PMID(sorted ascending)
antigenicity testing of inactivated oral enteric bacterial vaccines for human use.this study deals with the laboratory testing of the antigenicity of inactivated oral enteric bacterial vaccines for human use, viz. typhoid, dysentery, escherichia coli and cholera vaccines. for the assays the following methods are applied : 1) various types of active mouse protection tests 2) serum and coproantibody determinations in immunized persons and experimental animals, 3) protective ability of the immune sera in mice and embryonated eggs, 4) hemolytic and bacteriolytic plaque assays. it ...1976782974
complement-mediated bactericidal system: evidence for a new pathway of complement action.the early components of human complement (c1, c4, and c2) plus certain serum euglobulins will kill pathogenic strains of shigella sonnei. serum from patients with hereditary c3 deficiencies and specific antiserums to c3, c5, and c6 were utilized to demonstrate the absence of requirements for late-acting complement components in this unusual bactericidal system.19751101380
[studies of bacterial indicators for water pollution--growth of escherichia coli and enterococci in limited nutrient conditions].bacteria, that would be an ideal indicator for fecal contamination in environmental water, should not proliferate but at the same time should survive a little longer than enteropathogenic bacteria in the environmental water. while conventional methods have recommended escherichia coli as an indicator, enterococci is recommended as a preferable indicator for the estimation of fecal contamination based on the following observation. the relationship between the specific growth rate of organism and ...19921638040
sensitivity of shigella strains to bactericidal activity of human serum. i. participation of two independently active mechanisms in bactericidal action against shigella sonnei phase ii.normal human serum is strongly bactericidal for all studied shigella sonnei phase ii (10 strains). the studied bacteria were sensitive to two alternative mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of serum factors. the first mechanism involves the action of serum in which complement (c) is activated by the studied bacteria via the classical pathway. lysozyme did not participate in this reaction. the second mechanism involves the combined action of two factors: c activated via the alternative pathwa ...19901715644
[the immunogenic properties of the endotoxin protein: serum antibodies in animals and man].endotoxin protein or lipid a-associated protein (lap) from shigella sonnei was isolated and characterized earlier (zh. mikrobiol. epidemiol. immunobiol., 1991, no. 4, pp. 47-50). in this investigation serum antibodies against lap were studied in elisa anti-lap antibodies were detected in high titers in the sera of nonimmunized mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, monkeys and healthy adults. we suppose that normal anti-lap antibodies resulted from interaction between the immune system and environmental en ...19911719717
evidence for long-term memory of the mucosal immune system: milk secretory immunoglobulin a against shigella lipopolysaccharides.although the common mucosal immune system has generally been considered to have only short-term memory, recent data suggest that long-term memory exists for shigella virulence plasmid antigens. because such antigens might cross-react with environmental antigens, we investigated milk for the persistence of antibodies to the specific shigella lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigens. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect secretory immunoglobulin a (siga) against shigella flexneri and shigella sonn ...19911774268
[shigella toxicity in immunological tolerance].the toxic effect of killed and live shigella sonnei cultures on normal mice and on mice, tolerant to shigella o-antigen and to human erythrocytes of different blood groups (in the abo system) was under study. the toxicity of shigellae, introduced intraperitoneally, has been found to depend on their viability, on their capacity for penetration into the blood, and on the split character of immunological tolerance to shigella antigens.19872448979
the microbial causes of diarrhoea in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.diarrhoea is common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). we sought the cause of diarrhoea in all hiv antibody-positive patients with diarrhoea who presented at st stephen's hospital, london over a period of 15 months. altogether, 441 specimens from 179 patients were examined. infective causes were found in 86 (48%) patients. protozoa were the most common infecting organisms (30% patients). of these, cryptosporidium sp. was the most frequent (9.5% patients), followed ...19883183401
shigellosis associated with recreational water contact in los angeles outbreak of shigellosis associated with swimming at a human-made lake during the labor day weekend occurred in los angeles county in 1985. sixty-eight persons had onset of diarrheal illness within 1 week following exposure at the recreational site. thirty-three of these cases were culture-confirmed as shigellosis (29 shigella sonnei, 4 shigella boydii). fifteen persons were hospitalized. illness was highly associated with water contact, specifically swallowing water while swimming (p less tha ...19883275140
a new simplified assay for evaluation of motile activity of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.we studied the adaptation of a filtration instrument to an assay for cell migration experiments. the commercially available nuclepore filter holders were modified so that isolated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmns) were allowed to penetrate a porous filter membrane and to enter a compartment under the membrane. the total number of pmns which had passed the pores during an hour of incubation could be counted. in this way we carried out experiments using shigella sonnei lipopolysaccharide a ...19883286487
