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vegetation structure influences the burden of immature ixodes dammini on its main host, peromyscus leucopus.to determine whether the relative abundance of immature ixodes dammini (the vector of lyme disease and human babesiosis) is related to habitat structure, we examined tick burdens on their main host, the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), in 4 structurally diverse sites on great island, massachusetts, usa. vegetation structure at each site was quantified with respect to 25 habitat variables. principal components analysis was used to reduce this set of habitat variables to seven new and ort ...19921437266
distribution of the lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin was confirmed at long point, lake erie, ontario, on small mammals and white-tailed deer and by dragging for ticks. mean intensities of up to 16.2 larvae and 2.1 nymphs were found on peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), with an overall prevalence of infestation up to 92%. adult i. dammini (101.6 +/- 77.63) (mean +/- sd) were found on 8 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman). the seasonal pattern of recovery of ticks from hosts and th ...19921460617
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) from ixodes scapularis and dermacentor albipictus ticks (acari: ixodidae) in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from ixodes scapularis say and dermacentor albipictus packard that were removed as partially fed adults from white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmermann, in oklahoma. isolation in media was accomplished only after homogenates of pooled field-collected ticks were inoculated into laboratory-reared peromyscus leucopus and reisolated from the urinary bladder into bsk ii media. both isolates were confirmed by western blot analysis and reactivity with monoclo ...19921495072
third-year evaluation of host-targeted permethrin for the control of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern connecticut.the impact of commercially available permethrin-treated cotton balls targeted at ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin on white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, was evaluated for a third year at five residential sites in south-central connecticut. each site had been treated twice each year from 1989 through 1991 with sufficient product to treat 0.4 ha of mouse habitat, and results were compared with five untreated sites. there were no significant differences in the number of host- ...19921495085
borrelia burgdorferi infection in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat in western pennsylvania.white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were captured and their tissues sampled from 27 sites in seven counties of western pennsylvania in 1990 for isolation and identification of borrelia burgdorferi. two hundred sixty mice were captured from which there were 27 isolations. significantly more mice were captured and significantly more isolations made from hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat than from deciduous species forest. hemlock habitat is sparse and focal but evidently increases winter surv ...19921512867
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from peromyscus leucopus in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from a field-caught peromyscus leucopus from central oklahoma (usa). the strain was identified as b. burgdorferi by reaction with monoclonal antibody h5332 specific for the outer surface protein ospa of b. burgdorferi. this represents the first isolation of b. burgdorferi from a wild mouse outside of the normal range of the known vectors ixodes dammini and i. pacificus.19921602581
spatial and temporal dispersion of immature ixodes dammini on peromyscus leucopus in northwestern illinois.infestation by immature ixodes dammini and infection by borrelia burgdorferi of the white-footed mouse peromyscus leucopus were studied in castle rock state park in northwestern illinois during june-october 1990. prevalence and intensity of infestation of larvae on mice were highest in august with a smaller peak in early june. the distribution of larvae on mice was highly aggregated during each of the sampling periods. aggregation appears to be the result of a series of nonrandom successful atta ...19911779300
borrelia burgdorferi: another cause of foodborne illness?borrelia burgdorferi was identified as the etiological agent of lyme disease in 1982. this gram-negative spirochete is classified in the order spirochaetales and the family spirochaetaceae. the pathogen is fastidious, microaerophilic, mesophilic and metabolises glucose through the embden-meyerhof pathway. a generation time of 11 to 12 h at 37 degrees c in barbour-stoenner-kelly medium has been reported. lyme disease, named after lyme in connecticut, is distributed globally. it is the most common ...19911790102
evaluation of host-targeted acaricide for reducing risk of lyme disease in southern new york state.a 2-yr evaluation of a commercial product designed to reduce the risk of lyme disease by delivering permethrin-treated cotton to white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) was conducted at three sites in westchester county, n.y., an area where lyme disease is endemic. we examined the numbers of host-seeking nymphal ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the numbers of larval i. dammini infesting mice, and the proportion of nymphs infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent ...19911941916
effectiveness of host-targeted permethrin in the control of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae)tubes of commercially available permethrin-treated cotton balls were distributed twice each year in 1989 and 1990 at five sites in a lyme disease endemic area in connecticut. five additional sites were not treated. at each application, 48 tubes, sufficient to treat 0.4 ha, were dispersed at 10-m intervals through woodlands, around ornamental plantings, and along rockwalls. the cotton was collected by white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) from the majority of the tubes, which resulted in a decr ...19911941927
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
efficacy of a permethrin-based acaricide to reduce the abundance of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae).permethrin-impregnated cotton was distributed to reduce abundance of immature ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin feeding upon white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and questing on vegetation at a private resort site (the crane reservation of the trustees of reservations in ipswich, mass.) located in coastal new england. this test constituted the first independent evaluation of the efficacy of this commercial product (damminix). over a 3-yr period, 2,000 applicator tubes contai ...19911941940
apparent incompetence of dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) and fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) as vectors of borrelia burgdorferi in an ixodes dammini endemic area of ontario, canada.from april to october 1990, white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), were examined for ectoparasites on long point, ontario, the only endemic area for ixodes dammini clifford, spielman, piesman & corwin and borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner known in canada. larval and nymphal i. dammini and dermacentor variabilis (packard), and adult fleas orchopeas leucopus (baker), epitedia wenmanni (rothschild), and ctenophthalamus pseudagrytes baker were common on ...19911941949
