae malaria.monkey blood samples were collected from 214 monkeys relocated as part of the wildlife rescue organized in french guiana during the filling of the petit saut dam on the sinnamary river. these samples were tested for malaria parasites by microscopy of thick blood filsm and by nested pcr for small subunit rrna genes (ssurrna). parasitic blood forms similar to plasmodium brasilianum were detected in 4 monkey species: alouatta seniculus macconnelli, saguinus midas midas, pithecia pithecia and ateles ...200010726261
reactivation of plasmodium malariae infection in a trinidadian man after neurosurgery. 200010877649
comparison between anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) caught using different methods in a malaria endemic area of papua new guinea.the mosquito sampling efficiency of cdc (centers for disease control) miniature light traps hung adjacent to mosquito nets, was compared with that of both indoor and outdoor human-bait collections in ten villages in the wosera area of papua new guinea. the most frequently collected anopheline in the matched indoor and light trap samples was anopheles koliensis owen, followed by a. punctulatus dönitz, a. karwari (james), a. farauti laveran (sensu lato), a. longirostris brug and a. bancroftii gile ...200010996862
associations of peak shifts in age--prevalence for human malarias with bednet coverage.effects of bednet coverage (c) on prevalence of malaria were analysed using data from 1990-92 from 9 papua new guinean villages. effects of coverage varied by age, resulting in a shift in age of peak prevalence from 4.7 (c = 0%) to 11.6 (c = 100%) years for plasmodium falciparum, from 3.4 to 4.9 years for p. vivax and from 11.0 to 16.8 years for p. malariae. in small areas with no bednets the age distribution of p. falciparum parasitaemia was like that of a holoendemic area. where coverage was c ...200111280051
[evaluation of the optimal test in the diagnosis of imported malarial outbreak].the optimal test is an immuno-chromatographic dipstick test that permits indiscriminate detection of plasmodium falciparum and other species of human malaria. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the test for diagnosis of imported malaria. a total of 244 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of imported malaria in france were included during the study period. the reference test, i.e., combined thick and thin blood films, demonstrated infection by plasmodium falciparum in 58 ...200111582872
a sero-epidemiological study of malaria in human and monkey populations in french guiana.this paper describes a sero-epidemiological study of malaria prevalence in french guiana. an immunofluorescence assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect antibodies against blood-stage antigens and synthetic peptides mimicking the repetitive epitope of the sporozoites of plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax and plasmodium malariae/brasilianum, in 218 human sera and 113 non-human primate sera collected in french guiana. almost all the monkey sera tested had antibodies ...200211904099
virus safety of human blood, plasma, and derived products.the reconstitution of blood and its components is hampered by factors of compatibility, availability, and the risk of transmission of infectious diseases. protozoal agents such as plasmodium malariae and trypanosoma cruzi are only regionally relevant. bacterial transmissions are easy to prevent and treat. antibody, antigen, and nucleic acid screening have been implemented to prevent transmission of blood-borne viruses. transfusion-relevant viruses include hepatitis b and c virus (hbv and hcv), h ...200212379292
cross-species regulation of plasmodium parasitemia in semi-immune children from papua new guinea.malariologists have long been fascinated by the question of whether plasmodium spp. interact in the human host. the first genetic study of the longitudinal dynamics of multiple plasmodium spp. and genotypes in humans has been completed in papua new guinea, where all four plasmodium spp. that infect humans are present. the broad implications of the data from this study are covered here and they show that the total parasite density of plasmodium species oscillates around a threshold and that peaks ...200312798085
preservation of viable human malaria sporozoites by low-temperature freezing. 195513262073
studies on the nature of malarial pigment (haemozoin). ii. the pigment of the human species, plasmodium falciparum and p. malariae. 195613340682
evaluation of a new plate hybridization assay for the laboratory diagnosis of imported malaria in italy.a new molecular diagnostic method "malaria-ibridogen" (amplimedical s.p.a.--bioline division, turin, italy) based on a plate-hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection and identification of human malaria parasites was evaluated in this study. a target dna sequence of the plasmodial 18s ribosomal rna gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and hybridized in microtiter wells with five biotinylated probes each specific for plasmodium falciparum, p. vivax, p. malariae, p. ovale ...200415164627
plasmodium species mixed infections in two areas of manhiça district, mozambique.we compared the distribution patterns of individual plasmodium species and mixed-species infections in two geographically close endemic areas, but showing environmental differences. comparisons concerned circulating plasmodium infections in both human and mosquito vector populations in the dry and wet seasons, at a micro-epidemiological level (households). both areas revealed a very high overall prevalence of infection, all year-round and in all age groups. plasmodium falciparum was the predomin ...200516094461
current status of malaria control.malaria caused by plasmodium parasites kills approximately 1-3 million people and causes disease in 300-500 million people annually throughout the world. the current approaches to curtail this disease include vector control, vaccination, immunotherapy and chemotherapy. the vector control is achieved by reducing vector density, interrupting their life cycle, and creating a barrier between the human host and mosquitoes. a number of vaccine candidates are being clinically tried and r&d effort in th ...200516248819
malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas of the atlantic forest in the vale do ribeira, são paulo, brazil.we describe a seroepidemiological survey of malaria prevalence in two areas of low endemicity: intervales state park and alto ribeira state tourist park (petar). both are located in the vale do ribeira in the state of são paulo, brazil. in this study, 318 subjects from both areas had their blood analyzed for the presence of malaria parasites by thin and thick blood smears. one hundred and sixty-three (51.2%) of the subjects were from intervales state park and 155 (48.7%) were from petar. we anal ...200617126279