[natural population migration and the dysentery epidemic process].the complex analysis of materials obtained in different regions and territories of the far east makes it possible to establish that the natural migration of population affects dysentery morbidity by enhancing the susceptibility of human population to this infection. the internal mechanisms of the influence exerted on morbidity by the natural migration of population is disclosed from the viewpoint of the theory of the self regulation of the epidemic process.19863524082
late intraphagosomal hydrogen ion concentration favors the in vitro antimicrobial capacity of a 37-kilodalton cationic granule protein of human neutrophil granulocytes.we described previously (w.m. shafer, l.e. martin, and j.k. spitznagel, infect. immun. 45:29-35, 1984) the presence of a 37-kilodalton cationic antimicrobial protein (37k cap) in extracts of granules prepared from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (pmn). in this investigation, we prepared 37k cap from pmn granule extracts by sequential ion-exchange and molecular-sieve chromatography and examined its antimicrobial activity against a number of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. at concen ...19863527987
salmonellae and other enteropathogenic bacteria in the intestines of wall geckos in nigeria.the aerobic bacterial flora of the intestine of 150 wall geckos (hemidactylus brookei) was investigated. a variety of bacteria was recovered including 35 isolates of salmonella and several other species of enterobacteriaceae, viz. shigella sonnei - 2, edwardsiella tarda - 4, enterobacter spp - 8, citrobacter freudii - 3, serratia marcescens - 3, proteus spp - 35, klebsiella pneumoniae - 13, and escherichia coli - 17, isolates. eight salmonella serotypes were identified, the predominant ones bein ...19863729372
role of easily released substances (ers) from bacteria into physiologic solutions in natural immunity. v. antigenic relation of bacterial ers and human gamma-globulins of the gm and inv systems. 19744141241
[the occurrence of plesiomonas chigelloides in man]. 19724144934
interbacterial transfer of r factor in the human intestine: in-vivo acquisition of r-factor-mediated kanamycin resistance by a multiresistant strain of shigella sonnei. 19724556721
opsonizing factors in human serum. i. factors inhibiting and stimulating phagocytosis of shigella sonnei (phase ii). 19674965190
cytotoxicity of human peripheral blood and colostral leukocytes against shigella species.we examined the ability of human peripheral blood leukocytes to kill strains of shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri by using a modified bactericidal assay. antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (adcc) was demonstrated in the presence of specific rabbit immune serum directed against s. sonnei. with peripheral blood leukocytes from adults, adcc was found only in the mononuclear cell and purified lymphocyte populations. monocyte-macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were unable to demon ...19846384045
[mechanism of action of secretory iga antibodies].the antiadsorptive capacity of secretory iga to sh. sonnei was revealed in experiments with shigella keratoconjunctivitis used as a model. in patients with dysentery caused by sh. sonnei iga in coprofiltrates proved to have greater capacity for agglutinating the antigen than serum iga. the presence of iga as coproantibodies in these patients sharply decreased the frequency of diagnostic seroconversions. the importance of the above-mentioned properties of siga for diagnosis and for protection fro ...19807004004
in vitro effect of endotoxin from shigella sonnei. phase i on human blood platelets and mononuclear leucocytes: comparison of "free endotoxin" with cell-extracted preparations.the in vitro effect of a purified endotoxin preparation from culture fluids of shigella sonnei, phase i (purified free endotoxin, pfe) and of three endotoxin preparations chemically extracted from the intact parent cells on human blood mononuclear leucocytes and platelets was investigated. pfe, like cell-extracted preparations, caused generation of strong procoagulant activity (tissue factor) by human mononuclear cells. pfe-stimulated cells, however, developed significantly greater activity than ...19827050635
fecal excretion of leukotriene c4 during human disease due to shigella dysenteriae.fecal excretion of leukotriene c4 was determined in 26 individuals with dysentery and in 19 healthy controls. of the patients, five were infected with shigella dysenteriae type 1, 15 were infected with shigella flexneri, two were infected with shigella boydii, and four were infected with shigella sonnei. three of the healthy controls were infected with non-dysenteriae shigellae. all isolates of shigella dysenteriae type 1 produced shiga toxin; the other strains were not toxigenic. patients with ...19957714683
comparative sensitivity of 13 species of pathogenic bacteria to seven chemical germicides.the relative resistance of diverse human bacterial pathogens to commonly used germicidal agents has not been established.19979276546
binding of shigella to rat and human intestinal mucin.invasion of epithelial cells by shigella is an early step in their pathogenesis. adherence is generally presumed to be a prerequisite for invasion. this study examined the possibility of intestinal mucins serving as initial binding sites for clinical isolates of s. boydii and s. sonnei. the interactions of shigella with rat and human small intestinal and colonic mucin were investigated. in solid phase binding assays, [35s] labelled shigella did not show any preferential binding to rat/human smal ...19989546608
