the efficacy of co-feeding as a means of maintaining borrelia burgdorferi: a north american model system.although research on co-feeding as a means of maintaining tick-borne pathogens has focused chiefly on viruses, recent interest has been directed toward the importance of this phenomenon in maintaining the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. in the current study, an experimental model was developed to determine under what conditions immature co-feeding ticks exchange b. burgdorferi using the principal north american vector (ixodes scapularis) and reservoir (peromyscus leucopus) species ...200111813659
the ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on lyme disease risk.the extent to which the biodiversity and community composition of ecosystems affect their functions is an issue that grows ever more compelling as human impacts on ecosystems increase. we present evidence that supports a novel function of vertebrate biodiversity, the buffering of human risk of exposure to lyme-disease-bearing ticks. we tested the dilution effect model, which predicts that high species diversity in the community of tick hosts reduces vector infection prevalence by diluting the ef ...200312525705
lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi endemic at epicenter in rondeau provincial park, ontario.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner was discovered in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say at rondeau provincial park, ontario, canada during this 2-yr study, spirochetes were found in b. burgdorferi-positive i. scapularis larvae attached to b. burgdorferi-infected white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque. isolates of b. burgdorferi were cultured from blacklegged tick adults, and confirmed positive with polymerase chain ...200312597659
effects of climate on variability in lyme disease incidence in the northeastern united states.numbers of reported lyme disease cases have increased dramatically over the past decade in the northeastern united states, but the year-to-year variability is sizable (average standard deviation approximately 30% of the mean). an improved understanding of the causes of such variability would aid in prevention and control of the disease, which is transmitted by a spirochete carried in the "black-legged" tick, ixodes scapularis. in this study, the variability in reported lyme disease incidence bet ...200312631543
a relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by ixodes scapularis ticks.a species of borrelia spirochetes previously unknown from north america has been found to be transmitted by ixodes scapularis ticks. infected ticks are positive for borrelia spp. by dfa test but negative for borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using species-specific primers for 16s rdna, outer surface protein a, outer surface protein c, and flagellin genes. a 1,347-bp portion of 16s rdna was amplified from a pool of infected nymphs, sequenced, and compared with the homologous ...200112653133
ospa immunization decreases transmission of borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes from infected peromyscus leucopus mice to larval ixodes scapularis ticks.recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) vaccination of wild animal reservoirs has potential application for reducing borrelia burgdorferi transmission in nature and subsequent risk of human infection. as a major reservoir host, the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) is a candidate for a vaccination program designed to reduce infection prevalence in vector ticks. in this study we characterized the effect of various levels of immunization with recombinant ospa-glutathione transferase fusi ...200112653137
spatiotemporal variation in a lyme disease host and vector: black-legged ticks on white-footed mice.we monitored population density of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), burdens of immature black-legged ticks (ixodes scapularis) on mice, and infection prevalence of host-seeking ticks on six forest plots in southeastern new york state from 1995 through 1999. despite densities of mice that fluctuated two orders of magnitude, average larval and nymphal tick burdens per mouse remained remarkably constant. spatial variability in mouse density and tick burdens was modest. the total number of l ...200112653143
interference between the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a natural reservoir host.agents of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (ehrlichia phagocytophila) are perpetuated in a natural cycle involving the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis) and its vertebrate hosts. using i. scapularis nymphs as the mode of infectious challenge, we studied how infection with one pathogen in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) affects their ability to acquire the other agent and subsequently to infect larvae, which these agents would do in nature. two g ...200112653144
analysis of weather effects on variability in lyme disease incidence in the northeastern united this study, variability in reported lyme disease incidence between 1993 and 2001 was analyzed in seven states in the northeastern part of the usa. positive significant correlations at p < 0.05 were found in all states between early summer disease incidence and the june moisture index in the region two years prior. these correlations may reflect an enhanced nymphal ixodes scapularis survival under wetter conditions. in some states, significant correlations were observed related to warmer winte ...200214570138
