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hosts on which nymphal ixodes ricinus most abundantly feed.to identify hosts that may serve as european reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, we determined whether nymphal ixodes ricinus feed mainly on particular mice (apodemus flavicollis or a. agrarius), voles (clethrionomys glareolus) or on sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the seasonal activity of the subadult stages of the vector tick. in all sites, the mice appeared most heavily infested by larvae; at least seven parasit ...19911996733
clethrionomys glareolus, but not apodemus flavicollis, acquires resistance to ixodes ricinus l., the main european vector of borrelia burgdorferi.the european rodents clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) and apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked-mouse) are important hosts of the tick species ixodes ricinus, the main european vector of borrelia burgdorferi. we have addressed the question whether or not these tick hosts develop resistance to i. ricinus larvae. c. glareolus and a. flavicollis were exposed to 40 i. ricinus larvae for five consecutive times at two week intervals. resistance was tested by the following parameters: percentage of ti ...19957624158
borrelia burgdorferi in rodents (apodemus flavicollis and a. sylvaticus): duration and enhancement of infectivity for ixodes ricinus ticks.ixodes ricinus is an important vector of borrelia burgdorferi in europe, and small rodents (apodemus flavicollis, a. sylvaticus and clethrionomys glareolus) are important sources for infecting ticks. in this study, we examined their reservoir role by studying the duration of their infectivity for ticks. a. flavicollis and a. sylvaticus mice captured in nature were exposed to uninfected i. ricinus larvae at different times after their capture: 10 days, and 2, 7, 11, 14 and 40 months. ticks were e ...19947957795
differential immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi in european wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus l. (acari: ixodidae).immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi and their influence on spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus were analyzed in the natural european reservoir hosts; i.e., the mouse species apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked mouse) and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse) and the vole species clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole), and, in addition, in the laboratory mouse strain nmri. naive and preimmunized rodents were infected either by artificially infected i. ricinus larvae or by intradermal injection ...19947960113
[the first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in apodemus flavicollis in yugoslavia].small rodent species, as well as their ectoparasitic fauna, and the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in their blood and internal organs (liver and spleen) was investigated, at two locations (kosutnjak, lipovicka suma) in belgrade. animals were caught between september 15-17, 1992. on location kosutnjak two apodemus flavicollis were trapped and borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from the spleen of one of them. on location lipovicka suma 13 rodents were trapped as follows: 10 apodemus flavicollis, ...19938262432
borrelia burgdorferi in a focus of lyme borreliosis: epizootiologic contribution of small mammals.the contribution of woodmice (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mice (apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) was compared in a focus of lyme borreliosis in switzerland during a 7 months' study. all three species of mice and one species of shrews (sorex araneus) were shown parasitized by infected ixodes ricinus immatures. about 14% of larvae and 50% of nymphs collected on small mammals were infected with b. burgdorferi. spirochetes were isolated from blood of 3 woodmice ...19938325567
infestation of rodents with larval ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) is an important factor in the transmission cycle of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in german woodlands.the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. s.l. was investigated from 1987 to 1993 in a preserved woodland in western germany near bonn. in selected biotopes, host-seeking ixodes ricinus l. were regularly collected by blanket dragging in 1987, 1988, and 1989 and screened for infection with b. burgdorferi. rodents were trapped monthly between april and october in 1988, 1990, 1991, and in the winter of 1992-1993, examined for antibodies to b. burgdorferi s.l., and inspected for feeding tic ...19958551503
identification of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato tick isolates from slovakia by pcr typing with 16s rrna primers.the first four strains of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in slovakia from ticks and mice were studied using monoclonal antibodies, the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with 16s rrna specific primers and plasmid profiles. two tick isolates were typed as borrelia garinii, one strain isolated from apodemus flavicollis was found to be b. afzelii and the fourth tick isolate reacted as a mixed culture of b. garinii and b. afzelii. all four strains harboured several plasmids ranging from 6-50 kbp includi ...19979361381
