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classification of subgroups of giardia lamblia based upon ribosomal rna gene sequence using the polymerase chain reaction.a sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction-based assay has been developed to detect and analyze polymorphism in the giardia lamblia 18s ribosomal rna gene. efficient amplification required the inclusion of cosolvents (glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide) in the reaction. following the optimization of conditions for amplification and subsequent hybridization of amplified product with radiolabeled oligonucleotide probe, a detection limit of less than one organism's worth of dna was achieved. t ...19921518534
critical comparison of giardia duodenalis from australia and switzerland using isoenzyme electrophoresis.isoenzyme electrophoresis using 13 enzyme systems was applied to 31 australian and 7 swiss isolates of giardia of human, cat, cattle, dog, sheep and rat origin. the portland (atcc no. 30888) reference strain was also included. the 39 isolates were divided into 22 different zymodemes. these consisted of 19 zymodemes containing the p1 and australian isolates and three zymodemes containing swiss isolates only. differences in enzyme profiles between zymodemes was measured by euclidean distance and i ...19911685867
[marked hematic hypereosinophilia caused by giardia lamblia infestation in a subject with churg-strauss syndrome].we report a churg-strauss syndrome case complicated by giardia lamblia infection which increased markedly the number of blood eosinophils with appearance of eosinophils able to form rosettes with unsensitized sheep red blood cells. metronidazolo therapy reduces markedly the blood hypereosinophilia. the strong relationship between blood hypereosinophilia and giardia lamblia in this patient, suggests that there is an interaction between different eosinophilopoietic stimuli.19911745382
electrophoretic characterization of giardia isolated from humans, cattle, sheep, and a dog in switzerland.nine isolates of giardia lamblia from humans, cattle, sheep, and 1 dog were compared by employing agarose gel isoenzyme electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of total soluble cell protein on polyacrylamide gels. the banding patterns of the 14 enzymes examined showed remarkable similarities among the swiss giardia isolates. this was true also of the total soluble trophozoite proteins. the electrophoretic mobilities of most enzymes and other proteins obtained for the swiss isolates were the sam ...19902213408
non-specific reactions in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for serum antibody to entamoeba histolytica and giardia lamblia in non-endemic areas.serum samples from 20 indian children with diarrhoea were compared with those from 20 children resident in the united kingdom who had been diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis, or crohn's disease, or indeterminate colitis using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays specific for entamoeba histolytica and giardia lamblia. more than 50% of the united kingdom patients had high igg responses in elisas for e histolytica and g lamblia. a confirmatory elisa showed that the british sera reacted specifical ...19902262568
detection of giardia antigen in stool samples by a semi-quantitative enzyme immunoassay (eia) test.a semi-quantitative enzyme immunoassay (eia) test for the detection of giardia intestinalis antigen in faeces was developed. in order to avoid unspecific reactions due to anticalf serum activity, igg fractions of anti-giardia rabbit and sheep sera were purified from antibovine antibodies by immunoadsorption. faecal specimens tested in the assay were mixed with normal horse serum to avoid unspecific and proteolytic effects of stool components. out of a range of bacterial and parasitic antigens te ...19892685985
[the frequency and geographic distribution of giardia infections in ruminants in switzerland].in various districts (cantons) of switzerland 815 calves (a few days up to 6 months old), 382 lambs and 20 young goats (both groups 1-6 months old) were selected randomly for a single coprological examination (flotation method) for giardia infection. in average 26.6% of the calves, 29.8% of the lambs and 4 of 20 young goats excreted giardia cysts. in 9 cantons the percentages of cyst excretors among the calves varied between 15 and 32, but these differences were not significant. further there we ...19892762791
isoenzyme analysis of human and animal isolates of giardia duodenalis from british columbia, canada.isoenzyme patterns of 32 isolates of giardia duodenalis, obtained from 6 beavers and 11 humans from british columbia, plus 15 other isolates were evaluated using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis. we attempted to use 12 enzymes; 9 gave reproducible and interpretable results. the isoenzyme patterns of the isolates were classified into 12 groups with 17 (53%) of the 32 isolates confined to 1 group. the other 11 groups each comprised only 1 or 2 isolates. there was no obvious correlation betwee ...19892802023