lyme borreliosis: a relapsing fever-like disease?to determine by xenodiagnosis length and concentrations of spirochetemias produced by borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), laboratory reared mice were inoculated with either spirochete-containing tick suspensions or bsk ii spirochete culture and were exposed for as long as three months to larval ixodes dammini. upon development to the nymphal stage, ticks were evaluated for spirochetal infections by direct immunofluorescence. all mice were found to circulate spirochet ...19911947807
antibody to a 39-kilodalton borrelia burgdorferi antigen (p39) as a marker for infection in experimentally and naturally inoculated animals.borrelia burgdorferi expresses a conserved, species-specific 39-kda protein (p39) that can stimulate antibodies during human infection. to confirm that anti-p39 antibodies are produced consistently in animals exposed to infectious spirochetes, white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, and laboratory white mice, mus musculus (strain balb/c), were experimentally inoculated with either infectious or noninfectious b. burgdorferi and the antibody response to p39 was determined by immunoblot at 21 days ...19912007630
survey for ixodes spp. and borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern wisconsin and northeastern illinois.forested areas adjacent to milwaukee, wis., and chicago, ill., were investigated for rodents and ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus or peromyscus maniculatus), meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), and eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus) were captured; and specimens from these animals were cultured for b. burgdorferi to define whether the midwestern lyme disease area currently encompasses these large metropolita ...19912007650
parasitic and phoretic arthropods of sylvatic and commensal white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in central tennessee, with notes on lyme disease.sixteen species of parasitic or phoretic arthropods were collected from 56 white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, live-trapped in central tennessee from april through november 1987. arthropod infestation was compared for mice taken from sylvatic (woodland) versus commensal (household) habitats. three species were recorded from hosts in both habitats: the sucking louse hoplopleura hesperomydis, the flea epitedia wenmanni, and the laelapid mite androlaelaps casalis. twelve of the 13 remaining art ...19912010854
experimental infection of the white-footed mouse with borrelia burgdorferi.laboratory raised white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were inoculated experimentally with live spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi), the etiologic agent of lyme disease (borreliosis). prior to inoculation, mouse sera were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test, and all mice were seronegative. all inoculated mice seroconverted. in tick transmission studies, immature stages of ixodes dammini and dermacentor variabilis attached and fed to repletion on mice, but only i dammini transferr ...19902085225
borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti: efficiency of transmission from reservoirs to vector ticks (ixodes dammini).in endemic regions, peromyscus leucopus, the mouse reservoir of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) and the piroplasm causing human babesiosis (babesia microti), is nearly universally infected with both agents. paradoxically, spirochetal infection is nearly twice as prevalent as is babesial infection in populations of field-collected nymphal ixodes dammini, the tick vector. in the laboratory, a similarly disproportionate rate of infection was observed among nymphal ticks, feeding ...19902295326
systemic disease in peromyscus leucopus associated with borrelia burgdorferi infection.sixteen wild peromyscus leucopus, trapped for the establishment of a breeding colony, developed signs of neurological damage (trembling, incoordination, circling, head tilt, and lameness of the rear legs) 2-47 days after capture in southern wisconsin. spirochetes were cultured from the brain of 5/11 mice, and borrelia burgdorferi was cultured from 1 brain. a spirochete was isolated from the bladder of 1 mouse. the spirochete was identified by fluorescent antibody staining with the monoclonal ant ...19902316794
intrinsic competence of three ixodid ticks (acari) as vectors of the lyme disease spirochete.we compared the intrinsic vector competence of ixodes dammini spielman et al., dermacentor variabilis (say), and amblyomma americanum (l.) for the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al.) on prudence island, rhode island, a lyme disease-endemic site where all three ticks occur together. natural and experimental spirochete infection rates were determined in those ticks and their degree of contact with white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), the principal reservoir host, was ...19902388239
the role of medium-sized mammals as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi in southern new york.the ability of raccoons (procyon lotor), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and opossums (didelphis virginiana) to serve as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, was compared with that of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus). twenty-eight (28) medium-sized mammals and 34 white-footed mice were captured in westchester county, new york (usa) in summer 1986. animals were caged over pans of water for 1 to 2 days to recover engorged tick larvae (ixodes dammini) ...19902388356
ecology of lyme disease.borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted from wild animals to humans by the bite of ixodes dammini. this tick is common in many areas of southern connecticut where it parasitizes three different host animals during its two-year life cycle. larval and nymphal ticks have parasitized 31 different species of mammals and 49 species of birds. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) appear to be crucial hosts for adult ticks. all three feeding stages of the tick parasitize humans, though most infections ...19892667888
habitat distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) an lyme disease spirochetes on fire island, new york.the distributions of ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman, and corwin and lyme disease spirochetes were studied on fire island, n.y. adult ticks were more common in high-shrub habitats (shrubby vegetation greater than or equal to 1 m high) than in grassy and lowshrub habitats (vegetation less than 1 m) in spring and fall. in the fall, adults were also common in the woods. adults were more abundant on narrow trails than in nearby vegetation. during the summer, questing nymphs and larvae wer ...19892724316
ear punch biopsy method for detection and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents.an ear punch biopsy method for the detection and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents was developed. the ear punch biopsy proved to be extremely sensitive, detecting spirochetes in 100% (11 of 11) of laboratory hamsters infected by tick bite and 95.8% (23 of 24) of hamsters infected by intraperitoneal inoculation. when cultured at 4 to 6 weeks postinfection, 92 to 100% of the ear punches taken from individual hamsters yielded viable spirochetes. b. burgdorferi was detected in sequentia ...19892768461