[usefulness of genotypic analysis for investigation of an epidemic of shigella sonnei infections in ooami-shirasato town, chiba prefecture].in march 1996, an epidemic of shigella sonnei infection occurred in ooamishira-sato town, chiba prefecture. colicine typing, antibiotic resistance patterns, plasmid profiles, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and random amplified poly-morphic dna (rapd) were used for the investigation of the epidemic. ninety-four isolates from patients exhibited three different colicine types and five different antibiotic resistance patterns. but the patterns of plasmid profile, pfge and rapd were uniform ...19989695472
[isotyping of human c4 complement using differences in the functional activity of c4a and c4b isotypes].the difference in the functional activity of the isotypes a and b of component c4 of human complement was used to determine their ratio and to detect the inherited deficiency of the isotypes. elisa methods were developed for the quantitative assay of component c4 (conventional sandwich method) and its functional activity. when determining the functional activity, the classic pathway of the complement and therefore of component c4 was activated by activators sorbed on elisa microplates (immunoglo ...200011008645
a waterborne outbreak of small round structured virus, campylobacter and shigella co-infections in la neuveville, switzerland, outbreak of gastro-enteritis occurred in la neuveville, township with 3358 inhabitants. a retrospective cohort study of 1915 participants showed that 1607 (84%) had been ill. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 28 patient faecal samples, shigella sonnei from 21 patients and small round structured viruses (srsv) from 6 patients. more than one pathogen was identified in eight persons. the epidemic curve was characteristic of a point-source outbreak. the risk for illness was significantly hig ...200011117956
effect of antipyretic therapy on the duration of illness in experimental influenza a, shigella sonnei, and rickettsia rickettsii determine whether antipyretic therapy prolongs the course of experimental influenza a, shigella sonnei, and rickettsia rickettsii infections.200011130213
synthesis and antibacterial activity of fused mannich mannich ketones of fused bicyclic ketones as 1-indanones and 1-tetralones were prepared using the classical acid-catalysed mannich reaction. known members of this family were used in comparative biological tests. antibacterial activity of these new water-soluble compounds was reported against pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, e. coli red31m4, salmonella minnesota re595, shigella sonnei re4350, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus saprophyticus, micrococcus luteus and bacillus subtil ...200212446038
microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases.many classes of pathogens excreted in feces are able to initiate waterborne infections. there are bacterial pathogens, including enteric and aquatic bacteria, enteric viruses, and enteric protozoa, which are strongly resistant in the water environment and to most disinfectants. the infection dose of viral and protozoan agents is lower than bacteria, in the range of one to ten infectious units or oocysts. waterborne outbreaks of bacterial origin (particularly typhoid fever) in the developing coun ...200212546197
[antibiotic treatment of shigella sonnei gastroenteritis].the interest of antibiotic treatment of shigella infections: to reduce the carriage and contamination, duration of the symptoms and the risk of complications. the evolution of the treatment: over the past years, strains of shigella sonnei have become resistant to aminopenicillin and cotrimoxazole (treatment recommended till now) and now predominate. inter-human transmission: the shigella reservoir is human. the bacteria are easily transmitted in fecal-oral mode. the populations most at risk are ...200415614179
interferon gamma induces translocation of commensal escherichia coli across gut epithelial cells via a lipid raft-mediated process.the "leaky gut" hypothesis proposes that leakage of enteric bacteria into the body resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier is a critical step in the pathophysiology of various disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and sepsis. however, the pathways and underlying mechanisms by which commensal bacteria cross the epithelial barrier in inflammatory conditions remain unclear. this study investigated the mechanisms of interferon gamma-mediated bacterial translocation across human co ...200515887109
genome dynamics and diversity of shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery.the shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. the genus status and species classification appear no longer valid, as compelling evidence indicates that shigella, as well as enteroinvasive escherichia coli, are derived from multiple origins of e.coli and form a single pathovar. nevertheless, shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 causes deadly epidemics but shigella boydii is restricted to the indian subcontinent, while shigella flexneri and shigel ...200516275786
comparison of antagonistic ability against enteropathogens by g+ and g- anaerobic dominant components of human fecal confirm if anaerobic g+-components are those responsible for the function of colonization resistance, obligate anaerobic g+- and g- -bacteria from normal dominant microbiota of human feces were isolated from three successive collections and then used in in vitro assays for antagonism against two enteropathogenic bacteria. the production of inhibitory diffusible compounds was determined on supplemented bhi agar and mrs agar media for g- - and g+-bacteria, respectively. salmonella enterica subs ...200616821725
