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the 93-kilodalton protein of borrelia burgdorferi: an immunodominant protoplasmic cylinder antigen.using immunoblots, we identified proteins of borrelia burgdorferi recognized by sera from 62 patients with either acute or chronic lyme disease. in all groups studied, the 41-kda flagellar protein and a relatively minor 93-kda protein (p93) were the most commonly recognized antigens in patients with acute and chronic disease due to b. burgdorferi. a murine monoclonal antibody (mab 181.1) was developed against p93, and the antigen was detected by immunoblot analysis in four european and american ...19921398941
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from peromyscus leucopus in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from a field-caught peromyscus leucopus from central oklahoma (usa). the strain was identified as b. burgdorferi by reaction with monoclonal antibody h5332 specific for the outer surface protein ospa of b. burgdorferi. this represents the first isolation of b. burgdorferi from a wild mouse outside of the normal range of the known vectors ixodes dammini and i. pacificus.19921602581
immunological characterization of a low molecular mass polypeptidic antigen of borrelia burgdorferi.the presence of a low molecular mass polypeptidic antigen in borrelia burgdorferi was described. the protein was exposed at the bacterial surface since it was clearly identified by mab 3h4 using the immunofluorescence test performed with living bacteria. this antigen was cleaved by proteinase k treatment, whereas it was resistant to the action of chymotrypsin, trypsin and thermolysin. western blotting analysis of the immunological reactivity of this antigenic structure performed using monoclonal ...19911725956
babesia microti, human babesiosis, and borrelia burgdorferi in connecticut.babesia microti was isolated from a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) that was captured in southeastern connecticut in 1988, when the first human case of babesiosis acquired in connecticut was recognized. to date, 13 cases of babesiosis have been reported in connecticut, the largest number of human cases reported on the mainland united states. two of nine patients quiried remembered a prior tick bite. since babesia parasites are known to be vectored only by ticks, we surmise that 12 of th ...19911757548
changes in antigenic reactivity of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete, during persistent infection in mice.adult laboratory mice, mus musculus, were shown to be suitable experimental animals for studying infectivity, persistent infection, and in vivo antigenic changes of borrelia burgdorferi. sixteen mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with a low-passage culture of an uncloned strain of b. burgdorferi and 16 months later spirochetes were reisolated from the urinary bladder of 15 (94%) of the mice. spirochetes recovered from the urinary bladder of one persistently infected mouse were tested for inf ...19911913349
etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, detected in ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected at a focus in alabama.the study was conducted at sites of known transmission of borrelia burgdorferi in east central alabama. the objectives were to determine species of ticks present at these sites, their host associations, and species of ticks and small mammals naturally infected with b. burgdorferi. a total of 451 hosts were examined for ticks, including cotton mice, peromyscus gossypinus (le conte); cotton rats, sigmodon hispidus say & ord; southern short-tailed shrews, blarina carolinensis (bachman); house mice, ...19911941933
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
lyme disease in california: interrelationship of ixodid ticks (acari), rodents, and borrelia burgdorferi.the association of immature ixodid ticks, several species of rodents, and the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was studied in two habitats in northern california in spring and summer 1985 and year-round in 1986. a total of 428 rodents were collected from ecotonal chaparral and a woodland-grass-rock outcrop; the former habitat yielded six species, the latter three species. the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus (wagner), and the piñon mou ...19911941942
experimental infection of the white-footed mouse with borrelia burgdorferi.laboratory raised white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were inoculated experimentally with live spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi), the etiologic agent of lyme disease (borreliosis). prior to inoculation, mouse sera were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test, and all mice were seronegative. all inoculated mice seroconverted. in tick transmission studies, immature stages of ixodes dammini and dermacentor variabilis attached and fed to repletion on mice, but only i dammini transferr ...19902085225
borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti: efficiency of transmission from reservoirs to vector ticks (ixodes dammini).in endemic regions, peromyscus leucopus, the mouse reservoir of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) and the piroplasm causing human babesiosis (babesia microti), is nearly universally infected with both agents. paradoxically, spirochetal infection is nearly twice as prevalent as is babesial infection in populations of field-collected nymphal ixodes dammini, the tick vector. in the laboratory, a similarly disproportionate rate of infection was observed among nymphal ticks, feeding ...19902295326
efficacy of the urinary bladder for isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from naturally infected, wild peromyscus leucopus.the efficacy of culturing urinary bladder tissue for borrelia burgdorferi from naturally infected, wild peromyscus leucopus mice was determined. the urinary bladder cultures were as efficient as spleen, kidney, and blood tissue cultures. the rapid b. burgdorferi isolation (mean, 6 days) from mouse urinary bladders should aid in defining new lyme disease foci.19892656749
oral infection of peromyscus maniculatus with borrelia burgdorferi and subsequent transmission by ixodes dammini.we determined if deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) could be infected by borrelia burgdorferi and develop sufficient spirochetemia to infect larval ixodes dammini. ten p. maniculatus were infected orally with 0.05 ml phosphate buffered saline containing approximately 400 b. burgdorferi. on days 21 or 28 after infection (ai) larval i. dammini were fed on the deer mice. each of the p. maniculatus developed antibodies (up to 7 log2) to b. burgdorferi and b. burgdorferi was isolated from the blood o ...19873826500
dna characterization of the spirochete that causes lyme disease.lyme disease, a tick-borne disease long recognized in europe but only recently recognized in the united states, was shown in 1982-1983 to be caused by a spirochete, the lyme disease spirochete. whether one or more species of the spirochete exists is unknown, as is its taxonomic status. to answer these questions, we determined (i) the dna base (guanidine-plus-cytosine) content for five strains; (ii) the dna relatedness of 10 strains from europe or the united states (isolated from ticks, humans, a ...19846490812
serologic responses of dogs naturally exposed to or vaccinated against borrelia burgdorferi infection.to characterize the serologic responses of dogs naturally exposed to or vaccinated against borrelia burgdorferi and to assess responses at intervals after antibiotic treatment.19957493871