bacteriolytic activity of selected vertebrate sera for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and borrelia in vitro assay to evaluate the bacteriolytic activity of the complement pathway was applied to 2 strains of borrelia bissettii, co501 and dn127, and compared with that of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto b31. sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and the western fence lizard (sceloporus occidentalis) were completely borreliacidal for b. burgdorferi and for both strains of b. bissettii. serum from bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus) was nonlytic for b. burgdorferi and partially lytic for b. b ...200314740924
lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, endemic in epicenter at turkey point, ontario.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, was discovered in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say at turkey point, ontario, canada. we report the first isolation of b. burgdorferi from a vertebrate animal collected on mainland ontario. during this 2-yr study, spirochetes were isolated from the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque, and attached i. scapularis larvae. similarly, isolates of b. burgdorferi were cultured from ...200415061282
borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of peromyscus leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where lyme borreliosis is highly endemic.blood samples from peromyscus leucopus mice captured at an enzootic site in connecticut were examined for antibodies to and dna of borrelia burgdorferi, to characterize the dynamics of infection in this reservoir population. from trappings conducted over the course of 2 transmission seasons, 598 (75%) of 801 serum samples from 514 mice were found to be positive by enzyme immunoassay. seropositivity correlated with date of capture and mouse age, was similar among locations within the site, increa ...200415073690
interaction and transmission of two borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in a tick-rodent maintenance the northeastern united states, the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is maintained by enzoonotic transmission, cycling between white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and black-legged ticks (ixodes scapularis). b. burgdorferi sensu stricto is genetically variable and has been divided into three major genotypes based on 16s-23s ribosomal dna spacer (rst) analysis. to better understand how genetic differences in b. burgdorferi sensu stricto may influence transmission dyna ...200415528545
populations of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) are modulated by drought at a lyme disease focus in illinois.from 1990 through 1997, ixodes scapularis say larvae and nymphs were sampled between may and october along a 400-m segment of a nature trail in a lyme disease endemic site in northern illinois. ticks were removed from peromyscus leucopus mice and collected via tick drags at approximately 3-wk intervals. mouse population estimates along the trail varied from 2, in the spring of 1996 following a year of drought, to > 200 in 1993, the wettest year on record. during the 8-yr period, there were major ...200015535585
lyme disease--a hazard of an appointment to the united states.lyme disease is just one of the many tick borne diseases to be encountered within the united states that can affect humans. to the visitor who confines their time to major conurbations the risk of contracting lyme disease is minimal. however, anyone planning a hiking trip during tick season must take precautions to prevent being bitten and possibly infected. for those of us who live within an endemic area the shower after a days gardening is not just to remove sweat and dirt but also an opportun ...200415580952
control of immature ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) on rodent reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi in a residential community of southeastern connecticut.a 3-yr community-based study was conducted on residential properties on mason's island, mystic, ct, to determine the efficacy of a rodent-targeted acaricide (fipronil) to control immature ixodes scapularis (say) on peromyscus leucopus. results indicated that modified commercial bait boxes were effective as an acaricide delivery method for reducing nymphal and larval tick infestations on white-footed mice by 68 and 84%, respectively. passive application of fipronil significantly reduced the infec ...200415605643
an ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the lyme disease cycle.many pathogens, such as the agents of west nile encephalitis and plague, are maintained in nature by animal reservoirs and transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors. efforts to reduce disease incidence usually rely on vector control or immunization of humans. lyme disease, for which no human vaccine is currently available, is a commonly reported vector-borne disease in north america and europe. in a recently developed, ecological approach to disease prevention, we intervened in the natural cycl ...200415608069
presence of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in southern kettle moraine state forest, wisconsin, and characterization of strain w97f51.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner; babesiosis, caused by babesia microti franca; and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum bakken & dumler have been reported in wisconsin, mainly in the endemic areas of the northwestern part of the state. people exposed to blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, from this region can potentially contract one or all of these diseases concurrently. within the past several year ...200515962800