illness and reservoirs associated with giardia lamblia infection in rural egypt: the case against treatment in developing world environments of high endemicity.a longitudinal investigation of the health effects and reservoirs of giardia was undertaken during 1984-1985 in 40 households located in the rural nile delta region of egypt. stool specimens obtained once weekly for six months from 2-4-year-old children were cyst- or trophozoite-positive in 42% of the 724 examined. only one child remained giardia-negative during the study. the mean duration of excretion in giardia-positive children was seven and one-half weeks with a range of one to 17 weeks. mu ...19883369424
lectin activation in giardia lamblia by host protease: a novel host-parasite interaction.a lectin in giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. when activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. the lectin ...19863513312
antigenic analysis of giardia duodenalis strains isolated in alberta.giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in most parts of the world. in canada it is associated with both endemic and epidemic infections that are often transmitted by the waterborne route. although g. duodenalis strains have been isolated from several animals, the role of other mammals in human infection is unclear. we have isolated and cultured g. duodenalis trophozoites from domestic and wild animals in alberta and compared them with a human isolate by protein gel electrophoresis an ...19863545410
cortisone-induced recrudescence of giardia lamblia infections in gerbils.the course of infection with giardia lamblia in gerbils was studied after oral inoculation with either cysts isolated from humans or cultured trophozoites. primary infections occurred in 87% of exposed gerbils; cyst release peaked during the second and third weeks post-infection; cysts and trophozoites were observed for up to 49 and 87 days post-infection, respectively. gerbils were refractory to challenge infection with infective human source cysts at 5 months post-infection. overall, 50% of an ...19873812884
changes in intestinal fluid and mucosal immune responses to cholera toxin in giardia muris infection and binding of cholera toxin to giardia muris trophozoites.the effect of giardia muris infection on the diarrheal response and gut mucosal antibody response to cholera toxin was examined in mice. the results obtained showed that the fluid accumulation in intestinal loops exposed to cholera toxin was increased in mice infected with a low number (5 x 10(4) ) of g. muris cysts compared with the response in noninfected mice. this effect was associated with a marked reduction in absorption of oral rehydration fluid from the intestine. in contrast, mice infec ...19854044038
experimental infection of mongrel dogs with giardia lamblia cysts and cultured trophozoites.in light of recent epidemiologic data implicating wild and domestic animals in the transmission of giardiasis, a study was undertaken to determine whether mongrel dogs could be infected with giardia lamblia. after careful screening for stool examination (a minimum of six stools examined per week for three weeks), dogs were challenged orally with g. lamblia cysts from human stool or trophozoites from an axenic culture. three of eight dogs became infected with cysts, and two of three became infect ...19827054320
genetic characterization of isolates of giardia duodenalis by enzyme electrophoresis: implications for reproductive biology, population structure, taxonomy, and epidemiology.the nature and extent of genetic variation in giardia was used to infer its mode of reproduction, population structure, taxonomy, and zoonotic potential. ninety-seven isolates of giardia duodenalis, from a defined area in western australia and throughout australia and overseas, were obtained from humans, cats, cattle, sheep, dogs, goat, beaver, and rats. enzyme electrophoresis revealed extensive genetic variation with 47 different zymodemes. the widespread occurrence of certain zymodemes and the ...19957776122
separation of a cysteine-rich surface antigen-expressing variant from a cloned giardia isolate by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.clonally derived trophozoites (clone o2-4a1, from a sheep) of the morphologically defined group of giardia duodenalis change their cysteine-rich surface proteins (crisps) spontaneously during in vitro culture. this phenomenon constitutes a serious obstacle for studies that rely on a pure population of cells bearing a particular variant crisp. we describe herein the successful separation and quantitation of a trophozoite subpopulation expressing a 90-kda major surface antigen (crisp-90) from a he ...19948073016