borrelia burgdorferi upregulates the adhesion molecules e-selectin, p-selectin, icam-1 and vcam-1 on mouse endothelioma cells in vitro.in order to obtain more information on processes leading to borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in the host, we have developed an in vitro model to study the upregulation of cell surface expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells by spirochetes. a mouse endothelioma cell line, derived from brain capillaries, bend3, was used as indicator population. bend3 cells were incubated with preparations of viable, inactivated or sonicated spirochetes and the expression of e-selectin, p-sel ...19947521760
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in danish rodents.six rodent species from six danish localities were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 1097 specimens were tested using a serum titre of 1:8. the wild mice apodemus sylvaticus and a. flavicollis had high prevalences of b. burgdorferi antibodies of 42.1% and 27.9% respectively, but the vole microtus agrestis also showed an exceptionally high prevalence of 32.7%. clethrionomys glareolus had a low average prevalence of 17.4%. the lowest and ...19957612254
binding of human plasminogen and urokinase-type plasminogen activator to the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.many bacteria that spread in the skin produce enzymes that digest extracellular matrix components. borrelia burgdorferi spreads from a skin inoculation site to form the characteristic erythema migrans skin lesion. it was determined that b. burgdorferi does not produce collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, or other enzymes that digest extracellular matrix components. however, b. burgdorferi bound human plasmin, plasminogen (pgn), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (upa). when spirochetes we ...19957751701
borrelia burgdorferi mutant lacking osp: biological and immunological characterization.all borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates characterized to date have one or a combination of several major outer surface proteins (osps). mutants of b. burgdorferi lacking osps were selected with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies at a frequency of 10(-6) to 10(-5). one mutant that lacked ospa, -b, -c, and -d was further characterized. it was distinguished from the ospa+b+ cells by its (i) autoaggregation and slower growth rate, (ii) decreased plating efficiency on solid medium, (iii) serum ...19957890424
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in museum specimens of peromyscus leucopus.to determine whether borrelia burgdorferi was enzootic within the united states at the beginning of the 20th century, ear skin samples taken from museum specimens of the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) were examined for evidence of spirochetal dna. in total, 280 samples from mice collected between 1870 and 1919 were analyzed by a nested polymerase chain reaction protocol. of these, 2 specimens from the vicinity of dennis, massachusetts, during 1894 were reproducibly positive for b. burg ...19947930700
response of the meadow vole (microtus pennsylvanicus) to experimental inoculation with borrelia burgdorferi.the response of the meadow vole (microtus pennsylvanicus) to infection by experimental inoculation with borrelia burgdorferi was evaluated. forty-two adult voles were inoculated subcutaneously with 0.5 x 10(6) spirochetes. sera taken during the 196 day trial were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) assay for antibodies to b. burgdorferi. tissues from animals which died during the trial, and from animals killed at 28, 112 and 196 days post-inoculation (dpi), respectively, were cultured ...19947933285
differential immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi in european wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus l. (acari: ixodidae).immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi and their influence on spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus were analyzed in the natural european reservoir hosts; i.e., the mouse species apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked mouse) and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse) and the vole species clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole), and, in addition, in the laboratory mouse strain nmri. naive and preimmunized rodents were infected either by artificially infected i. ricinus larvae or by intradermal injection ...19947960113
comparison of different strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato used as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.eight strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were tested with serum samples from persons who had lyme borreliosis or syphilis in class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas). antigens of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, of borrelia garinii, and of borrelia spirochetes in group vs461 were prepared from cultured bacteria isolated from ticks, a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), or human tissues in north america, the former soviet union, and japan. nearly all of the serum spec ...19948051239
[the first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in apodemus flavicollis in yugoslavia].small rodent species, as well as their ectoparasitic fauna, and the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in their blood and internal organs (liver and spleen) was investigated, at two locations (kosutnjak, lipovicka suma) in belgrade. animals were caught between september 15-17, 1992. on location kosutnjak two apodemus flavicollis were trapped and borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from the spleen of one of them. on location lipovicka suma 13 rodents were trapped as follows: 10 apodemus flavicollis, ...19938262432
borrelia burgdorferi infection in dairy cows, rodents, and birds from four wisconsin dairy farms.a combination of culture and subsequent spirochete identification with the polymerase chain reaction technique was used to identify cows, rodents, and birds infected with borrelia burgdorferi. animals were trapped on four wisconsin dairy farms during the summer of 1990. farms 1 and 2 were located in counties nonendemic for lyme disease and farms 3 and 4 were located in counties endemic for lyme disease. the results of the rodent and bird samples were as follows given as the number yielding organ ...19938362496
reservoir competence of four chaparral-dwelling rodents for borrelia burgdorferi in california.aspects of the reservoir competence of four rodents for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, were evaluated in california. rodents were live-trapped and ear-punch biopsies were cultured during each season. a second set of biopsies was cultured from representative individuals after 2-3 weeks of captivity and the results of culturing biopsies taken on both dates were compared with the results of feeding ixodes pacificus larvae on hosts xenodiagnostically. the prevalence of infections ...19968651378
antibodies to multiple tick-borne pathogens of babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and lyme borreliosis in white-footed mice.serum samples from peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse), collected in connecticut (usa) in 1983, 1985, and during 1990 to 1993, were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) or indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) staining methods for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi (strain 2591), babesia microti, ehrlichia chaffeensis (arkansas strain), and ehrlichia equi (mrk strain). of the 294 serum samples tested, 160 (54%) contained immunoglobulins to one or more of these pathogens. t ...19979249691