effectiveness of metarhizium anisopliae (deuteromycetes) against ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) engorging on peromnyscus leucopus.with the incidence of lyme disease increasing throughout the united states, reducing risk of exposure to the disease is of the utmost concern. in the northeastern u.s., the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector and the white-footed mouse, (peromyscus leucopus), the primary reservoir for borrelia burgdorteri, the bacterium causing lyme disease. targeting i. scapularis engorging on white-footed mice with an effective biological control agent, such as the fungus metarhizium ani ...200516007961
host associations of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in residential and natural settings in a lyme disease-endemic area in new jersey.we live-trapped small mammals and flagged vegetation within wooded natural and residential landscapes to examine how any observed differences in small mammal species composition may influence ixodes scapularis say burdens and the abundance of host-seeking ticks. two years of live trapping showed that eastern chipmunks, tamias striatus, were captured with significantly greater frequency in some residential areas than white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, whereas the proportion of white-footed m ...200516465736
a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of borrelia burgdorferi 16s rrna for highly sensitive quantification of pathogen load in a vector.we developed a real-time quantitative detection assay for the pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, a lyme borreliosis (lb) agent, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with primers and probe for a borrelia genus-specific region of 16s ribosomal rna. the standard curve of the assay was linear by semi-log plot over more than five orders of magnitude, and the detection limit of the assay was one thousandth of a single cell of b. burgdorferi. the minimum target level for detection ...200616584333
climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk.risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. we assessed the determinants of lyme-disease risk (density and borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of us lyme disease (dutchess county, new york). we used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season te ...200616669698
genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in peromyscus leucopus, the primary reservoir of lyme disease in a region of endemicity in southern the north central and northeastern united states, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of lyme disease (ld), is maintained in an enzootic cycle between the vector, ixodes scapularis, and the primary reservoir host, peromyscus leucopus. genetic diversity of the pathogen based on sequencing of two plasmid-located genes, those for outer surface protein a (ospa) and outer surface protein c (ospc), has been examined in both tick and human specimens at local, regional, and worldw ...200616885284
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals in new york state.intensive small mammal trapping was conducted in 12 counties in new york state during 1998-2000 to investigate the prevalence and site specificity of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi in, and presence of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say on, the wild mice peromyscus leucopus rafinesque and peromyscus maniculatus wagner and other small mammal species. previously captured mice (1992-1997) from throughout new york state also were recruited into the study, providing a total ...200617017230
vector seasonality, host infection dynamics and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the tick ixodes of tick-borne pathogens may be determined by the degree to which their infection dynamics in vertebrate hosts permits transmission cycles if infective and uninfected tick stages are active at different times of the year. to investigate this hypothesis we developed a simulation model that integrates the transmission pattern imposed by seasonally asynchronous nymphal and larval ixodes scapularis ticks in northeastern north america, with a model of infection in white-footed mice (peromyscus ...200717032476
deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in southern coastal maine woodlands.we evaluated the relationships between forest understory structure and the abundance of questing adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say (acari: ixodidae), in three maine towns endemic for lyme disease, 2001-2003. in fragmented new england woodlands, over-abundant white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmerman, overbrowse palatable species, allowing browse-resistant exotic-invasive species to replace native forest understory structures. we predicted there would be more ti ...200617162946
mammal diversity and infection prevalence in the maintenance of enzootic borrelia burgdorferi along the western coastal plains of maryland.the primary vector of borrelia burgdorferi in north america, ixodes scapularis, feeds on various mammalian, avian, and reptilian hosts. several small mammal hosts; peromyscus leucopus, tamias striatus, microtus pennsylvanicus, and blarina spp. can serve as reservoirs in an enzootic cycle of lyme disease. the primary reservoir in the northeast united states is the white-footed mouse, p. leucopus. the infection prevalence of this reservoir as well as the roles of potential secondary reservoirs has ...200617187577
antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti in white-footed mice.serum samples were obtained from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in tick-infested areas of connecticut during the period 2001 through 2003 and analyzed for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti. emphasis was placed on the evaluations of highly specific recombinant vlse or protein (p) 44 antigens of b. burgdorferi and a. phagocytophilum, respectively, in a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) as well as testing sera with wh ...200617255439
presence of multiple variants of borrelia burgdorferi in the natural reservoir peromyscus leucopus throughout a transmission season.white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) serve as the principal reservoir for borrelia burgdorferi and have been shown to remain infected for life. complex infections with multiple genetic variants of b. burgdorferi occur in mice through multiple exposures to infected ticks or through exposure to ticks infected with multiple variants of b. burgdorferi. using a combination of cloning and single strand conformation polymorphism (sscp), b. burgdorferi ospc variation was assessed in serial samples co ...200818399776
a genome-wide proteome array reveals a limited set of immunogens in natural infections of humans and white-footed mice with borrelia burgdorferi.humans and other animals with lyme borreliosis produce antibodies to a number of components of the agent borrelia burgdorferi, but a full accounting of the immunogens during natural infections has not been achieved. employing a protein array produced in vitro from 1,292 dna fragments representing approximately 80% of the genome, we compared the antibody reactivities of sera from patients with early or later lyme borreliosis to the antibody reactivities of sera from controls. overall, approximate ...200818474646
projected effects of climate change on tick phenology and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the north american tick ixodes scapularis.ixodes scapularis is the principal tick vector of the lyme borreliosis agent borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne zoonoses in northeastern north america. the degree of seasonal synchrony of nymphal and larval ticks may be important in influencing the basic reproductive number of the pathogens transmitted by i. scapularis. because the seasonal phenology of tick vectors is partly controlled by ambient temperature, climate and climate change could shape the population biology of tick-borne pat ...200818634803
multiple causes of variable tick burdens on small-mammal hosts.blood meals by blacklegged ticks (ixodes scapularis) on vertebrate hosts serve to transmit the agents of several zoonotic diseases, including lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, between host and tick. if ticks are aggregated on hosts, a small proportion of hosts may be responsible for most transmission events. therefore, a key element in understanding and controlling the transmission of these pathogens is identifying the group(s) or individuals feeding a dispropo ...200818724736
managing japanese barberry (ranunculales: berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (acari: ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae).in many connecticut forests with an overabundance of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus zimmermann), japanese barberry (berberis thunbergii dc) has become the dominant understory shrub, which may provide a habitat favorable to blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis say) and white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus rafinesque) survival. to determine mouse and larval tick abundances at three replicate sites over 2 yr, mice were trapped in unmanipulated dense barberry infestations, areas where b ...200919689875
niche partitioning of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species.the lyme borreliosis agent borrelia burgdorferi and the relapsing fever group species borrelia miyamotoi co-occur in the united states. we used species-specific, quantitative polymerase chain reaction to study both species in the blood and skin of peromyscus leucopus mice and host-seeking ixodes scapularis nymphs at a connecticut site. bacteremias with b. burgdorferi or b. miyamotoi were most prevalent during periods of greatest activity for nymphs or larvae, respectively. whereas b. burgdorferi ...200919996447
borrelia burgdorferi has minimal impact on the lyme disease reservoir host peromyscus leucopus.the epidemiology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases is determined by encounter rates between vectors and hosts. alterations to the behavior of reservoir hosts caused by the infectious agent have the potential to dramatically alter disease transmission and human risk. we examined the effect of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, on one of its most important reservoir hosts, the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus. we mimic natural infections in mice using the vector (b ...201120569016