rapd (random amplified polymorphic dna) analysis of giardia dna and correlation with isoenzyme data.fourteen giardia duodenalis isolates were examined using the rapd (random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid) technique. simple reproducible polymorphisms were generated using 3 different rapd primers. the results generated by each primer were very similar and were significantly correlated with each other. these data were then compared to existing isoenzyme electrophoresis data on the same isolates. the rapd data divided the isolates into 10 groupings or rapdemes while the isoenzyme dat ...19938296385
periparturient rise in the excretion of giardia sp. cysts and cryptosporidium parvum oocysts as a source of infection for lambs.the possibility of a periparturient rise (ppr) in the excretion of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and giardia duodenalis-type cysts and its implications in the epidemiology of these 2 pathogens were investigated. fecal samples were taken from 32 lambing ewes every 2 wk from 4 wk before lambing until 8 wk after the start of lambing. samples from both ewes and lambs were examined with a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. excretion of giardia sp. cysts by ewes increased at 2 wk prepartum, peake ...19948308659
[carriers and excretors of protozoa].causative agents of intestinal infections in humans are about 10 pathogenic or facultative pathogenic species of protozoa of which giardia lamblia, entamoeba histolytica, cryptosporidium parvum and enterozytozoon bieneusi are discussed. g. lamblia from humans is morphologically indistinguishable from giardia isolates originating from several species of domestic and wild mammals. swiss giardia isolates of human, sheep, cattle and dog origin could be transmitted to giardia-free rodents and were ra ...19938333895
variant cysteine-rich surface proteins of giardia isolates from human and animal sources.cloned giardia isolates obtained from a sheep, a calf, and a human possessed a major membrane protein that showed marked intraspecific variations in size as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis following surface biotinylation and radioiodination. metabolic labeling with [35s] cysteine and electrophoretic analysis also revealed for each cloned isolate a predominant protein that corresponded in size to the major surface protein demonstrated by surface labeling ...19938514398
the release of the variant surface protein of giardia to its soluble isoform is mediated by the selective cleavage of the conserved carboxy-terminal domain.the trophozoites of giardia duodenalis are covered by a coat composed of an apparently single species of a group of novel, cysteine-rich proteins. these variant-specific surface proteins (vsps) can be changed by sequential expression of different vsp genes, a process for which a gradual exchange of vsp molecules appears to be required. in the present study, we have examined the in vitro release of one of these vsps (vsp4a1, formerly named crisp-90) expressed by a sheep-derived variant giardia cl ...19968756478
cloning and characterization of the gene encoding pyruvate phosphate dikinase from giardia duodenalis.this paper reports the cloning and molecular characterization of the gene encoding pyruvate phosphate dikinase (ppdk) from giardia. the orf is 2652 nucleotide residues in length and not interrupted by introns. the gene appears to exist as a single copy in the genome and predicts a 97629 da protein containing 884 amino acid residues. comparison of the deduced giardia ppdk sequence with those of homologous enzymes from other organisms revealed high sequence similarities and the presence of various ...19968813668
the abl-myc retrovirus generates antigen-specific plasmacytomas by in vitro infection of activated b lymphocytes from spleen and other murine lymphoid organs.abl-myc is a recombinant retrovirus that constitutively expresses the v-abl and c-myc oncogenes. when used to infect immunized mice this virus rapidly and efficiently induces plasmacytomas of which an unusually high percentage secrete antigen (ag)-specific monoclonal antibodies. these findings suggested that abl-myc targets ag-stimulated b cells for transformation and that infection of lymphoid cells in vitro might be a useful, alternative method for generating monoclonal, ag-specific plasmacyto ...19968890896