cd28 expression by mouse mast cells is modulated by lipopolysaccharide and outer surface protein a lipoprotein from borrelia burgdorferi.the concept of costimulation has been best defined in t cells and b cells. however, other cells that respond in an ag-specific fashion, such as the mast cell, may be regulated by similar mechanisms. we have found that murine mast cells express one such costimulatory molecule, cd28, which was previously defined as a t and nk cell-specific protein. while cd28 transcription appeared to be constitutive in murine mast cells, its cell surface expression was not. cd28 cell surface expression by mast ce ...19979300707
the proofreading domain of escherichia coli dna polymerase i and other dna and/or rna exonuclease domains.prior sequence analysis studies have suggested that bacterial ribonuclease (rnase) ds comprise a complete domain that is found also in homo sapiens polymyositis-scleroderma overlap syndrome 100 kda autoantigen and werner syndrome protein. this rnase d 3'-->5' exoribonuclease domain was predicted to have a structure and mechanism of action similar to the 3'-->5' exodeoxyibonuclease (proofreading) domain of dna polymerases. here, hidden markov model (hmm) and phylogenetic studies have been used to ...19979396823
clearance of borrelia burgdorferi may not be required for resistance to experimental lyme arthritis.infection of inbred mouse strains with borrelia burgdorferi results in the development of experimental lyme arthritis. the degree of arthritic pathology has been suggested to correlate with the level of spirochete burden within tissues. to investigate this further, we infected resistant dba/2 (dba) and susceptible c3h/hej (c3h) mice in the hind footpads and monitored arthritis development for 21 days. to quantitate levels of spirochetes within tissues, we created a competitive pcr molecule conta ...19989573090
european reservoir hosts of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.existing knowledge on reservoir hosts of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was collated and reviewed and several species, particularly birds, were identified as reservoir competent. at the present time, 9 small mammals, 7 medium-sized mammals and 16 bird species, including passerines, sea birds and pheasants, appear to be capable of transmitting spirochaetes to ticks and thus of participating in the natural circulation of b. burgdorferi s.l. in europe. the house mouse, mus musculus is strongly sus ...19989580423
development of lyme arthritis in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase.nitric oxide (no) is a powerful antimicrobial agent and an important regulatory molecule of the innate immune response. to determine if no has a role in experimental lyme disease, arthritis-resistant dba/2j and arthritis-susceptible c3h/hej mice were bred to be genetically deficient for inducible no synthase (inos). following footpad injection of borrelia burgdorferi, arthritis was similar between inos-deficient and control animals regardless of their genetic background. histologic examination a ...199910228086
infection of laboratory mice with the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent does not induce antibodies to diagnostically significant borrelia burgdorferi antigens.laboratory diagnosis of borrelia burgdorferi is routinely made by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with positive results confirmed by western blot analysis. concern has been raised that false-positive diagnoses may be made on the basis of serologic cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against other bacterial pathogens, in particular the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). the present study made use of a mouse model to ascertain the validity of these concerns. two different ...199910325386
an ospc-specific monoclonal antibody passively protects mice from tick-transmitted infection by borrelia burgdorferi b31.a murine monoclonal antibody directed against borrelia burgdorferi b31 outer surface protein c (ospc) antigen was generated by a method whereby borreliae were inoculated into the mouse via the natural transmission mode of tick feeding. passive immunization with this antibody resulted in protection of c3h/hej and outbred mice from a tick-transmitted challenge infection. immunofluorescence staining of borrelia cells indicated surface exposure of the ospc epitope reactive with the monoclonal antibo ...199910496931
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
human antibody responses to vlse antigenic variation protein of borrelia burgdorferi.vlse is a 35-kda surface-exposed lipoprotein of borrelia burgdorferi that was shown previously to undergo antigenic variation through segmental recombination of silent vls cassettes with vlse during experimental mouse infections. previous data had indicated that sera from north american lyme disease patients and experimentally infected animals contained antibodies reactive with vlse. in this study, sera from patients with lyme disease, syphilis, and autoimmune conditions as well as from healthy ...199910565921
evidence of dbps (decorin binding proteins) among european strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and in the immune response of lb patient sera.decorin binding proteins dbpa and dbpb act as borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) adhesins to decorin, and are able to elicit a persistent antibody response in the mouse; accordingly dbpa protein would seem to be promising in immunoprofilaxis of lyme borreliosis (lb). this study examines the distribution of dbp epitopes in european strains of b. burgdorferi, of different genospecies and the presence of antibodies to dbps in human sera from patients suffering from early and late lb, as revealed ...200010650211
characterization of lyme disease spirochetes isolated from ticks and vertebrates in north carolina.borrelia burgdorferi isolates obtained from numerous locations and from different hosts in north carolina, were compared to previously characterized strains of the lyme disease spirochete and other borrelia spp. the spirochete isolates were confirmed to be b. burgdorferi sensu stricto based on immunofluorescence (ifa) using a monoclonal antibody to outer surface protein a (osp a [h5332]) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a species-specific nested primer for a conserved region of the gene ...200010682743
protection elicited by native outer membrane protein oms66 (p66) against host-adapted borrelia burgdorferi: conformational nature of bactericidal epitopes.oms66 is a borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane porin protein whose role in lyme disease pathogenesis and immunity has not been well established. oms66 was solubilized from whole-cell lysates of strain b313 (which is derived from b31 but lacks ospa, -b, -c, and -d) and purified to homogeneity by fast-protein liquid chromatography. purified native oms66 (noms66), which retained the ability to form large channels in a planar lipid bilayer model membrane system, and denatured oms66 (homs66) were use ...200010768956
interleukin-4 (il-4) and il-13 signaling pathways do not regulate borrelia burgdorferi-induced arthritis in mice: igg1 is not required for host control of tissue spirochetes.previous studies have suggested that interleukin-4 (il-4) has a protective effect in host defense to borrelia burgdorferi infection, both in limiting the severity of arthritis and in controlling spirochete numbers in tissues, and a mapping study revealed suggestive linkage to a cluster of genes on mouse chromosome 11, including the genes for il-4 and il-13. in contrast, other studies have questioned the importance of il-4. in this study the involvement of il-4 in murine lyme disease was examined ...200010992460