comparing the relative potential of rodents as reservoirs of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).the authors compared the contribution of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), chipmunks (tamias striatus), and meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) to infection of vector ticks with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgddorferi. at one massachusetts location where lyme disease is endemic, all three species of rodents were found to be infected. prevalence of infection, however, varied from 90% for mice, and 75% for chipmunks to just 5.5% for meadow voles. infectivity of these hosts for ...19892787105
antibody response in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) experimentally infected with the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), the primary reservoir for borrelia burgdorferi in the northern midwest and northeastern united states, were experimentally inoculated with an infectious strain or a noninfectious strain of the lyme disease spirochete and examined for their specific antibody response with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot (immunoblot) analysis. immunoglobulin m (igm) anti-b. burgdorferi antibodies were detected in mice 1 to 2 days after inoculation wit ...19892807530
ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi.members of 18 species of ticks, mosquitoes, horse flies, and deer flies were collected in southeastern connecticut and tested by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods for borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease. an infection rate of 36.2% (116 tested), recorded for immature ixodes dammini, exceeded positivity values for all other arthropod species. prevalence of infection for hematophagous insects ranged from 2.9% of 105 hybomitra lasiophthalma to 14.3% of seven hybomi ...19883170711
new borrelia burgdorferi antigenic variant isolated from ixodes dammini from upstate new york.a previously undescribed borrelia burgdorferi antigenic variant was isolated from each of four ixodes dammini larvae removed from white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, captured in millbrook, n.y. this site is in the northern range of the known distribution of the tick in the northeastern united states. the molecular weights of approximately 32,500 and 35,500 for outer surface a and outer surface b proteins, respectively, were distinctly higher than those for previously characterized isolates f ...19883183008
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice and ixodes dammini at fort mccoy, wis.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was isolated from 15 of 17 white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and 54 of 82 subadult ixodes dammini from fort mccoy, wis. of the 47 isolates tested, all reacted in indirect fluorescent-antibody tests with monoclonal antibodies directed against a surface protein of b. burgdorferi (approximate molecular weight, 31,000) and flagellins that are common to all borrelia species. indirect fluorescent-antibody reactions were variable when an ...19873305566
serologic analyses of peromyscus leucopus, a rodent reservoir for borrelia burgdorferi, in northeastern united states.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and indirect fluorescent-antibody test were used to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, in peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse). of the 661 mice captured in connecticut, rhode island, and new york during 1980 and 1983 to 1987, 166 (25.1%) had antibodies to b. burgdorferi by elisa. comparative analyses of 210 serum specimens, collected in areas where lyme disease is endemic, revealed a threefold differenc ...19883384925
peromyscus leucopus and microtus pennsylvanicus simultaneously infected with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, and babesia microti, the causative agent of human babesiosis, were isolated from 71 and 57%, respectively, of 14 specimens of peromyscus leucopus and microtus pennsylvanicus collected from prudence and patience islands, r.i. both pathogens were isolated from five individual rodents. the presence of these two infectious organisms in the same mammal suggests that individual larval ixodes dammini may ingest both pathogens and subsequently t ...19863517038
experimental inoculation of dogs with borrelia burgdorferi.to determine if dogs could serve as a reservoir for borrelia burgdorferi, three beagles were inoculated subcutaneously (sq) with 200 laboratory cultured spirochetes which were originally isolated from blood of a peromyscus leucopus from ft. mccoy, wisc. one four month old beagle was inoculated sq with 5 ground ixodes dammini from shelter island, n.y. which came from an area with a 50% b. burgdorferi tick infection rate; and another uninfected four month old beagle was housed loose on the floor w ...19863554844
lyme disease and babesiosis: acaricide focused on potentially infected ticks.permethrin-treated cotton, intended as rodent nesting material, was distributed in wooded sites in which the agents of lyme disease and babesiosis were enzootic, in order to kill immature ixodes dammini, the ticks that transmit these human pathogens. such ticks feed most abundantly on white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), apparently the main reservoir hosts of these agents, and tend to concentrate in mouse burrows. mice captured after permethrin-treated cotton was distributed, were infested b ...19873555140
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti in mice on islands inhabited by white-tailed deer.borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti were isolated from 35 of 51 white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) captured on two narragansett bay, r.i., islands inhabited by deer, the principal host for the adult stages of the vector tick, ixodes dammini. immature ticks parasitized mice from both islands. from 105 mice captured on four other islands not inhabited by deer neither pathogen was isolated, nor were i. dammini found.19873555339
culturing borrelia burgdorferi from spleen and kidney tissues of wild-caught white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated most frequently from tissue of spleen (n = 13) and kidney (n = 10) and less often from blood (n = 5) of wild-caught peromyscus leucopus. prevalence of infection tended to be highest at sites where lyme disease was most common (e.g., 5 of 6 mice were positive in east haddam, connecticut). spirochetes were not isolated in danbury or new hartford, areas where this malady is rare. however, in fairfield, where the disease is also uncommon, 4 of 9 mice were infected. ...19863577490
the prevalence and significance of borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of feral reservoir hosts.live borrelia burgdorferi were isolated from the blood and/or urine of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) collected on shelter island, new york, in 1984 and 1985. prevalence of spirochetes in urine was consistently higher than in blood or both fluids simultaneously. spirochetes remained viable for 18-24 hours in urine and were maintained in culture for one week. mice removed from the field were spirocheturic for at least 13 months. one spirocheturic mouse developed spirochetemia one month a ...19863577491
seasonal prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in natural populations of white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, was isolated from 111 of 237 peromyscus leucopus captured during all seasons of the year. borreliae were cultured from tissues of the spleen (101 mice), left kidney (76 mice), and right kidney (73 mice), from blood (12 mice), and from one fetus. mice were infected during the winter, when immature ixodes dammini were inactive. the prevalence of infection during the winter (less than or equal to 33%) was more than twofold lower than that d ...19873624451