linking disease and community ecology through behavioural indicators: immunochallenge of white-footed mice and its ecological impacts.1. pathogens and immune challenges can induce changes in host phenotype in ways that indirectly impact important community interactions, including those that affect host-pathogen interactions. 2. to explore host behavioural response to immune challenge, we exposed wild white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) to an immunogen from an endemic, zoonotic pathogen, the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. white-footed mice are a major reservoir host of lyme disease (ld) spirochetes in northeastern usa and ...201120796206
ixodes scapularis and borrelia burgdorferi among diverse habitats within a natural area in east-central illinois.abstract the distributions of the tick vector, ixodes scapularis, and of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi (bb), have continued expanding in illinois over the past 20 years, but the extent of their spread is not well known. the role of multiple habitats in the establishment and maintenance of i. scapularis and bb at local scales is not well understood, and the use of integrated approaches to evaluate local scale dynamics is rare. we evaluated habitat diversity and tempora ...201121688974
development of a baited oral vaccine for use in reservoir-targeted strategies against lyme disease.lyme disease is a major human health problem which continues to increase in incidence and geographic distribution. as a vector-borne zoonotic disease, lyme disease may be amenable to reservoir targeted strategies for control. we have previously reported that a vaccinia virus (vv) based vaccine expressing outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, protects inbred strains of laboratory mice against infection by feeding ticks and clears the ticks of ...201121816190
associations between ixodes scapularis ticks and small mammal hosts in a newly endemic zone in southeastern canada: implications for borrelia burgdorferi transmission.immature ixodes scapularis infestation and borrelia burgdorferi infection of wild small mammals were studied from june to october in 2007 and from may to october in 2008 at 71 study sites in a zone where i. scapularis populations and environmental lyme disease risk are emerging in southwestern quebec. seasonal host-seeking activity of immature i. scapularis was similar to patterns reported previously in canada and the usa: nymphal activity peaked in spring while larval activity peaked in late su ...201122108010
agents of human anaplasmosis and lyme disease at camp ripley, minnesota.the transmission dynamics of anaplasma phagocytophilum (ap) and borrelia burgdorferi (bb) among ixodes scapularis (is) and mammalian hosts was investigated at camp ripley, an area representative of central minnesota. prevalence of white-footed mouse infection with ap and bb were 20% and 42%, respectively, with a coinfection level of 14%. peak levels of infection with both agents occurred in may. the average levels of seropositivity to ap and bb were 29.3% and 48%, respectively. of the mice infec ...201121867420
field studies on lyme disease in north america.the primary tick vector of borrelia burgdorferi in eastern and central north america is ixodes dammini; in western north america, ixodes pacificus. searching for the appropriate vector is the first step in determining whether a region is endemic and enzootic for the spirochete b burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, followed by examination of the ticks (questing or already attached to hosts) and wildlife for the spirochete. questing ticks can be collected through a variety of metho ...199122529709
experimental infections of the reservoir species peromyscus leucopus with diverse strains of borrelia burgdorferi, a lyme disease agent.the rodent peromyscus leucopus is a major natural reservoir for the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi and a host for its vector ixodes scapularis. at various locations in northeastern united states 10 to 15 b. burgdorferi strains coexist at different prevalences in tick populations. we asked whether representative strains of high or low prevalence differed in their infections of p. leucopus. after 5 weeks of experimental infection of groups with each of 6 isolates, distributions and burden ...201223221801
potential role of deer tick virus in powassan encephalitis cases in lyme disease-endemic areas of new york, u.s.a.powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. the prototype lineage of powassan virus (powv) is principally maintained between ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (marmota momax) or striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (dtv) lineage is believed to be maintained between ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus). we report 14 cases of powassan encephalit ...201324274334
poleward expansion of the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) under climate change: implications for the spread of lyme disease.the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) is an important reservoir host for borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen responsible for lyme disease, and its distribution is expanding northward. we used an ecological niche factor analysis to identify the climatic factors associated with the distribution shift of the white-footed mouse over the last 30 years at the northern edge of its range, and modeled its current and potential future (2050) distributions using the platform biomod. a mild and shorte ...201324260464