a mouse model for borrelia burgdorferi infection: approach to a vaccine against lyme disease.lyme disease is the most common vector-transmitted illness in the usa and europe. the pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi, causes a complex spectrum of disease that affects the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. patients in the early stages of the disease can often be successfully treated with antibiotics but this becomes less reliable as the disease progresses. the specific immune responses that are detectable in patients with lyme disease are not sufficient to protect against illness; a vaccin ...19912015043
antibody to a 39-kilodalton borrelia burgdorferi antigen (p39) as a marker for infection in experimentally and naturally inoculated animals.borrelia burgdorferi expresses a conserved, species-specific 39-kda protein (p39) that can stimulate antibodies during human infection. to confirm that anti-p39 antibodies are produced consistently in animals exposed to infectious spirochetes, white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, and laboratory white mice, mus musculus (strain balb/c), were experimentally inoculated with either infectious or noninfectious b. burgdorferi and the antibody response to p39 was determined by immunoblot at 21 days ...19912007630
selection of an escape variant of borrelia burgdorferi by use of bactericidal monoclonal antibodies to ospb.two immunoglobulin g (igg) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to outer surface protein b (cb2 and cb6), affinity purified from mouse ascitic fluid, exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal properties against borrelia burgdorferi after a 24-h incubation period in spirochete medium. fab fragments derived from these mabs showed the same effects, indicating that they were not caused by agglutination of the organisms by the intact mabs. the inhibition of spirochete growth in cultures c ...19921639477
natural antibody affects survival of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi within feeding ticks.natural antibodies are those immunoglobulin molecules found in mammalian serum that arise in the absence of exposure to environmental pathogens and may comprise an early host defense against invading pathogens. the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi first encounters natural antibodies when its arthropod vector, ixodes scapularis, begins feeding on a mammalian host. natural antibodies may therefore have an impact on pathogens within blood-sucking vectors, prior to pathogen transmission to the mammal ...200111553590
vraa (bbi16) protein of borrelia burgdorferi is a surface-exposed antigen with a repetitive motif that confers partial protection against experimental lyme borreliosis.we have previously described the expression cloning of nine borrelia burgdorferi antigens, using rabbit serum enriched for antibodies specific for infection-associated antigens, and determined that seven of these antigens were associated with infectious b. burgdorferi strain b31. one of these infection-associated antigens encoded a 451-amino-acid putative lipoprotein containing 21 consecutive and invariant 9-amino-acid repeat sequences near the amino terminus that we have designated vraa for vir ...200111179306
influence of soluble proteins from the salivary glands of ixodid ticks on the in-vitro proliferative responses of lymphocytes from balb/c and c3h/hen mice.in the u.s.a., borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans by the ticks ixodes scapularis and i. pacificus. tick modulation of host immunity is an important factor in tick transmission of such pathogens. the proliferative responses of lymphocytes from balb/c and c3h/hen mice exposed to the salivary-gland soluble proteins (sgsp) of i. scapularis, i. pacificus or dermacentor andersoni were therefore compared in vitro. this produced the present report, th ...200010983564
characterization of vspb of borrelia turicatae, a major outer membrane protein expressed in blood and tissues of mice.serotypes a and b of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia turicatae produce different disease manifestations in infected mice. whereas serotype b causes more severe arthritis and reaches higher densities in the blood of mice than serotype a, serotype a invades the central nervous system earlier than serotype b during infection. these differences between serotypes a and b in mice are associated with the expression of different surface proteins, vspa and vspb, respectively, in the culture mediu ...199910456910
antigenic composition of borrelia burgdorferi during infection of scid mice.the general concept that during infection of mice the borrelia burgdorferi surface protein composition differs profoundly from that of tick-borne or in vitro-cultivated spirochetes is well established. specific knowledge concerning the differences is limited because the small numbers of spirochetes present in tissue have not been amenable to direct compositional analysis. in this report we describe novel means for studying the antigenic composition of host-adapted borrelia (hab). the detergent t ...200312761126
resolution of experimental and tick-borne borrelia burgdorferi infection in mice by passive, but not active immunization using recombinant ospc.vaccination with outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi prevents subsequent infection and disease in both laboratory animals and humans with high efficacy. ospa-based immunity, however, does not affect established infection due to the loss of ospa expression in the vertebrate host. we show here that repeated passive transfer of mouse and/or rabbit immune sera to recombinant gst-ospc fusion protein resulted in a dose-dependent resolution (1) of fully established arthritis and card ...199910092099
cytokines in murine lyme carditis: th1 cytokine expression follows expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a susceptible mouse strain.the cardiac infiltrate seen in murine lyme carditis is composed predominantly of macrophages, but small numbers of t cells are also present. to identify the cytokines present in cardiac lesions from susceptible mice, semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction was done on cardiac tissue from mice infected with borrelia burgdorferi. the temporal expression of proinflammatory and t cell-derived cytokines was characterized in cardiac tissue at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42 after infection with b. bur ...19989419199
vector competence of ixodes pacificus and i. spinipalpis (acari: ixodidae), and reservoir competence of the dusky-footed woodrat (neotoma fuscipes) and the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), for borrelia bissettii.we investigated the experimental vector competence of ixodes pacificus cooley and kohls and ixodes spinipalpis hadwen and nuttall, and the reservoir competence of the dusky-footed woodrat (neotoma fuscipes baird) and the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus [wagner]), for borrelia bissettii postic, marti ras, lane, hendson, and baranton. both rodent species are capable reservoirs for b. bissettii; infection rates for i. pacificus or i. spinipalpis nymphs fed as larvae on infected animals ranged fr ...200312943110
the urokinase receptor can be induced by borrelia burgdorferi through receptors of the innate immune system.monocytic cells exposed to borrelia burgdorferi, through unknown receptors, overexpress the urokinase receptor (upar), a key mediator of the plasminogen activation system. we show that combined blockade of cd14 and tlr2 causes a significant inhibition of b. burgdorferi-induced upar in mono mac 6 (mm6) cells. other pattern recognition receptors tested (cd11b/cd18, the mannose receptor, and the n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptor) did not have demonstrated roles in b. burgdorferi-medi ...200314500474