mapping variation in chromosome homologues of different giardia strains.a landmark physical map of the 2-mb chromosome of the giardia duodenalis cloned line wb-1b, constructed using randomly cloned, chromosome specific markers, was used to compare the organisation and map order of the equivalent chromosome in other strains. a representative marker from each of the 13 noti segments of the 2-mb chromosome was hybridized to noti cleavages of whole chromosomes of the other strains. two strains, one isolated from a human, and one from a cat, had the same chromosome hybri ...19968920002
the variant-specific surface protein of giardia, vsp4a1, is a glycosylated and palmitoylated protein.the variant-specific surface proteins (vsps) of the ancient protist giardia duodenalis (syn.: giardia intestinalis, giardia lamblia) are cysteine- and threonine-rich polypeptides that can vary considerably in sequence and size. in the present study, we have purified a vsp (vsp4a1, formerly called cr1sp-90) from a cloned giardia isolate, derived from a sheep, by triton x-114 phase partitioning and anion-exchange chromatography. analysis of the purified vsp4a1 showed that this protein is posttrans ...19979078242
giardia and cryptosporidium in canadian farm animals.giardia intestinalis and cryptosporidium spp. are commonly identified intestinal pathogens in humans and animals. in light of the clinical disease, production losses and zoonotic potential of both giardia and cryptosporidium infections, a study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of these parasites in cattle, sheep, pigs and horses in canadian farms at different geographical locations. a total of 104 cattle, 89 sheep, 236 pigs and 35 horses were sampled from 15 different canadian geogra ...19979106959
primary structure and biochemical properties of a variant-specific surface protein of giardia.trophozoites of giardia duodenalis express at their cell surface variant-specific proteins (vsps) that are believed to contribute to the protection of the parasite from immunological and other host defense mechanisms. in the present study, we have cloned and characterized the gene encoding a vsp (vsp4a1, originally designated crisp-90) that is expressed by the sheep-derived giardia variant clone o2-4a1. the gene was isolated by probing a genomic library with a near-full-length gene-specific poly ...19979178264
serum immune response to giardia duodenalis in experimentally infected lambs.twenty-three protozoan-free lambs were experimentally infected with giardia duodenalis trophozoites at 6 weeks of age, while 24 controls lambs were not challenged. weekly blood samples were taken and faecal cyst counts monitored for 11 weeks following infection. all experimentally infected lambs remained infected throughout the 11 week study period and control animals remained free of the parasite. giardia-specific serum igm, igg and iga antibody titers were determined weekly in 10 infected and ...19989566090
the endoparasites of sheep and goats, and shepherd in north sinai governorate, egypt.examination of sheep and goats in four areas in north sinai revealed an overall infection of 12.70% with fasciola species, 11.8% with paramphistomum cerve, 12.80% with moniezia expansa, 47.11% with trichostrongylus colubriformis, 4.59% trichuris ovis and 44.85% coccidia. the highly infected sheep and goats were diagnosed in el hassanah center (90.49%), followed by al arish city (87.31%), then rafah city (74.39%), and lastly bir al abd (54.71%). the elevation of the overall percent of infection i ...200212049248
presence of human giardia in domestic, farm and wild animals, and environmental samples suggests a zoonotic potential for giardiasis.giardia lamblia which parasitize humans belong to either of two genotypes, a or b, based on specific signature sequences in the 5' end of the small subunit (16s) ribosomal rna (rrna) gene. these two genotypes also were found in cysts from fecal samples of animal origin such as dogs, cats, some farm animals and wild animals. in addition, trophozoites recovered from cysts obtained from environmental samples belonged to these two genotypes as well, suggesting that the g. lamblia genotypes a and b a ...200212208038
giardia duodenalis trophozoites isolated from a parrot (cacatua galerita) colonize the small intestinal tracts of domestic kittens and lambs.this study examines the ability of giardia duodenalis trophozoites, isolated from a wild bird, to colonize the intestinal tracts of companion animals (kittens) and domestic ruminants (lambs). trophozoites colonized the intestinal tracts of intraduodenally inoculated animals as demonstrated by increasing parasite burdens within the duodenum and jejunum and by fecal passage of cysts within 4 days post-inoculation. the pathogenesis of the trophozoites was further investigated in kittens. in these a ...200312523977
a 63 kda vsp9b10a-like protein expressed in a c-8 giardia duodenalis mexican clone.it is well documented that giardia duodenalis undergoes surface antigenic variation both in vivo and in vitro. proteins involved have been characterized and referred to as vsp (variable surface protein).200415163460