reservoir competence of white-footed mice for lyme disease spirochetes.using the vector tick, ixodes dammini, we described the reservoir competence of the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus, for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. nymphal i. dammini were used to infect mammals, and larval ticks were used to diagnose infection (a form of xenodiagnosis). one tick was nearly as efficient as more than 1 in transmitting the spirochete to mice. the duration of the prepatent period was about 1 week. prevalence of infection approached 100% in ticks that ...19873812887
mice as reservoirs of the lyme disease spirochete.in evaluating the white-footed mouse as a reservoir host for the lyme disease spirochete, we compared spirochete infection in vector ticks (ixodes dammini) having different histories of attachment to these mice, estimated their relative importance as hosts for immature i. dammini and compared the seasonality of tick activity and spirochetemia in mice. infection in trapped white-footed mice appears to be universal. prevalence of spirochetal infection in i. dammini correlates with frequency of att ...19853985277
avian and mammalian hosts for spirochete-infected ticks and insects in a lyme disease focus in connecticut.spirochetes and their vectors and reservoirs were studied in a lyme disease focus in east haddam, connecticut, from mid-may through september 1983. ixodes dammini subadults were comparable in number on white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) (means = 2.9 +/- 3.6 sd) to those on 27 different species of birds (means = 2.3 +/- 4.2 sd) representing 11 families within the order passeriformes. less commonly found ticks on birds (means less than or equal to 0.1) were immature ixodes dentatus and haemap ...19846516460
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete in populations of white-tailed deer and white-footed mice.the prevalence of the ixodes dammini spirochete (ids) in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) was studied on the eastern end of long island, new york. both species commonly occur in a variety of habitats, are preferred hosts of ixodes dammini, and can harbor the spirochetes in the blood. each animal was examined for spirochetemia, tick infestation, and ids infection rates in the ticks that were removed from it. the results obtained suggest that i ...19846516461
spirochetes in ixodes dammini and mammals from connecticut.spirochetes were observed in the midguts of 35% of 147 motile ixodes dammini from three locations in lyme and east haddam, connecticut. positive ticks were removed from eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus), raccoons (procyon lotor), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and a red squirrel (tamiasciurus hudsonicus). spirochetes were isolated in fortified kelly's medium from nine questing or partially engorged i. dammini adults and nymphs and from the bloods of a raccoon and a white-footed mouse ...19836881431
antibody response of the mouse reservoir of borrelia burgdorferi in nature.to determine whether the white-footed mouse reservoir host (peromyscus leucopus) of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) naturally mounts an immune response against the full range of antigens expressed by this zoonotic pathogen, we analyzed the pattern of immunoreactivity of these rodents at sites in which the intensity of transmission differs. although the incidence of seroconversion within the reservoir population relates proportionally to the density of subadult deer ticks (ixodes ...19957622226
analysis of borrelia burgdorferi sequentially isolated from peromyscus leucopus captured at a lyme disease enzootic site.thirty isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sequentially cultured from 15 naturally infected white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were examined for variability in protein and plasmid profiles. heterogeneity was detected in ospb and ospc and in proteins between 18.0 and 28.0 kda by page. plasmid profiles were heterogeneous in the first isolate from 11 mice (73%) and between the first and last sequential isolate from 13 mice (87%). comparison of the first and last isolates showed increased expressi ...19957622890
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting wild birds (aves) and white-footed mice in lyme, ct.birds were captured and recaptured (20.8% of 5,297) with japanese mist nets, and white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), were caught and recaught (69.1% of 355) with sherman box traps during the late spring, summer, and early fall from july 1989 through october 1991 to study tick-host relationships in lyme, ct. ixodes scapularis say, a vector of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto johnson, schmid, hye, steigerwalt & brenner, infested 803 birds (15.2%) in 36 ...19957650706
borrelia burgdorferi in eastern virginia: comparison between a coastal and inland locality.in virginia, borrelia burgdorferi was more prevalent in a site along the atlantic ocean, near maryland, than in an inland site near williamsburg and yorktown. at the coastal site on assateague island, b. burgdorferi was isolated from 4.2% of 475 animals sampled, including four species of small mammals. serologic tests indicated that 25-37% of the small rodents assayed had been exposed to b. burgdorferi. immunofluorescence antibody assays specific for b. burgdorferi showed spirochete infection in ...19957677212
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi in host mice in pennsylvania.host mice (peromyscus leucopus and peromyscus maniculatus) were sampled throughout the state of pennsylvania to determine the geographical and ecological distribution of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. all 67 counties of the state were sampled. a total of 1,619 mice were captured from a total of 157 sites during the period 1990 to 1993 for an overall capture rate of 29.69%. a total of 112 (6.92%) isolations of b. burgdorferi were made. the distribution of isolations revealed th ...19947814489
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in museum specimens of peromyscus leucopus.to determine whether borrelia burgdorferi was enzootic within the united states at the beginning of the 20th century, ear skin samples taken from museum specimens of the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) were examined for evidence of spirochetal dna. in total, 280 samples from mice collected between 1870 and 1919 were analyzed by a nested polymerase chain reaction protocol. of these, 2 specimens from the vicinity of dennis, massachusetts, during 1894 were reproducibly positive for b. burg ...19947930700
experimental borrelia burgdorferi infection in peromyscus leucopus.we evaluated the susceptibility of laboratory-reared adult and infant white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) to a known pathogenic isolate of borrelia burgdorferi (n40). two-month-old and 3-day-old peromyscus were inoculated intradermally with 10(6) to 10(7) spirochetes. at 21 days for adults or 30 days for infants post inoculation, mice were killed, and tissues were cultured for spirochetes and examined microscopically. based on serology and culture, adult mice became infected but did not have ...19948028098
suppression of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) nymphs in a large residential community.to determine the feasibility of suppressing ixodes scapularis say populations in a large, hyperendemic residential community, several rates of granular carbaryl were applied by ground and air to the shrub layer and wooded buffers of a forested residential community during the peak activity period of nymphs. granular carbaryl significantly reduced the abundance of i. scapularis nymphs on peromyscus leucopus raphinesque. control nymphal ticks ranged between 70.0 and 90.3%. the use of properly time ...19948189411