identification of novel virulence-associated genes via genome analysis of hypothetical genes.the sequencing of bacterial genomes has opened new perspectives for identification of targets for treatment of infectious diseases. we have identified a set of novel virulence-associated genes (vag genes) by comparing the genome sequences of six human pathogens that are known to cause persistent or chronic infections in humans: yersinia pestis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, helicobacter pylori, borrelia burgdorferi, streptococcus pneumoniae, and treponema pallidum. this comparison was limited to genes ...200414977936
lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, endemic in epicenter at turkey point, ontario.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, was discovered in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say at turkey point, ontario, canada. we report the first isolation of b. burgdorferi from a vertebrate animal collected on mainland ontario. during this 2-yr study, spirochetes were isolated from the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque, and attached i. scapularis larvae. similarly, isolates of b. burgdorferi were cultured from ...200415061282
lysine-dependent multipoint binding of the borrelia burgdorferi virulence factor outer surface protein e to the c terminus of factor h.serum resistance, an important virulence determinant of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains belonging to the borrelia afzelii and b. burgdorferi sensu stricto genotypes, is related to binding of the complement inhibitor factor h to the spirochete surface protein outer surface protein e (ospe) and its homologues. in this study, we show that the c-terminal short consensus repeats 18-20 of both human and mouse factor h bind to ospe. analogously, factor h-related protein 1, a distinct plasma pro ...200415128807
neotrombicula autumnalis (acari, trombiculidae) as a vector for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?larvae of the trombiculid mite neotrombicula autumnalis were collected at 18 sites in and around bonn, germany, to be screened for infection with borrelia burgdorferi s.l. by means of pcr. questing larvae numbering 1380 were derived from the vegetation and 634 feeding ones were removed from 100 trapped micromammals including voles, mice, shrews and hedgehogs. in a laboratory infection experiment, a further 305 host-seeking larvae from the field were transferred onto borrelia-positive mice and ge ...200415285141
detection and characterization of borrelia bissettii in rodents from the central california coast.this is the first report of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from san luis obispo county, with most isolates obtained from a previously unreported host, neotoma lepida thomas. b. burgdorferi sensu lato was identified in seven rodent species, including the california vole, microtus californicus peale; dusky-footed woodrat, neotoma fuscipes baird; desert woodrat, neotoma lepida thomas; brush mouse, peromyscus boylii baird; california mouse, peromyscus californicus gambel; deer mouse, per ...200415311469
relative contributions of innate and acquired host responses to bacterial control and arthritis development in lyme disease.tlr2(-/-)/scid double-mutant mice were infected with b. burgdorferi to assess the relative importance of acquired and innate host defenses. although spirochete levels at 4 weeks were lower in tlr2(-/-) mice than in tlr2(-/-)/scid mice, the increased arthritis severity of tlr2 (toll-like receptor 2)-deficient mice was reduced by the presence of the scid mutation.200515618212
beta2 integrins control the severity of murine lyme carditis.infection of c57bl/6 (b6) mice with the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi can result in development of arthritis and carditis. b. burgdorferi induces expression of beta2/cd18 integrins, adhesion molecules that mediate the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium necessary for cellular extravasation during inflammation. the important role of beta2/cd18 integrins during extravasation suggests that these molecules play a role in the development of lyme arthritis and carditis. the d ...200515908348
the lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host.the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in a tick-mouse cycle. here we show that b. burgdorferi usurps a tick salivary protein, salp15 (ref. 3), to facilitate the infection of mice. the level of salp15 expression was selectively enhanced by the presence of b. burgdorferi in ixodes scapularis, first indicating that spirochaetes might use salp15 during transmission. salp15 was then shown to adhere to the spirochaete, both in vitro and in vivo, and specifically interacted with b ...200516049492
the borrelia burgdorferi circular plasmid cp26: conservation of plasmid structure and targeted inactivation of the ospc gene.the 26 to 28kb circular plasmid of b. burgdorferi sensu lato (cp26) is ubiquitous among bacteria of this group and contains loci implicated in the mouse-tick transmission cycle. restriction mapping and southern hybridization indicated that the structure of cp26 is conserved among isolates from different origins and culture passage histories. the cp26 ospc gene encodes an outer surface protein whose synthesis within infected ticks increases when the ticks feed, and whose synthesis in culture incr ...19979282748
functional expression of nod2, a novel pattern recognition receptor for bacterial motifs, in primary murine astrocytes.there is growing appreciation that resident brain cells can initiate and/or regulate inflammation after trauma or infection in the central nervous system (cns). recent studies from our laboratory have begun to shed light on the mechanisms by which astrocytes perceive bacterial challenges by demonstrating the functional expression of toll-like receptors (tlr) in this cell type. in the present study, we demonstrate that astrocytes also express members of the novel nucleotide-binding oligomerizatio ...200616265673
b7-1 and b7-2 monoclonal antibodies modulate the severity of murine lyme arthritis.we assessed the role of b7-1 and b7-2 costimulatory molecules on the course of murine lyme borreliosis because experimental lyme arthritis is dependent, at least partially, upon the development of the host immune response and these costimulatory molecules have been implicated in cd4+ t-cell differentiation. we demonstrated that borrelia burgdorferi infection upregulated the surface expression of b7-1 and b7-2 in macrophages and b7-2 expression in b cells. anti-b7-2 monoclonal antibody (mab) or b ...19979234751
immunolocalization of a 22 kda protein (ipla7, p22) of borrelia burgdorferi.the monoclonal antibody la7 was raised against the species-specific borrelia burgdorferi lipoprotein p22 (= ipla7), which induces antibody formation in patients with lyme arthritis. it is composed of 194 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 21.8 kda. its gene on the linear chromosome is 582 nucleotides in length. the aim of this study was to localize the protein p22 by immune electron microscopy. immunolabeling of borrelia burgdorferi with la7 and an anti-mouse immunogold conjugate pr ...19969026449