prevalence and molecular characterization of giardia duodenalis from sheep in central italy.giardiosis in domestic ruminants is an important parasitic disease and it has been shown to impair growth in lambs, thus constituting a disease of economic concern. in europe, surveys on the prevalence of giardiosis in sheep are limited. in order to obtain additional information on the presence of giardiosis and on the potential zoonotic role of giardia duodenalis affecting sheep in central italy, faecal samples of 325 native sheep from 20 farms in abruzzo region (italy) were examined for the pr ...200515841417
human fascioliasis among immigrant workers in saudi arabia.animal fascioliasis has been reported in saudi arabia among imported and local sheep. the paper demonstrated the parasitological and clinical features of human fascioliasis in nine out of ten male immigrant manual workers with manifestations suggesting fascioliasis. the sedimentation and kato-katz techniques proved effect in diagnosing fasciola species eggs in human stool. the common clinical features were abdominal distension, flatulence, tender right-upper quadrant and easy fatigability and th ...200516363294
observations and immunohistochemical detection of coronavirus, cryptosporidium parvum and giardia intestinalis in neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and kids.in this study, clinical, parasitological, macroscopical, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed on 19 kids and 11 lambs (30 animals) with neonatal diarrhoea to detect the presence of coronavirus, cryptosporidium parvum and giardia intestinalis. clinically, severe dehydration, yellowish-green to brown coloured diarrhoea and death were observed. mortality rates were 10-30% in the examined flocks. the most common agent was c. parvum diagnosed in 20 animals as a single ...200616888922
severe weight loss in lambs infected with giardia duodenalis assemblage b.an outbreak of giardiasis was observed in a sheep farm in central italy. infected lambs (30-90 days of age) showed a malabsorption syndrome, decreased weight gain and impairment in feed efficiency. the most relevant clinical sign was the excretion of malodorous and poorly formed faeces, whereas diarrhoea was rarely observed in the flock. laboratory investigations revealed the presence of giardia in affected animals, while no other significant viral, bacterial or parasitic pathogens were identifi ...200616891057
epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in soay sheep (ovis aries l.) on st kilda.the feral soay sheep (ovis aries l.) population on hirta, st kilda, is host to a diverse component parasite community, but previous parasitological studies of the population have only focussed on the metazoan species. this paper reports the first epidemiological study of the protozoan species comprising cryptosporidium parvum, giardia duodenalis and 11 species of eimeria in soay sheep across 3 years of varying host population density. prevalence and intensity of almost all species of protozoa si ...200716978448
giardia and cryptosporidium in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis).a cross-sectional survey of giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidium parvum infection in the water buffalo (bubalus bubalis) was carried out in central italy. a geographical information system (gis) was constructed utilizing as data-layers the topographic base map and the digital aerial photographs of the study area, as well as the geo-referenced points of all the buffalo farms. the survey was conducted on a sample of 90 farms, selected using a grid approach followed by proportional allocation. fo ...200717211662
occurrence of cryptosporidium parvum and giardia duodenalis in healthy adult domestic ruminants.to determine the prevalence and intensity of infection of cryptosporidium spp. and giardia duodenalis in healthy adult domestic ruminants, faecal samples were collected from 379 cattle of between 3 and 13 years old, 446 sheep and 116 goats selected at random from 60 dairy farms and 38 and 20 herds, respectively, in galicia (nw spain). cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 32 cows (8.4%), 24 sheep (5.3%) and in nine goats (7.7%) from, respectively, 48.3% of the farms and 34.2 and 30.0% of ...200717569991
[investigation of cryptosporidium sp. in workers of the van municipality slaughterhouse and in slaughtered animals].this study was carried out in order to investigate the prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. in slaughtered animals and workers of the van municipality slaughterhouse in van. animals slaughtered at different times and workers who had been working in different departments of the slaughter house were included in the study for three months. a total of 309 fecal specimens from animals including 167 sheep, 56 goats and 86 cattle and 87 fecal specimens from workers were examined for cryptosporidium sp. oo ...200818351543