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in urine of peromyscus leucopus by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, in urine from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus). of the 87 urine specimens tested from 87 mice collected in widely separated tick-infested sites in connecticut, 57 (65.5%) contained detectable concentrations of spirochetal antigens. forty-seven (62.7%) of 75 serum samples analyzed contained antibodies to b. burgdorferi. in culture work with tissues from bla ...19948195393
experimental infection of the eastern chipmunk (tamias striatus) with the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).lyme disease, caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is endemic in the northeast, north-central, and pacific coastal states of the united states. the eastern chipmunk (tamias striatus) is found throughout the disease-enzootic regions except along the pacific coast, and may serve as an important reservoir host in some locations. to characterize their potential as a host, 11 adult chipmunks were inoculated with 10(5) spirochetes from strains of b. burgdorferi isolated from peromyscus leuco ...19938258849
reduced abundance of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) with exclusion of deer by electric fencing.to assess the effect of deer exclusion on populations of ixodes scapularis say (formerly i. dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) in the northeastern united states, host-seeking ticks and ticks on white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), were monitored inside and outside a wooded, residential deer exclosure (approximately 3.5 ha) in lyme, ct, in 1991 and 1992. another deer exclosure was added in lyme (approximately 7.4 ha) during 1992. additional sample sites at other residen ...19938271257
norway rats as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes on monhegan island, maine.to determine whether the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, may be maintained in the absence of its usual white-footed mouse reservoir host, ixodes dammini ticks from an island where mice are absent were examined. prevalence of spirochetal infection was described for ticks removed from mammals, birds, and vegetation on monhegan island, maine. forty percent of adult i. dammini removed from vegetation were infected. norway rats were heavily infested with ticks, and > 60% of such ticks co ...19938354910
isolation and characterization of borrelia burgdorferi from blood of a bird captured in the saint croix river valley.field investigations were conducted to further evaluate the role of birds in the maintenance and dissemination of borrelia burgdorferi. blood specimens were taken from 39 passerine birds of 17 species captured during june 1991 at the saint croix national riverway in wisconsin, and one isolate, wi91-23, was cultured from an adult song sparrow (melospiza melodia). this isolate was shown to be infectious for peromyscus leucopus and mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster). isolate wi91-23 was confirme ...19938370728
reservoir competence of white-footed mice for babesia microti.although the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque, has been incriminated as the main reservoir of the agent of human babesiosis, babesia microti franca, a quantitative demonstration of reservoir competence has not been presented. mice captured within an intensely zoonotic site served as host for laboratory-reared larval ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman, and corwin, and the resulting nymphal ticks were assayed for evidence of salivary gland infection by the piroplasm. sole ...19938433329
analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.blood samples were collected from cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus), raccoons (procyon lotor), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) between 1977 and 1991 in southern connecticut and new york state (usa) and were tested for antibodies against eight strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. among these spirochetes were six strains of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, one strain of b. garinii (=ip90) and ...19958583632
experimental infection of the red-backed vole (clethrionomys gapperi) with borrelia burgdorferi.red-backed voles (clethrionomys gapperi) were live trapped in northern st. louis county, minnesota (usa), in late september and october 1988 and experimentally inoculated with borrelia burgdorferi. spirochetes were isolated from most animals 14 and 28 days following inoculation. thus, red-backed voles exposed to b. burgdorferi were susceptible to infection and could be a reservoir host, along with chipmunks (tamias striatus) and other small rodents, in areas where white-footed mouse (peromyscus ...19958592371
patient isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with genotypic and phenotypic similarities of strain 25015.strain 25015 is an atypical tick isolate that belongs to a distinct genomic group (dn127) within the general taxon borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. similarities between this strain and a white-footed mouse isolate from illinois, strain ct39, have been reported. in the course of isolating b. burgdorferi sensu lato in culture from slovenian patients, 9 isolates were identified with the same genetic profiles as strains 25015 and ct39, as evidenced by restriction enzyme mlui digestion patterns of ge ...19968896519
novel borrelia burgdorferi isolates from ixodes scapularis and ixodes dentatus ticks feeding on humans.seven cultures of borrelia burgdorferi differing from strains b31 and zs7 were identified from among 99 isolates from ixodes scapularis ticks and from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and 1 isolate from an ixodes dentatus tick. five of the six novel isolates from i. scapularis and the isolate from i. dentatus were from ticks feeding on humans. the six isolates from i. scapularis lacked ospa and ospb, four possessed an ospd band, and two reacted with an anti-ospc monoclonal antibody. restr ...19968904407
borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) and peromyscus leucopus in northeastern wisconsin.populations of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, are established in western and central wisconsin in the upper midwestern united states, but appear to be expanding geographically there. here, we report a previously unknown population in northeastern wisconsin. questing i. scapularis nymphs and adults were collected by flagging vegetation from a riverine site in marinette county, wisconsin, in spring of 1993 and 1994. dissection and culture of tick guts in modified barbour-stoenner-kel ...19968906923
presence of ixodiphagus hookeri (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) in two connecticut populations of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae).two connecticut populations of the black-legged tick, ixodes scapularis (say), the vector of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia bugrdorferi sensu stricto johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, in the northeastern united states, are parasitized by the encyrtid wasp ixodiphagus hookeri (howard), formerly hunterellus hookeri. the wasp was first detected in ticks from a forested site in bridgeport in 1992. i. hookeri was reared from 18.6% of 148 host-seeking i. scapularis nymphs. in 1993 and ...19968906928