long-term study of cell-mediated responses to borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory mouse.borrelia burgdorferi infection of disease-susceptible (c3h) and -resistant (balb) mice resulted in impaired proliferation to both t- and b-cell mitogens up to 30 days after inoculation. interleukin-2 and -4 production was also impaired, paralleling the t-cell response to concanavalin a. impaired lymphocyte proliferation could not be attributed to diminished numbers of t or b cells and was found to depend on the lymphoid organ (spleen or lymph node) examined. prostaglandin production accounted fo ...19938478071
protective immunity elicited by recombinant bacille calmette-guerin (bcg) expressing outer surface protein a (ospa) lipoprotein: a candidate lyme disease vaccine.the current vaccine against tuberculosis, mycobacterium bovis strain bacille calmette-guerin (bcg), offers potential advantages as a live, innately immunogenic vaccine vehicle for the expression and delivery of protective recombinant antigens (stover, c.k., v.f. de la cruz, t.r. fuerst, j.e. burlein, l.a. benson, l.t. bennett, g.p. bansal, j.f. young, m.h. lee, g.f. hatfull et al. 1991. nature [lond]. 351:456; jacobs, w.r., jr., s.b. snapper, l. lugosi and b.r. bloom. 1990. curr. top. microbiol. ...19938315378
heritable susceptibility to severe borrelia burgdorferi-induced arthritis is dominant and is associated with persistence of large numbers of spirochetes in tissues.in human lyme disease, symptoms with widely varying levels of severity have been observed. a mouse model of lyme disease has been developed which allows analysis of mice with mild, moderate, and severe pathologies after inoculation with the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. to determine whether the differences in symptoms reflect differences in the number of spirochetes persisting in affected tissues, a sensitive pcr technique was developed to detect b. burgdorferi dna in virtually any tissue of ...19948300208
characterization of monoclonal antibodies for identification of borrelia japonica, isolates from ixodes ovatus.monoclonal antibodies for identification of borrelia japonica isolated from tick, ixodes ovatus and long-tailed shrew, sorex unguiculatus in japan and borrelia related to lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) were prepared and characterized. all isolates belonging to b. japonica and isolates from i. dentatus and cottontail rabbit in north america reacted with mab o1441b against flagellin which was prepared from immunized mice with strain ho14, type strain of b. japonica, but isolates fr ...19947935066
antibody-mediated disease remission in the mouse model of lyme borreliosis.in the mouse model of lyme borreliosis, the host immune response during infection with borrelia burgdorferi results in the remission of carditis and arthritis, as well as global reduction of spirochete numbers in tissues, without elimination of infection. these events were recapitulated by passive transfer of immune serum from infected immunocompetent mice or t-cell-deficient mice to severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice. previous studies have shown that immune serum is reactive against ar ...200616861670
localization of borrelia burgdorferi in murine lyme borreliosis by electron microscopy.lyme borreliosis is a newly recognized systemic infection with protean clinical manifestations. because the localization of the causative spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) in infected tissues is unknown, we used electron microscopy to find spirochetes in the hearts of chronically infected mice. there were three predominant locations for the spirochete in the hearts. in mice infected for one month or less, the spirochetes were mostly in or around blood vessels. they were either in the lumen or in ...19957872439
seasonal variations in detecting borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from north eastern austria.austria is well known as an endemic area of lyme borreliosis. to assess the annual variation of rodent populations that may host agents of lyme borreliosis we collected rodents in northeastern austria. life traps were set out every six weeks during a year consecutively in one each of the three different zones (hohenau, ernstbrunn, vienna woods) that cover the main habitat characteristics of small mammals in northeastern austria. rodents were collected and identified. samples of heart, urine blad ...200617186171
high- and low-infectivity phenotypes of clonal populations of in vitro-cultured borrelia burgdorferi.borrelias that cause lyme disease lose the ability to infect and cause disease in laboratory animals following 10 to 16 passages of in vitro culture. in this study, clonal populations of the sh-2-82 (sh2) and b31 strains of borrelia burgdorferi were isolated by subsurface plating on bsk-ii agar plates and examined for infectivity in the c3h/hen mouse model. mice were injected intradermally with 10(5) b. burgdorferi organisms, and the tibiotarsal joint, heart, and bladder were cultured 2 to 4 wee ...19957768600
ectoparasite diversity and exposure to vector-borne disease agents in wild rodents in central coastal california.a survey of wild rodents was performed in the morro bay area of central coastal california to determine serological and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum dumler, barbet, bekker, dasch, palmer, ray, rikihisa, and rurangirwa, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, francisella tularensis mccoy, and yersinia pestis yersin; to describe the ectoparasitic fauna on important vector-borne disease hosts; and to determine whether pathoge ...200717427705
subcutaneous implanted chambers in different mouse strains as an animal model to study genetic stability during infection with lyme disease borrelia.tissue metal net cages were implanted subcutaneously in balb/cj and c3h/tif mice as an experimental model of borrelia burgdorferi infection. b. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain sh2-82 could be isolated up to 14 weeks after the inoculation. however, a significant difference in infectivity between the two mice strains was observed. c3h/tif mice were more susceptible to developing chronic b. burgdorferi s.s. infections than balb/cj mice. although a b. burgdorferi infection was established, no rearr ...19957543971
hidden in plain sight: borrelia burgdorferi and the extracellular matrix.borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-transmitted etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, can colonize and persist in multiple tissue sites despite vigorous host immune responses. the extracellular matrix appears to provide a protective niche for the spirochete. recent studies in mice suggest that b. burgdorferi interacts in various ways with collagen and its associated molecules, exploiting molecular and structural features to establish microcolonial refugia. better knowledge of the genetic and structura ...200717600717
the role of vlse antigenic variation in the lyme disease spirochete: persistence through a mechanism that differs from other pathogens.the linear plasmid, lp28-1, is required for persistent infection by the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. this plasmid contains the vls antigenic variation locus, which has long been thought to be important for immune evasion. however, the role of the vls locus as a virulence factor during mammalian infection has not been clearly defined. we report the successful removal of the vls locus through telomere resolvase-mediated targeted deletion, and demonstrate the absolute requirement ...200717714442