malaria-induced renal damage: facts and myths.malaria infections repeatedly have been reported to induce nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure. questions have been raised whether the association of a nephrotic syndrome with quartan malaria was only coincidental, and whether the acute renal failure was a specific or unspecific consequence of plasmodium falciparum infection. this review attempts to answer questions about "chronic quartan malaria nephropathy" and "acute falciparum malaria nephropathy". the literature review was performed ...200717205283
childhood nephrotic syndrome: change in pattern and response to our center, childhood nephrotic syndrome (ns) had been reported for over a decade to be steroid sensitive contrary to reports in other parts of nigeria. the purpose of this study was to determine if there are changes in presentation and response to steroids, with reviews of the literature on ns.200617225845
[camillo golgi and the contribution of the italian scientists to the development of the malariology in the last quarter of the nineteenth century].between 1885 and 1892--a period in which great advances have been made in techniques and practice of the young science of microbiology--camillo golgi provided a notable contribution to malariology. continuing studies and researches of roman malariologists ettore marchiafava (1847-1935) and angelo celli (1857-1914), on the malarial parasites--described by the french military physician alphonse laveran--he studied the reproduction cycles of the plasmodium in human blood (golgi cycles) and elucidat ...200718447170
detection & molecular confirmation of a focus of plasmodium malariae in arunachal pradesh, india.during a malaria epidemiological study in arunachal pradesh, plasmodium malariae like human malaria parasites were seen in blood smears from fever cases. the study was undertaken to detect the presence of p. malariae and to confirm its identity through dna based polymerase chain reaction approach.200818820359
prevalence of plasmodium spp. in malaria asymptomatic african migrants assessed by nucleic acid sequence based amplification.malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. although most cases are found distributed in the tropical regions of africa, asia, central and south americas, there is in europe a significant increase in the number of imported cases in non-endemic countries, in particular due to the higher mobility in today's society.200919138412
prevalence of human malaria infection in bordering areas of east balochistan, adjoining with punjab: loralai and study the prevalence of malarial infections in human population of districts loralai and musakhel areas of pakistan.200919288935
morphological features and differential counts of plasmodium knowlesi parasites in naturally acquired human infections.human infections with plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, are more common than previously thought. they have been detected by molecular detection methods in various countries in southeast asia, where they were initially diagnosed by microscopy mainly as plasmodium malariae and at times, as plasmodium falciparum. there is a paucity of information on the morphology of p. knowlesi parasites and proportion of each erythrocytic stage in naturally acquired human infections. therefore, deta ...200919383118
implementation of a novel pcr based method for detecting malaria parasites from naturally infected mosquitoes in papua new guinea.detection of plasmodium species in mosquitoes is important for designing vector control studies. however, most of the pcr-based detection methods show some potential limitations. the objective of this study was to introduce an effective pcr-based method for detecting plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum from the field-caught mosquitoes of papua new guinea.200919646275
kir3dl1/s1 genotypes and kir2ds4 allelic variants in the ab kir genotypes are associated with plasmodium-positive individuals in malaria infection.the importance of innate immunity in malaria has been suggested for early protection from maturation and multiplication of plasmodium parasites injected via infected mosquitoes. in this study, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (kir) genes in innate immunity were investigated for an association with malaria in the comparison between plasmodium-positive and plasmodium-negative melanesian individuals in the solomon islands, one of the most hyperendemic malaria regions in the world. the h ...201019859704
the relative numbers of male and female gametocytes in human malaria (plasmodium vivax, plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium malariae) and hoemoproteus in birds. 192719985510
isolation and characterization of the msp1 genes from plasmodium malariae and plasmodium ovale.the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) is the principal surface antigen of the blood stage form of the plasmodium parasite. antibodies recognizing msp1 are frequently detected following plasmodium infection, making this protein a significant component of malaria vaccines and diagnostic tests. although the msp1 gene sequence has been reported for plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax, this gene has not been identified for the other two major human-infectious species, plasmodium malariae and ...201020519591
the emerging of the fifth malaria parasite (plasmodium knowlesi): a public health concern?after examining the most recent scientific evidences, which assessed the role of some malaria plasmodia that have monkeys as natural reservoirs, the authors focus their attention on plasmodium knowlesi. the infective foci attributable to this last plasmodium species have been identified during the last decade in malaysia, in particular in the states of sarawak and sabah (malaysian borneo), and in the pahang region (peninsular malaysia). the significant relevance of molecular biology assays (poly ...201020835518
high-throughput molecular diagnosis of circumsporozoite variants vk210 and vk247 detects complex plasmodium vivax infections in malaria endemic populations in papua new guinea.malaria is endemic in lowland and coastal regions of papua new guinea (png), and is caused by plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium malariae and plasmodium ovale. infection by p. vivax is attributed to distinct strains, vk210 and vk247, which differ in the sequence of the circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp). here, based upon sequence polymorphisms in pvcsp, we developed a post-pcr ligation detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay (ldr-fma) to distinguish these p. vivax strains ...201021147267
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