simulation of blacklegged tick (acari:ixodidae) population dynamics and transmission of borrelia burgdorferi.a model (lymesim) was developed for computer simulation of blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, population dynamics and transmission of the lyme disease agent. borrelia burgdorferi johnson. schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, lymesim simulates the effects of ambient temperature, saturation deficit, precipitation, habitat type, and host type and density on tick populations. epidemiological parameters including host infectivity, tick infectivity, transovarial transmission, and transstadial tr ...19979220682
antibodies to multiple tick-borne pathogens of babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and lyme borreliosis in white-footed mice.serum samples from peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse), collected in connecticut (usa) in 1983, 1985, and during 1990 to 1993, were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) or indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) staining methods for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi (strain 2591), babesia microti, ehrlichia chaffeensis (arkansas strain), and ehrlichia equi (mrk strain). of the 294 serum samples tested, 160 (54%) contained immunoglobulins to one or more of these pathogens. t ...19979249691
duration of borrelia burgdorferi infectivity in white-footed mice for the tick vector ixodes scapularis under laboratory and field conditions in ontario.the duration of borrelia burgdorferi infectivity in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) experimentally inoculated or infested with infected ixodes scapularis nymphs was evaluated. infectivity was assessed by infesting these mice with unfed i. scapularis larvae at 7, 21, 35 and 49 days post-inoculation (dpi) or post-infestation (pi). at 7 dpi, b. burgdorferi was transmitted from 18 of 24 syringe-inoculated mice and all three tick-infected mice to i. scapularis larvae which fed upon them. howe ...19979391960
cosegregation of a novel bartonella species with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti in peromyscus leucopus.during surveillance for various tickborne pathogens in the upper midwest during the summer and early fall of 1995, a bartonella-like agent was detected in the blood of mice that were concurrently infected with borrelia burgdorferi or babesia microti (or both). the organism was isolated in pure culture after inoculation of blood from wild-caught mice into c.b-17 scid/scid mice. phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rrna and the citrate synthase genes showed that the novel bartonella species and a bart ...19989466529
reservoir competence of the meadow vole (rodentia: cricetidae) for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi.the reservoir competence of the meadow vole, microtus pennsylvanicus ord, for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner was established on patience island, ri. meadow voles were collected from 5 locations throughout rhode island. at 4 of the field sites, m. pennsylvanicus represented only 4.0% (n = 141) of the animals captured. however, on patience island, m. pennsylvanicus was the sole small mammal collected (n = 48). of the larval ixodes scap ...19989775612
longitudinal study of infection with borrelia burgdorferi in a population of peromyscus leucopus at a lyme disease-enzootic site in maryland.the maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi in a population of peromyscus leucopus was investigated from 202 mark and recapture mice and 61 mice that were removed from a site in baltimore county, maryland. borrelia burgdorferi infection was detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of ear tissue, and exposure to the spirochete was quantified by serology. overall prevalence of b. burgdorferi, as determined by culture and pcr of ear tissue at first capture, was 25% in the longitudinal sa ...199910348235
infection with agents of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, lyme disease, and babesiosis in wild white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in connecticut.white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, were captured in southern connecticut during 1997 and 1998 to determine the prevalence of infections caused by granulocytic ehrlichia sp., borrelia burgdorferi, and babesia microti. of the 50 mice captured and recaptured, 25 of 47 (53.2%) and 23 of 48 (47.9%) contained antibodies to the bds or nch-1 ehrlichia strains, respectively, as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) staining methods. the majority (83.3%) of 48 mice also contained antibodi ...199910449470
a mathematical model of the ecology of lyme disease.a mathematical model of enzootic lyme-disease transmission in a natural focus is presented. this model is based on the life history of the vector tick ixodes scapularis say and the primary reservoir host peromyscus leucopus. using this model, the threshold condition for the disease to be able to invade a nonenzootic region is determined as a function of the various possible transmission chains operating throughout the year. these expressions show that the transmission chain in which ticks acquir ...199910520492
population dynamics of a naturally occurring heterogeneous mixture of borrelia burgdorferi clones.two unique isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, differing in plasmid content and outer surface protein c expression, were cultured on sequential captures of a single free-living peromyscus leucopus mouse and were examined for differences in transmissibility. both isolates were transmissible from inoculated c.b-17 mice to larval ixodes scapularis ticks and, subsequently, from infected nymphal ticks to c3h/hej mice. plasmid and protein analyses suggested that the original isolates were a mixed popula ...199910531219
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
infestation of peromyscus leucopus and tamias striatus by ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in relation to the abundance of hosts and parasites.the risk of humans acquiring lyme disease is a function of the local density of nymphal and adult ticks that are infected with lyme disease spirochetes. this in turn, will be related to host-use patterns of ticks and to the densities of both juvenile ticks and their hosts. at a forested site in dutchess county, ny, we quantified host-use patterns of larval and nymphal ixodes scapularis say infesting the 2 dominant vertebrate hosts, white-footed mice and eastern chipmunks, during a 3-yr period. l ...199910593076
enzootic transmission of deer tick virus in new england and wisconsin sites.to determine whether rodents that are intensely exposed to the deer tick-transmitted agents of lyme disease, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and human babesiosis are also exposed to deer tick virus (dtv), we assayed serum samples from white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) in sites densely infested by deer ticks. to conduct serosurveys, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and western blot assay by cloning, expressing, and purifyi ...200011357992
host associations of ticks parasitizing rodents at borrelia burgdorferi enzootic sites in south carolina.a total of 237 rodents was collected in 4 regions of south carolina from july 1994 through december 1995. eight species were collected, including cotton mouse, hispid cotton rat, eastern woodrat, marsh rice rat, white-footed mouse, eastern harvest mouse, golden mouse, and black rat. of the 1,514 ticks recovered from these hosts, ixodes minor neumann, including larvae, nymphs, and adults, was the most abundant species, representing 54% of the total. only immature stages of other tick species were ...200111780825