borrelia burgdorferi bbb07 interaction with integrin alpha3beta1 stimulates production of pro-inflammatory mediators in primary human chondrocytes.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, activates multiple signalling pathways leading to induction of pro-inflammatory mediators at sites of inflammation. binding of b. burgdorferi to integrin alpha(3)beta(1) on human chondrocytes activates signalling leading to release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, but the b. burgdorferi protein that binds integrin alpha(3)beta(1) and elicits this response has remained unknown. a search of the b. burgdorferi genome for a canonical i ...200817822440
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in siberian chipmunks (tamias sibiricus) introduced in suburban forests in france.numerous vertebrate reservoirs have been described for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes the etiological agents of lyme borreliosis (lb). the siberian chipmunk (tamias sibiricus) is a rodent originating from asia, where it is suspected to be a b. burgdorferi reservoir. it has been intentionally released into the wild in europe since the 1970s, but has not yet been subject to any study regarding its association with the lb agent. in this paper we studied siberian chipmunk infes ...200718021026
microbial pathogens in ticks, rodents and a shrew in northern gyeonggi-do near the dmz, korea.a total of 1,618 ticks [420 individual (adults) and pooled (larvae and nymphs) samples], 369 rodents (apodemus agrarius, rattus norvegicus, tscherskia triton, mus musculus, and myodes regulus), and 34 shrews (crocidura lasiura) that were collected in northern gyeonggi-do near the demilitarized zone (dmz) of korea during 2004-2005, were assayed by pcr for selected zoonotic pathogens. from a total of 420 individual and pooled tick dna samples, anaplasma (a.) phagocytophilum (16), a. platys (16), e ...200818716449
reservoir competence of white-footed mice for lyme disease spirochetes.using the vector tick, ixodes dammini, we described the reservoir competence of the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus, for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. nymphal i. dammini were used to infect mammals, and larval ticks were used to diagnose infection (a form of xenodiagnosis). one tick was nearly as efficient as more than 1 in transmitting the spirochete to mice. the duration of the prepatent period was about 1 week. prevalence of infection approached 100% in ticks that ...19873812887
habitat distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) an lyme disease spirochetes on fire island, new york.the distributions of ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman, and corwin and lyme disease spirochetes were studied on fire island, n.y. adult ticks were more common in high-shrub habitats (shrubby vegetation greater than or equal to 1 m high) than in grassy and lowshrub habitats (vegetation less than 1 m) in spring and fall. in the fall, adults were also common in the woods. adults were more abundant on narrow trails than in nearby vegetation. during the summer, questing nymphs and larvae wer ...19892724316
detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlse antigenic variation in the mouse model of borrelia burgdorferi infection.lyme disease borrelia can infect humans and animals for months to years, despite the presence of an active host immune response. the vls antigenic variation system, which expresses the surface-exposed lipoprotein vlse, plays a major role in b. burgdorferi immune evasion. gene conversion between vls silent cassettes and the vlse expression site occurs at high frequency during mammalian infection, resulting in sequence variation in the vlse product. in this study, we examined vlse sequence variati ...200919214205
shared flagellar epitopes of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia anserina.antigenic cross-reactivity between borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia anserina was studied using mouse immune sera and monoclonal antibodies. with immune sera, significant cross-reactivity between b. burgdorferi and b. anserina was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent assay. in immunoblots, most of the cross-reactivity was shown to be associated with the periplasmic flagella. using monoclonal antibodies in immunoblots, it was shown that b. burgdorferi and b. anserina shared at least two fla ...19892473569
ospc-independent infection and dissemination by host-adapted borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi ospc is required for the spirochete to establish infection in a mammal by tick transmission or needle inoculation. after a brief essential period, the protein no longer is required and the gene can be shut off. using a system in which spirochetes contain only an unstable wild-type copy of the ospc gene, we can obtain mice persistently infected with bacteria lacking ospc. we implanted pieces of infected mouse skin subcutaneously in naïve mice, using donors carrying wild-type ...200919398538
the caspase 1 inflammasome is not required for control of murine lyme borreliosis.the contribution of the inflammasome to the development of immune responses and disease during infection with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, is not well defined. host defense against the spirochete is severely impaired in mice deficient in the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation antigen 88 (myd88), which is required not only for toll-like receptor-mediated responses but also for the production of the proforms of interleukin 1beta (il-1beta) and il-18. these cytokines are ...200919487481
lyme carditis in immunodeficient mice during experimental infection of borrelia burgdorferi.recently, we described the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mouse as a laboratory model for b. burgdorferi infection. scid mice inoculated with the virulent low-passage tick isolate borrelia burgdorferi zs7 developed a severe pancarditis involving endocardium, myocardium and epicardium in the absence of functional b- or t-cells. soon after inoculation perivascular infiltration was observed, later diffuse infiltration of the interstitium of the subendocardial and subepicardial areas was se ...19902114691
a comparative study of mammalian and reptilian alternative pathway of complement-mediated killing of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).the potential bactericidal activity of the alternative complement pathway of mammalian and reptilian sera to borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) was evaluated in vitro. complement-mediated killing was observed when cultured spirochetes were inoculated into sera from the western fence lizard (sceloporus occidentalis) and from the southern alligator lizard (elgaria multicarinata), but not when they were inoculated into serum from either the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) or from humans. ...200011191895
cd4+ t helper 1 cells facilitate regression of murine lyme carditis.murine lyme borreliosis, caused by infection with the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, results in acute arthritis and carditis that regress as a result of b. burgdorferi-specific immune responses. b. burgdorferi-specific antibodies can attenuate arthritis in mice deficient in both b cells and t cells but have no effect on carditis. because macrophages comprise the principal immune cell in carditis, t-cell responses that augment cell-mediated immunity may be important for carditis regression. to ...200111500394
experimental borrelia burgdorferi infection in inbred mouse strains: antibody response and association of h-2 genes with resistance and susceptibility to development of arthritis.we have investigated the specific humoral immune response and its correlation to the development of disease after experimental inoculation of b. burgdorferi in different inbred strains of mice. all mouse strains tested showed high levels of specific igm antibodies during the initial 10 days of infection. specific igg antibodies predominantly of the igg2a, igg2b and igg3 isotypes were found in increasing amounts by 14 days post infection. antibody titers peaked at days 65 and 110. particularly lo ...19911915553