occurrence and genotype characterization of giardia duodenalis in goat kids from the canary islands, spain.giardia duodenalis (syn. giardia lamblia, giardia intestinalis) is a wide-spread intestinal protozoa of both humans and animals. although giardiosis in goat is commonly asymptomatic, young kids may bear an enteric disease associated with persistent diarrhoea and delayed weight gain. in the present study we have analysed the occurrence of giardia in 315 young goat kids (2-6 months old) from gran canaria island (spain) through visualization of faecal cysts. the identification of genotypes of g. du ...200818436382
detection and comparison of giardia virus (glv) from different assemblages of giardia duodenalis.five assemblages of giardia duodenalis were identified from cysts in cattle, dog, cat, sheep, and reindeer feces using ribosomal dna (rdna) sequencing. assemblage a was present in cattle and reindeer feces, assemblages c and d were present in dog feces, assemblage e was present in cattle and sheep feces, and assemblage f was present in cat feces. giardia virus, originally referred to as giardia lamblia virus (glv), is a double-stranded rna virus. primers designed for the glv capsid protein gene ...200919320541
occurrence and genotypes of giardia isolated from lambs in spain.three hundred and eighty six faecal specimens were randomly collected from 1- to 3-month-old lambs from 16 farms in spain to investigate the presence of different genotypes of giardia duodenalis. individual specimens were examined by ifa (immunofluorescence assay) and beta-giardin pcr polymerase chain reaction. cysts of g. duodenalis were shed by lambs in every flock analyzed, showing a prevalence by farms of 100%. the average prevalence of g. duodenalis for the 386 specimens was 42%, ranging fr ...200919527799
identification of zoonotic genotypes of giardia duodenalis.giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. genetic characterization of g. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages a to g) which differ in their host distribu ...200919956662
from mouse to moose: multilocus genotyping of giardia isolates from various animal species.giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that consists of seven genetically distinct assemblages (a to g). assemblage a and b parasites have been detected in a wide range of animals including humans, while the other assemblages (c to g) appear to have a narrower host range. however, the knowledge about zoonotic transmission of g. intestinalis is limited. to address this question, 114 giardia isolates from various animals in sweden including pets, livestock, wildlife and captive non-human pri ...201019969422
analysis of nucleotide variation within the triose-phosphate isomerase gene of giardia duodenalis from sheep and its zoonotic implications.this study explored the genetic composition of giardia in fecal samples from 284 individual lambs on pasture-based sheep farms in three regions of victoria, australia. an approach, combining targeted sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and pcr-coupled restriction endonuclease fingerprinting, was used to identify and genetically categorize giardia present in 43 (15.1%) of the 284 samples and to infer their zoonotic potential. the specific identity and genetic classification were based on the phylog ...201020084628
molecular epidemiology of cross-species giardia duodenalis transmission in western uganda.giardia duodenalis is prevalent in tropical settings where diverse opportunities exist for transmission between people and animals. we conducted a cross-sectional study of g. duodenalis in people, livestock, and wild primates near kibale national park, uganda, where human-livestock-wildlife interaction is high due to habitat disturbance. our goal was to infer the cross-species transmission potential of g. duodenalis using molecular methods and to investigate clinical consequences of infection.201020485494
cryptosporidium spp. and giardia duodenalis in two areas of galicia (nw spain).the aim of the present study was to investigate the environmental dispersal of cryptosporidium spp. and giardia duodenalis in two distinct areas (coastal and inland) in galicia (nw spain). faecal samples were collected from healthy asymptomatic domestic (cows and sheep) and wild animals (deer and wild boars) in the selected areas. in each of the selected areas, samples of untreated water (influent) and of treated water (final effluent) were collected from each of the 12 drinking water treatments ...201121489605