the efficacy of co-feeding as a means of maintaining borrelia burgdorferi: a north american model system.although research on co-feeding as a means of maintaining tick-borne pathogens has focused chiefly on viruses, recent interest has been directed toward the importance of this phenomenon in maintaining the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. in the current study, an experimental model was developed to determine under what conditions immature co-feeding ticks exchange b. burgdorferi using the principal north american vector (ixodes scapularis) and reservoir (peromyscus leucopus) species ...200111813659
relative utilization of reptiles and rodents as hosts by immature ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in the coastal plain of north carolina, usa.the interaction of immature black-legged ticks, ixodes scapularis, with reptiles and rodents was investigated in various woodland habitats in the coastal plain of north carolina. reptiles were sampled from april 1 to september 30, 1991. no ticks were found on 95 specimens representing 16 species of snakes. ticks were found on 54 (36.7%) of 147 lizards. i. scapularis was the only tick recovered from lizards. some lizards were collected in drift fence traps each month of the study except august. c ...19937628223
lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi endemic at epicenter in rondeau provincial park, ontario.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner was discovered in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say at rondeau provincial park, ontario, canada during this 2-yr study, spirochetes were found in b. burgdorferi-positive i. scapularis larvae attached to b. burgdorferi-infected white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque. isolates of b. burgdorferi were cultured from blacklegged tick adults, and confirmed positive with polymerase chain ...200312597659
vectorial capacity of north american ixodes ticks.ixodes dammini, the vector of lyme disease and babesiosis, is distributed in various locations in the northeastern quadrant of the united states and nearby canada. the life cycle of this tick, which includes larval, nymphal, and adult stages, spans at least two years. the tick over-winters between larval and nymphal feeding. horizontal transmission of pathogens is facilitated by a feeding pattern in which both the larval and nymphal stages feed on the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus, and ...19846516453
a relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by ixodes scapularis ticks.a species of borrelia spirochetes previously unknown from north america has been found to be transmitted by ixodes scapularis ticks. infected ticks are positive for borrelia spp. by dfa test but negative for borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using species-specific primers for 16s rdna, outer surface protein a, outer surface protein c, and flagellin genes. a 1,347-bp portion of 16s rdna was amplified from a pool of infected nymphs, sequenced, and compared with the homologous ...200112653133
ospa immunization decreases transmission of borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes from infected peromyscus leucopus mice to larval ixodes scapularis ticks.recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) vaccination of wild animal reservoirs has potential application for reducing borrelia burgdorferi transmission in nature and subsequent risk of human infection. as a major reservoir host, the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) is a candidate for a vaccination program designed to reduce infection prevalence in vector ticks. in this study we characterized the effect of various levels of immunization with recombinant ospa-glutathione transferase fusi ...200112653137
identification of endemic foci of lyme disease: isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from feral rodents and ticks (dermacentor variabilis).borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, was isolated from the blood, kidneys, spleens, eyes, or livers of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) (n = 19 of 22) and from the blood, kidneys, or spleens of eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus) (n = 2 of 2) captured at three foci for lyme disease in eastern connecticut. these bacteria were cultured most frequently from spleens (n = 19) and kidneys (n = 15). b. burgdorferi persisted in one mouse for at least 60 days. one spirochet ...19853926816
interference between the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a natural reservoir host.agents of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (ehrlichia phagocytophila) are perpetuated in a natural cycle involving the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis) and its vertebrate hosts. using i. scapularis nymphs as the mode of infectious challenge, we studied how infection with one pathogen in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) affects their ability to acquire the other agent and subsequently to infect larvae, which these agents would do in nature. two g ...200112653144
changes in infectivity and plasmid profile of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, as a result of in vitro cultivation.in vitro cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme spirochetosis, allows for the isolation and growth of this bacterium from infected tissues. however, continuous cultivation in modified kelly medium causes a reduction in the number of detectable plasmids and the loss of infectivity in the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus. in an unpassaged culture of b. burgdorferi, nine plasmids were present, including seven linear plasmids ranging in size from 49 to 16 kilobases ( ...19883397175
bacteriolytic activity of selected vertebrate sera for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and borrelia bissettii.an in vitro assay to evaluate the bacteriolytic activity of the complement pathway was applied to 2 strains of borrelia bissettii, co501 and dn127, and compared with that of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto b31. sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and the western fence lizard (sceloporus occidentalis) were completely borreliacidal for b. burgdorferi and for both strains of b. bissettii. serum from bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus) was nonlytic for b. burgdorferi and partially lytic for b. b ...200314740924
lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, endemic in epicenter at turkey point, ontario.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, was discovered in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say at turkey point, ontario, canada. we report the first isolation of b. burgdorferi from a vertebrate animal collected on mainland ontario. during this 2-yr study, spirochetes were isolated from the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque, and attached i. scapularis larvae. similarly, isolates of b. burgdorferi were cultured from ...200415061282
borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of peromyscus leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where lyme borreliosis is highly endemic.blood samples from peromyscus leucopus mice captured at an enzootic site in connecticut were examined for antibodies to and dna of borrelia burgdorferi, to characterize the dynamics of infection in this reservoir population. from trappings conducted over the course of 2 transmission seasons, 598 (75%) of 801 serum samples from 514 mice were found to be positive by enzyme immunoassay. seropositivity correlated with date of capture and mouse age, was similar among locations within the site, increa ...200415073690