the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi utilizes multiple ligands, including rna, for interferon regulatory factor 3-dependent induction of type i interferon-responsive genes.we recently discovered a critical role for type i interferon (ifn) in the development of murine lyme arthritis. borrelia burgdorferi-mediated induction of ifn-responsive genes by bone marrow-derived macrophages (bmdms) was dependent upon a functional type i ifn receptor but independent of toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2), tlr4, tlr9, and the adapter molecule myd88. we now demonstrate that induction of the ifn transcriptional profile in b. burgdorferi-stimulated bmdms occurs independently of the adapt ...201020404081
interactions between borrelia burgdorferi and mouse fibroblasts.borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes are an infectious agent of lyme borreliosis. the aim of our studies was to investigate the fate of engulfed b. burgdorferi cells in l-929 mouse fibroblasts and to observe development of intracellular infection in vitro after 2 and 48 h. electron microscopic studies reveal consecutive stages of b. burgdorferi spirochetes penetration to mouse fibroblasts in vitro. it has been observed, as a first step attachment and engulfment of spirochetes followed by formation o ...201021033577
analysis of the borrelia burgdorferi cyclic-di-gmp-binding protein plza reveals a role in motility and virulence.the cyclic-dimeric-gmp (c-di-gmp)-binding protein pilz has been implicated in bacterial motility and pathogenesis. although bb0733 (plza), the only pilz domain-containing protein in borrelia burgdorferi, was reported to bind c-di-gmp, neither its role in motility or virulence nor it's affinity for c-di-gmp has been reported. we determined that plza specifically binds c-di-gmp with high affinity (dissociation constant [k(d)], 1.25 µm), consistent with k(d) values reported for c-di-gmp-binding pro ...201121357718
infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is unaltered in c3-deficient mice.b. burgdorferi, b. afzelii, and b. bavariensis show resistance to mouse and human complement. b. garinii and b. valaisiana are sensitive to mouse and human complement. we evaluated whether the absence of c3 in mice influenced infectivity and pathogenicity of different borrelia species. c3 knockout mice (c3-/-) and syngeneic c57bl/6 wild-type (wt) mice were challenged with 5 different borrelia species. after 2 weeks, quantitative pcr (qpcr), culture, histopathology, and immunofluorescence were pe ...201121771533
analysis of borrelia burgdorferi vlse gene expression and recombination in the tick vector.expression and recombination of the antigenic variation vlse gene of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi were analyzed in the tick vector. to assess vlse expression, ixodes scapularis nymphs infected with the b. burgdorferi strain b31 were fed on mice for 48 or 96 h or to repletion and then crushed and acetone fixed either immediately thereafter (ticks collected at the two earlier time points) or 4 days after repletion. unfed nymphs also were examined. at all of the time points inve ...200111598084
no evidence that infection alters global recombination rate in house mice.recombination rate is a complex trait, with genetic and environmental factors shaping observed patterns of variation. although recent studies have begun to unravel the genetic basis of recombination rate differences between organisms, less attention has focused on the environmental determinants of crossover rates. here, we test the effect of one ubiquitous environmental pressure-bacterial infection-on global recombination frequency in mammals. we applied mlh1 mapping to assay global crossover ra ...201526550833
in vitro and in vivo induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by borrelia burgdorferi.tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) is an immunoregulatory cytokine with many biological activities including the mediation of inflammation. we examined sera and synovial fluids from patients seropositive for infection with borrelia burgdorferi using a radioimmunoassay specific for tnf-alpha. significant elevation of tnf-alpha was found in the sera and synovial fluids of patients examined, while controls showed no elevation. sera of mice infected with b. burgdorferi contained elevated levels ...19921541526
stable transmission of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto on the outer banks of north carolina.the spirochaete (borrelia burgdorferi) associated with lyme disease was detected in questing ticks and rodents during a period of 18 years, 1991-2009, at five locations on the outer banks of north carolina. the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis) was collected at varied intervals between 1991 and 2009 and examined for b. burgdorferi. the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (mus musculus) marsh rice rat (oryzomys palustris), marsh rabbit (sylvilagus palustris), eastern cottont ...201627966833
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in synanthropic rodents in two rural communities of yucatán, méxico.lyme disease is a multisystemic zoonotic disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. this spirochete circulates in an enzootic cycle between the primary vertebrate reservoir and its tick vectors. different species of rodents are known to be efficient natural reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l.201627622631
cystitis induced by infection with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in mice.previous studies have demonstrated that the urinary bladder is a consistent source for isolating the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from both experimentally infected and naturally exposed rodents. we examined histopathologic changes in the urinary bladder of different types of rodents experimentally infected with lyme spirochetes, including balb/c mice (mus musculus), nude mice (m. musculus), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and grasshopper mice (onychomys leucogaster). a ...19921443051
murine lyme arthritis development mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity.borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent, causes joint inflammation in an experimental murine model. inflammation occurs, in part, due to the ability of b. burgdorferi to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and a strong cd4(+) t helper type 1 response. the mechanisms by which spirochetes induce these responses are not completely known, although transcription factors, such as nf-kappa b in phagocytic cells, initiate the proinflammatory cytokine burst. we show here that the mito ...200212055252
in vitro culture of borrelia garinii results in loss of flagella and decreased invasiveness.a virulent, low-passage culture of a tick-derived strain of borrelia garinii was subjected to serial in vitro passages, from which inoculations were made into c3h/hen mice. a full display of pathogenicity was observed through passage 4, as measured by cultures of ear punch biopsy samples and internal organs and determination of tibiotarsal joint swelling. decreased dissemination through skin and infection of internal organs were observed beginning at passage 6. these losses correlated with both ...200212183529
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