vaccination of natural reservoir hosts with recombinant lipidated ospa induces a transmission-blocking immunity against lyme disease spirochaetes associated with high levels of la-2 equivalent antibodies.as observed in humans, immune responses in naturally infected reservoir hosts of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato rarely target the outer surface proteins (osp) a and b of lyme disease spirochaetes. the absence of protective immunity in such hosts following tick-borne infection allows them to play an effective role in the maintenance of lyme borreliosis in nature. therefore, the question was addressed whether one of the most prominent natural reservoir host species of b. burgdorferi s.l. in europ ...19979364698
pcr detection of granulocytic ehrlichiae in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in western switzerland.the presence of granulocytic ehrlichiae was demonstrated by pcr in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in switzerland in two areas of endemicity for bovine ehrlichiosis. six ticks (three females and three nymphs) (1.4%) of 417 i. ricinus ticks collected by flagging vegetation contained ehrlichial dna. a total of 201 small mammals from five species, wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), earth vole (pitymys subterraneus), bank vole (clethrionomys gla ...200010698987
prevalence of igg antibodies response to borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in populations of wild rodents from mazury lakes district region of poland.three rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus flavicollis and microtus arvalis from mazury lakes district of poland were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-labelled protein g assay (elga). c. glareolus had an exceptionally high prevalence of b. burgdorferi antibodies - 58%, but a. flavicollis and m. arvalis also showed significant prevalence of 16.6% and 10.5%, respectively. the elga method is highly specific with good reproducibility. nevertheless, some differen ...200011153035
two-year study of examination of blood from wild rodents for the presence of antiborrelian antibodies.the aim of our work was to find the positivity rate of antibodrrelian antibodies (igg) in wild-living rodents in a locality situated in north moravia, czech republic. results of a survey for heart rinses (172) and sera (2) antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) from 6 species of 174 wild rodents from the northern part of the czech republic are presented. samples were obtained in 2001-2002 at one locality (studenka, 49 degrees 44', 18 degrees 05'). host samples included yellow-necke ...200314677912
immunoglobulin g antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in game animals and small mammals in eastern slovakia.in a survey of game animals and small mammals, the sera of 185 animals were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin g antibodies to the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which causes lyme borreliosis. these animals comprised 59 fallow deer (dama dama), 56 mouflons (ovis musimon) and 70 small mammals of six different species. the sera of the fallow deer and the mouflons were examined by indirect haemagglutination assay. the sera of the small mammals were examined by modified enzyme- ...200315005560
the zoonotic reservoir of borrelia burgdorferisensu lato in the mazury lakes district of north-eastern poland.the roles of two species of rodents: the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) and the yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis) in maintaining the vector ixodes ricinus and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were studied. more particularly, seasonal patterns of rodent abundance and infestation rate with i. ricinus ticks as well as the prevalence of b. burgdorferi s.l. and the two species b. garinii and b. afzelii were determined. the studies were carried out in woodlands at urwitałt near mikołajki on the ...200415147002
seroepidemiology of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild mice captured in northern turkey.an expedition across the asian part of the black sea coast and national parks of northern turkey was organized in the summer of 2001 to investigate the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), lyme borreliosis agent, and anaplasma phagocytophilum, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, agent, in wild mice. a total of 65 apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus, microtus epiroticus, crocidura suaveolens and mus macedonicus, were captured. two out of 22 apodemus sylvaticus specimens were ser ...200515816159
borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in yellow-necked mice and feeding ixodes ricinus ticks in a forest habitat of west central poland.wild rodents and the subadult ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks infesting them were examined for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner s.l. in a sylvatic habitat in west central poland during may-september 2002. in total, 818 feeding ticks were recovered from 73 infested yellow-necked mice, apodemus flavicollis melchior; in addition, bank voles, clethrionomys glareolus schreber, were rarely captured and proved to be weakly parasitized. only 2.7% of a. flavicol ...200516363171
[prevalence of ixodes ricinus infection with borrelia burgdorferi s.l.: seasonal and annual variations].the present study deals with the ecology of lyme borreliosis in northern poland. the complexity of environmental conditions are: (1) the presence of certain rodent hosts for the borrelia, (2) the seasonal patterns of abundance and infection rate of i. ricinus in the population of rodents and on vegetation, (3) the prevalence of b. burgdorferi s.l., b. garinii and b. afzelii. the long-term studies were carried out on a monthly basis from april to october (1998-2001) in woodlands at urwitałt near ...200416859032