interaction and transmission of two borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains in a tick-rodent maintenance system.in the northeastern united states, the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, is maintained by enzoonotic transmission, cycling between white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and black-legged ticks (ixodes scapularis). b. burgdorferi sensu stricto is genetically variable and has been divided into three major genotypes based on 16s-23s ribosomal dna spacer (rst) analysis. to better understand how genetic differences in b. burgdorferi sensu stricto may influence transmission dyna ...200415528545
the urinary bladder, a consistent source of borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus).white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, were experimentally infected in the laboratory with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. after mice were infected by intraperitoneal or subcutaneous inoculation or by tick bite, attempts were made to culture spirochetes from the urinary bladder, spleen, kidney, blood, and urine. spirochetes were most frequently isolated from the bladder (94%), followed by the kidney (75%), spleen (61%), and blood (13%). no spirochetes were isolated fr ...19883290239
lyme disease--a hazard of an appointment to the united states.lyme disease is just one of the many tick borne diseases to be encountered within the united states that can affect humans. to the visitor who confines their time to major conurbations the risk of contracting lyme disease is minimal. however, anyone planning a hiking trip during tick season must take precautions to prevent being bitten and possibly infected. for those of us who live within an endemic area the shower after a days gardening is not just to remove sweat and dirt but also an opportun ...200415580952
control of immature ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) on rodent reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi in a residential community of southeastern connecticut.a 3-yr community-based study was conducted on residential properties on mason's island, mystic, ct, to determine the efficacy of a rodent-targeted acaricide (fipronil) to control immature ixodes scapularis (say) on peromyscus leucopus. results indicated that modified commercial bait boxes were effective as an acaricide delivery method for reducing nymphal and larval tick infestations on white-footed mice by 68 and 84%, respectively. passive application of fipronil significantly reduced the infec ...200415605643
an ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the lyme disease cycle.many pathogens, such as the agents of west nile encephalitis and plague, are maintained in nature by animal reservoirs and transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors. efforts to reduce disease incidence usually rely on vector control or immunization of humans. lyme disease, for which no human vaccine is currently available, is a commonly reported vector-borne disease in north america and europe. in a recently developed, ecological approach to disease prevention, we intervened in the natural cycl ...200415608069
presence of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in southern kettle moraine state forest, wisconsin, and characterization of strain w97f51.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner; babesiosis, caused by babesia microti franca; and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum bakken & dumler have been reported in wisconsin, mainly in the endemic areas of the northwestern part of the state. people exposed to blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, from this region can potentially contract one or all of these diseases concurrently. within the past several year ...200515962800
borrelia burgdorferi infection surrounding la crosse, wis.this investigation defined the extent of borrelia burgdorferi infection surrounding la crosse, wis. white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus or p. maniculatis, were captured from sites in wisconsin, minnesota, and iowa and cultured for b. burgdorferi to define the local boundaries of the midwestern lyme disease area. all foci of b. burgdorferi infection (n1, n2, n3, and n4) were located north of interstate highway 90 except focus s2, which was south of the highway near fort mccoy, wis. the interst ...19883230137
incompetence of catbirds as reservoirs for the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).we compared the relative infectivity to vector ticks of gray catbirds (dumetella carolinensis) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) for the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi). of 28 catbirds captured in a site enzootic for this agent, 18 were infested by immature ixodes dammini, the tick vector. by comparison, each of 32 mice sampled concurrently from the same site was infested, and by about 10 times as many ticks as were found infesting the 3 most commonly netted bird species ...19892918445
a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of borrelia burgdorferi 16s rrna for highly sensitive quantification of pathogen load in a vector.we developed a real-time quantitative detection assay for the pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, a lyme borreliosis (lb) agent, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with primers and probe for a borrelia genus-specific region of 16s ribosomal rna. the standard curve of the assay was linear by semi-log plot over more than five orders of magnitude, and the detection limit of the assay was one thousandth of a single cell of b. burgdorferi. the minimum target level for detection ...200616584333
climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk.risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. we assessed the determinants of lyme-disease risk (density and borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of us lyme disease (dutchess county, new york). we used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season te ...200616669698
genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in peromyscus leucopus, the primary reservoir of lyme disease in a region of endemicity in southern maryland.in the north central and northeastern united states, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the etiologic agent of lyme disease (ld), is maintained in an enzootic cycle between the vector, ixodes scapularis, and the primary reservoir host, peromyscus leucopus. genetic diversity of the pathogen based on sequencing of two plasmid-located genes, those for outer surface protein a (ospa) and outer surface protein c (ospc), has been examined in both tick and human specimens at local, regional, and worldw ...200616885284
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals in new york state.intensive small mammal trapping was conducted in 12 counties in new york state during 1998-2000 to investigate the prevalence and site specificity of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi in, and presence of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say on, the wild mice peromyscus leucopus rafinesque and peromyscus maniculatus wagner and other small mammal species. previously captured mice (1992-1997) from throughout new york state also were recruited into the study, providing a total ...200617017230
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