feeding of ticks on animals for transmission and xenodiagnosis in lyme disease research.transmission of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, occurs by the attachment and blood feeding of ixodes species ticks on mammalian hosts. in nature, this zoonotic bacterial pathogen may use a variety of reservoir hosts, but the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) is the primary reservoir for larval and nymphal ticks in north america. humans are incidental hosts most frequently infected with b. burgdorferi by the bite of ticks in the nymphal stage. b. burgdorferi adap ...201324022694
serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti in recaptured white-footed mice.a mark-release-recapture study was conducted during 2007 through 2010 in six, tick-infested sites in connecticut, united states to measure changes in antibody titers for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti in peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mice). there was an overall recapture rate of 40%, but only four tagged mice were caught in ≥2 yr. sera from 561 mice were analyzed for total antibodies to b. burgdorferi and a. phagocytophilum by using whole-c ...201323568904
identification of borrelia burgdorferi ospc genotypes in host tissue and feeding ticks by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms.we developed a high-throughput method based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (t-rflp) to identify ospc genotypes from field-collected samples of borrelia burgdorferi. we first validated the method by analyzing b. burgdorferi ospc previously identified by sequencing. we then analyzed and compared ospc genotypes detected from ear biopsy tissue from natural populations of the white-footed mouse, a major b. burgdorferi reservoir host species in the eastern united states, and lar ...201323183976
borrelia burgdorferi promotes the establishment of babesia microti in the northeastern united states.babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi, the respective causative agents of human babesiosis and lyme disease, are maintained in their enzootic cycles by the blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) and use the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) as primary reservoir host. the geographic range of both pathogens has expanded in the united states, but the spread of babesiosis has lagged behind that of lyme disease. several studies have estimated the basic reproduction number (r0) for b. microti ...201425545393
emergence of ixodes scapularis and borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease vector and agent, in ohio.lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the united states, is caused by a tick-borne infection with borrelia burgdorferi. currently, ohio is considered by the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) to be non-endemic for lyme disease. the low incidence of lyme disease in this state was largely attributed to the absence of the transmitting vector, ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged tick. however, a tick surveillance program established by ohio department o ...201424926441
climate change and habitat fragmentation drive the occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, at the northeastern limit of its distribution.lyme borreliosis is rapidly emerging in canada, and climate change is likely a key driver of the northern spread of the disease in north america. we used field and modeling approaches to predict the risk of occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria causing lyme disease in north america. we combined climatic and landscape variables to model the current and future (2050) potential distribution of the black-legged tick and the white-footed mouse at the northeastern range limit of lyme diseas ...201425469157
lyme disease risk not amplified in a species-poor vertebrate community: similar borrelia burgdorferi tick infection prevalence and ospc genotype frequencies.the effect of biodiversity declines on human health is currently debated, but empirical assessments are lacking. lyme disease provides a model system to assess relationships between biodiversity and human disease because the etiologic agent, borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted in the united states by the generalist black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis) among a wide range of mammalian and avian hosts. the 'dilution effect' hypothesis predicts that species-poor host communities dominated by white ...201424787999
geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of lyme disease emergence in the thousand islands archipelago of ontario, the thousand islands region of eastern ontario, canada, lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. the factors that influence lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern north america. despite study sites in the thousand islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of b. burgdorferi infecti ...201424416435
phylogeographic structure of the white-footed mouse and the deer mouse, two lyme disease reservoir hosts in québec.modification of a species range is one of many consequences of climate change and is driving the emergence of lyme disease in eastern canada. the primary reservoir host of the bacteria responsible for lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, is the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), whose range is rapidly shifting north into southern québec. the deer mouse, p. maniculatus, is occurring over most québec province and is a less competent host for b. burgdorferi. here, we compared the phylogeograp ...201526633555