shigella sonnei biotype g carrying class 2 integrons in southern italy: a retrospective typing study by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.emergence and global dissemination of multiresistant strains of enteric pathogens is a very concerning problem from both epidemiological and public health points of view. shigella sonnei is the serogroup of shigella most frequently responsible for sporadic and epidemic enteritis in developed countries. the dissemination is associated most often to human to human transmission, but foodborne episodes have also been described. in recent years the circulation of multiresistant strains of s. sonnei b ...200616846516
vaccine potential for inactivated shigellae.we used human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (dc) and balb/c mice as models to establish the immunogenic and protective potential of formalin-inactivated shigella spp. incubation of dc with inactivated or live bacteria induced dc maturation and cytokine release. mice immunized orally or intranasally with killed s. flexneri, s. sonnei, or s. dysenteriae developed igg and fecal iga titers to the homologous lps. following respiratory challenge with the live homologous organisms, 80-100% survival ...200717178431
a potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin e acetate, from dioscorea bulbifera l. against multidrug-resistant bacteria.bioassay-guided fractionation of an aqueous methanolic extract of dioscorea bulbifera l. bulbs was performed using organic solvents. a novel plasmid-curing compound was identified as 8-epidiosbulbin e acetate (eea) (norditerpene) on the basis of modern spectroscopic analysis and x-ray crystallography. eea exhibited broad-spectrum plasmid-curing activity against multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacteria, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci. eea cured antibiotic resistance plasmids (r-plasmids) fr ...200818718743
phenotypic characterization and genomic analysis of the shigella sonnei bacteriophage sp18.a novel bacteriophage that infects shigella sonnei was isolated from the gap river in korea, and its phenotypic and genomic characteristics were investigated. the virus, called sp18, showed morphology characteristic of the family myoviridae, and phylogenetic analysis of major capsid gene (gp23) sequences classified it as a t4-like phage. based on host spectrum analysis, it is lytic to s. sonnei, but not to shigella flexneri, shigella boydii or members of the genera escherichia and salmonella. py ...201020437154
reduced azithromycin susceptibility in shigella sonnei, united investigate azithromycin susceptibility in shigella sonnei in the united states, we examined the azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of outbreak and routine human s. sonnei isolates. isolate susceptibility clustered at 8 mg/l, but three isolates displayed higher mics (>64  mg/l) to azithromycin. all three isolates contained a plasmid-encoded mpha gene, known to encode a macrolide-2'-phosphotransferase enzyme. transformation of the mpha gene into escherichia coli dh10b allowe ...201020624094
rapid multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis of shigella spp. using multicolour capillary electrophoresis.the multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (mlva) method for genotyping has proven to be a fast and reliable typing tool in several bacterial species. mlva is in our laboratory the routine typing method for salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium, escherichia coli (two assays), listeria monocytogenes and yersinia enterocolitica. the gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium shigella is the most common cause of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) worldwide, a ...201020951171
proinflammatory fecal mrna and childhood bacterial enteric infections.introduction: assessment of specific mrnas in human samples is useful in characterizing disease. however, mrna in human stool has been understudied. results: compared to controls, infected stools showed increased transcripts of il-1β, il-8 and calprotectin. mrna and protein concentrations correlated for il-8, but not for calprotectin. discussion: stool mrna quantification offers a potentially useful, noninvasive way to assess inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, and may be more sensitive ...201021327027
lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human colonic mucosal biopsy inhibits the growth and adhesion of enteric and foodborne pathogens.a number of lactobacillus species are used as probiotic strains in order to benefit health. we have isolated l. fermentum from human colonic mucosal biopsy samples that possess antimicrobial activities against entroinvasive and foodborne pathogens such as escherichia coli, salmonella paratyphi a, shigella sonnei, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vibrio sp. in addition to lactic acid, l. fermentum secretes antimicrobial proteinacious com ...201021535608
shigella sonnei vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are as immunogenic as wrss1, a clinically tested vaccine candidate, in a primate model of infection.shigella causes diarrhea and dysentery through contaminated food and water. shigella sonnei live vaccine candidates wrss2 and wrss3 are attenuated principally by the loss of virg(icsa) that prevents bacterial spread within the colonic epithelium. in this respect they are similar to the clinically tested vaccine candidate wrss1. however, wrss2 and wrss3 are further attenuated by loss of sena, senb and wrss3 also lacks msbb2. as previously shown in cell culture assays and in small animal models, t ...201121596086
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