[co-infection of borrelia garinii and b. afzelii in a population of wild rodents from woodland].the maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the environment is dependent on the zoonotic cycle involving tick vectors and certain reservoir hosts. it is well known, that the same species of wild rodents, as well as the vector ixodes ricinus, are often co-infected with at least two genomospecies of b. burgdorferi s.l.: b. afzelii and b. garinii. the ticks collected from two rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis were examined for the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l., ...200116886420
seasonal variations in detecting borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from north eastern austria.austria is well known as an endemic area of lyme borreliosis. to assess the annual variation of rodent populations that may host agents of lyme borreliosis we collected rodents in northeastern austria. life traps were set out every six weeks during a year consecutively in one each of the three different zones (hohenau, ernstbrunn, vienna woods) that cover the main habitat characteristics of small mammals in northeastern austria. rodents were collected and identified. samples of heart, urine blad ...200617186171
eco-epidemiology of borrelia miyamotoi and lyme borreliosis spirochetes in a popular hunting and recreational forest area in hungary.borrelia miyamotoi, the newly discovered human pathogenic relapsing fever spirochete, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are maintained in natural rodent populations. the aim of this study was to investigate the natural cycle of b. miyamotoi and b. burgdorferi s.l. in a forest habitat with intensive hunting, forestry work and recreational activity in southern hungary.201526048373
borrelia miyamotoi and co-infection with borrelia afzelii in ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from slovakia.borrelia miyamotoi causes relapsing fever in humans. the occurrence of this spirochete has been reported in ixodes ricinus and wildlife, but there are still gaps in the knowledge of its eco-epidemiology and public health impact. in the current study, questing i. ricinus (nymphs and adults) and skin biopsies from rodents captured in slovakia were screened for the presence of b. miyamotoi and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dna. the prevalence of b. miyamotoi and b. burgdorferi s.l. in questing ticks wa ...201727995301
the propensity of voles and mice to transmit borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection to feeding ticks.lyme borreliosis (lb) caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the most common tick-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere. b. burgdorferi s.l. can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. ixodes ricinus is the main vector, and small rodents are the most important mammalian reservoirs hosts of b. burgdorferi s.l. in europe. the prevalence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in i. ricinus ticks from captured rodents, calculated specific infectivities, and transmission coefficients we ...201323849517
the occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in certain ectoparasites (mesostigmata, siphonaptera) of apodemus flavicollis and myodes glareolus in chosen localities in the czech republic.ticks represent the primary vectors of several serious diseases, including the lyme disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bbsl). in this study two dominant ectoparasitic groups of arthropods (mesostigmata, siphonaptera) were investigated for the presence of borrelian dna in order to determine their potential role of vectors (or carriers) of this bacterium. all individuals (235) were collected from wild-living rodents obtained in three localities in the czech republic (bažantula, bab ...201323990432
seasonality of ixodes ricinus ticks on vegetation and on rodents and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies diversity in two lyme borreliosis-endemic areas in switzerland.we compared ixodes ricinus questing density, the infestation of rodents by immature stages, and the diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in questing ticks and ticks collected from rodents in two lyme borreliosis (lb)-endemic areas in switzerland (portes-rouges [pr] and staatswald [sw]) from 2003 to 2005. there were variations in the seasonal pattern of questing tick densities among years. questing nymphs were globally more abundant at pr than at sw, but the proportion of rodents inf ...201222607074
subadult ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) on rodents in berlin, west germany.to identify hosts that may serve as reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease in central europe, we determined whether ixodes ricinus l. feed most frequently on certain rodents and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the season of feeding activity of the tick in four sites in berlin, federal republic of germany. in addition, we correlated abundance of i. ricinus with that of particular rodent hosts. two small rodents were more abundant than any others; a mouse, apodemus flavicolli ...19902332880
first isolations of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents collected in northern europe.spirochetes were found in 13% of ixodes ricinus collected from an island, near stockholm where human borreliosis is endemic. borrelia burgdorferi was cultivated from the kidney and/or spleen of wild rodents (clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis) from the same island. spirochetes were identified as borrelia burgdorferi by indirect immunofluorescence assays using species and genus specific monoclonal antibodies. in these tests the spirochetes could not be differentiated from strains pr ...19883190915
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