disruption of bbe02 by insertion of a luciferase gene increases transformation efficiency of borrelia burgdorferi and allows live imaging in lyme disease susceptible c3h mice.lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in north america and europe. the causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi persists in the white-footed mouse. infection with b. burgdorferi can cause acute to persistent multisystemic lyme disease in humans. some disease manifestations are also exhibited in the mouse model of lyme disease. genetic manipulation of b. burgdorferi remains difficult. first, b. burgdorferi contains a large number of endogenous plasmids with unique sequences encoding ...201526069970
association between body size and reservoir competence of mammals bearing borrelia burgdorferi at an endemic site in the northeastern united states.the reservoirs for the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi, are dominated by several different small to medium sized mammals in eastern north america.201526024881
broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse peromyscus leucopus to borrelia infection and antigens.peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse, is one of the more abundant mammals of north america and is a major reservoir host for at least five tickborne diseases of humans, including lyme disease and a newly-recognized form of relapsing fever. in comparison to mus musculus, which is not a natural reservoir for any of these infections, there has been little research on experimental infections in p. leucopus. with the aim of further characterizing the diversity of phenotypes of host responses, ...201526005106
the lyme disease pathogen has no effect on the survival of its rodent reservoir host.zoonotic pathogens that cause devastating morbidity and mortality in humans may be relatively harmless in their natural reservoir hosts. the tick-borne bacterium borrelia burgdorferi causes lyme disease in humans but few studies have investigated whether this pathogen reduces the fitness of its reservoir hosts under natural conditions. we analyzed four years of capture-mark-recapture (cmr) data on a population of white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, to test whether b. burgdorferi and its tick ...201525688863
prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum and babesia microti in ixodes scapularis from a newly established lyme disease endemic area, the thousand islands region of ontario, canada.blacklegged ticks (ixodes scapularis) are vectors for several important human diseases, including lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga), and human babesiosis, caused by borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti, respectively. the continued northward range expansion of blacklegged ticks and associated pathogens is an increasing public health concern in canada. the thousand islands region of eastern ontario has recently been identified as a new endemic area ...201526393476
detection of babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in host-seeking ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in monmouth county, new jersey.the etiological agents that cause human babesiosis (babesia microti) and lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) share a common tick vector (ixodes scapularis say) and rodent reservoir (peromyscus leucopus), but because the geographical distribution of babesiosis is more restricted than lyme disease, it was not considered a nationally notifiable disease until 2011. although recent studies have shown dramatic increases in the number of cases of babesiosis and expansion of its range, little is known a ...201323540127
closely-related borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. however, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of ...201728166814
co-feeding transmission facilitates strain coexistence in borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent.coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. in a ...201628089780
stable transmission of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto on the outer banks of north carolina.the spirochaete (borrelia burgdorferi) associated with lyme disease was detected in questing ticks and rodents during a period of 18 years, 1991-2009, at five locations on the outer banks of north carolina. the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis) was collected at varied intervals between 1991 and 2009 and examined for b. burgdorferi. the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), house mouse (mus musculus) marsh rice rat (oryzomys palustris), marsh rabbit (sylvilagus palustris), eastern cottont ...201627966833
a method to distinguish morphologically similar peromyscus species using extracellular rna and high-resolution melt analysis.a method applying high-resolution melt (hrm) analysis to pcr products copied and amplified from extracellular rna (exrna) has been developed to distinguish two morphologically similar peromyscus species: peromyscus leucopus and peromyscus maniculatus. p. leucopus is considered the primary reservoir host of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent for lyme disease in north america. in northern minnesota the habitat ranges of p. leucopus overlaps with that of p. maniculatus. serum samples from li ...201627349513