longitudinal investigation of protozoan parasites in meat lamb farms in southern western australia.in this study, 96 faecal samples were collected from pregnant merino ewes, at two broad-acre, commercial sheep farms in southern western australia, on two separate occasions (16 and 2 weeks prior to lambing). following lambing, 111 (farm a) and 124 (farm b) female crossbred lambs (2-6 weeks old), were individually identified using ear tags (a numbered tag and a radio-frequency tag). a total of 1155 faecal samples were collected only from these individually identified lambs on five separate sampl ...201121733584
cryptosporidium and giardia associated with reduced lamb carcase productivity.on two extensive sheep farms in southern western australia, 111 (farm a) and 124 (farm b) female crossbred lambs (2-6 weeks old) were randomly selected and individually identified using ear tags (a numbered tag and radio-frequency tag) at marking. on five separate occasions, faecal samples were collected and live weight, body condition score (bcs), faecal consistency score (fcs), breech fleece faecal soiling score and faecal dry matter percentage (dm%) were recorded. lamb hot carcase weight (hcw ...201121719199
impacts of naturally acquired protozoa and strongylid nematode infections on growth and faecal attributes in lambs.on two separate sampling occasions, faecal samples were collected from lambs (2-5 months of age) grazing pasture on two separate sheep farms in southern western australia. live weight, body condition score (bcs), faecal consistency score (fcs) and faecal dry matter percentage (dm%) were measured. faecal samples were screened by pcr for cryptosporidium (18s rrna, actin and 60kda glycoprotein [gp60] loci), giardia duodenalis (glutamate dehydrogenase [gdh] and β-giardin) and patent strongylid nemat ...201121889852
giardia duodenalis cyst survival in cattle slurry.giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite known to infect animals and humans. zoonotic transmission of g. duodenalis can occur by the consumption of drinking water produced from surface water that is contaminated by runoff from manure-laden fields or pastures. although it was previously reported that storing solid cattle manure decreases g. duodenalis cyst viability, no data are available on cyst survival in slurry waste from cattle. in this study the number and the viability of g. duodenalis c ...201121903330
barcoding of giardia duodenalis isolates and derived lines from an established cryobank by a mutation scanning-based approach.we barcoded 25 in vitro isolates (representing 92 samples) of giardia duodenalis from humans and other animals, which have been assembled by the upcroft team at the queensland institute of medical research over a period of almost three decades. we used mutation scanning-coupled sequencing of loci in the triosephosphate isomerase, glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes, combined with phylogenetic analysis, to genetically characterise them. specifically, the isolates (n514) of g. duodenalis f ...201123479788
gastrointestinal parasites of sheep, municipality of lajes, rio grande do norte, brazil.this study investigated the gastrointestinal parasitism by helminths and protozoa in sheep (ovis aries) santa inês breed, municipality of lajes, rio grande do norte. monthly, from april 2005 to august 2007, stool samples were collected from two tracer lambs in the first day of the experiment and performed a necropsy of these animals in 44th day. a total of 64 lambs were sampled, but only 62 lambs were slaughtered. the fecal samples were examined by sedimentation in water. the contents of the abo ...201222534950
molecular basis for benzimidazole resistance from a novel β-tubulin binding site model.benzimidazole-2-carbamate derivatives (bzcs) are the most commonly used antiparasitic drugs for the treatment of protozoan and helminthic infections. bzcs inhibit the microtubule polymerization mechanism through binding selectively to the β-tubulin subunit in which mutations have been identified that lead to drug resistance. currently, the lack of crystallographic structures of β-tubulin in parasites has limited the study of the binding site and the analysis of the resistance to bzcs. recently, ...201323995453
epidemiological survey in łęczyńsko-włodawskie lake district of eastern poland reveals new evidence of zoonotic potential of giardia intestinalis.faecal samples from 297 farm animals were collected from 18 households in distinct sites of the łęczyńsko-włodawskie lake district of eastern poland. they included samples from 86 cattle (bos taurus), 84 pigs (sus scrofa f. domestica), 81 sheep (ovis aries), 10 horses (equus caballus), and 36 dogs (canis lupus familiaris). the samples were examined for the presence of giardia intestinalis by the direct fluorescence assay (dfa) and semi-nested pcr. all amplicons were sequenced on both strands. by ...201526706961
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