[lyme disease: an update].lyme disease is an emerging infection caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. it is the most common vector-borne disease in the usa and europe, and it is transmitted to humans through the bite of ticks of the genus ixodes. its animal reservoirs are the white-tailed deer, the white-footed mouse, and other small mammals. it is considered the new "great imitator", with its diagnosis being a major challenge. traditionally it is divided into four stages, early localized disease, early dissemin ...201424481435
genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of lyme disease in southern québec.the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) has expanded its northern limit into southern québec over the last few decades. p. leucopus is a great disperser and colonizer and is of particular interest because it is considered a primary reservoir for the spirochete bacterium that causes lyme disease. there is no current information on the gene flow between mouse populations on the mountains and forest fragments found scattered throughout the montérégie region in southern québec, and whether vari ...201323919153
inferring epitopes of a polymorphic antigen amidst broadly cross-reactive antibodies using protein microarrays: a study of ospc proteins of borrelia burgdorferi.epitope mapping studies aim to identify the binding sites of antibody-antigen interactions to enhance the development of vaccines, diagnostics and immunotherapeutic compounds. however, mapping is a laborious process employing time- and resource-consuming 'wet bench' techniques or epitope prediction software that are still in their infancy. for polymorphic antigens, another challenge is characterizing cross-reactivity between epitopes, teasing out distinctions between broadly cross-reactive respo ...201323826301
predicted outcomes of vaccinating wildlife to reduce human risk of lyme disease.vaccination efforts for lyme disease prevention in humans have focused on wildlife reservoirs to target the causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, for elimination in vector ticks. multiple host species are involved in the transmission and maintenance of the bacterium, but not all host species can be vaccinated effectively. to evaluate vaccinating a subset of hosts in the context of host-tick interactions, we constructed and evaluated a dynamic model of b. burgdorferi transmission in mice. our an ...201222251312
infection resistance and tolerance in peromyscus spp., natural reservoirs of microbes that are virulent for humans.the widely-distributed north american species peromyscus leucopus and p. maniculatus of cricetine rodents are, between them, important natural reservoirs for several zoonotic diseases of humans: lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, erhlichiosis, hard tickborne relapsing fever, powassan virus encephalitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and plague. while these infections are frequently disabling and sometimes fatal for humans, the peromyscines display little pathology and ap ...201727381345
isolation of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia mayonii from naturally infected rodents in minnesota.borrelia mayonii is a newly described member of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that is vectored by the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis say) and a cause of lyme disease in minnesota and wisconsin. vertebrate reservoir hosts involved in the enzootic maintenance of b. mayonii have not yet been identified. here, we describe the first isolation of b. mayonii from naturally infected white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus rafinesque) and an american red squirrel (tamiasciurus hudsonic ...201728444198
liver microbiome of peromyscus leucopus, a key reservoir host species for emerging infectious diseases in north america.microbiome studies generally focus on the gut microbiome, which is composed of a large proportion of commensal bacteria. here we propose a first analysis of the liver microbiome using next generation sequencing as a tool to detect potentially pathogenic strains. we used peromyscus leucopus, the main reservoir host species of lyme disease in eastern north america, as a model and sequenced v5-v6 regions of the 16s gene from 18 populations in southern quebec (canada). the lactobacillus genus was fo ...201728412525
acquisition of borrelia burgdorferi infection by larval ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) associated with engorgement measures.measuring rates of acquisition of the lyme disease pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, by the larval stage of ixodes scapularis say is a useful tool for xenodiagnoses of b. burgdorferi in vertebrate hosts. in the nymphal and adult stages of i. scapularis, the duration of attachment to hosts has been shown to predict both body engorgement during blood feeding and the timing of infection with b. burgdorferi. however, these relationships have not ...201728399208
when is a parasite not a parasite? effects of larval tick burdens on white-footed mouse survival.many animal species can carry considerable burdens of ectoparasites: parasites living on the outside of a host's body. ectoparasite infestation can decrease host survival, but the magnitude and even direction of survival effects can vary depending on the type of ectoparasite and the nature and duration of the association. when ectoparasites also serve as vectors of pathogens, the effects of ectoparasite infestation on host survival have the potential to alter disease dynamics by regulating host ...201425000767
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