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wood rats and kangaroo rats: potential reservoirs of the lyme disease spirochete in california.the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was isolated repeatedly from dusky-footed wood rats, neotoma fuscipes baird, and california kangaroo rats, dipodomys californicus merriam, in northern california. all animals were collected in a region endemic for lyme disease but for which the natural reservoir of b. burgdorferi was unknown. similar attempts to isolate spirochetes from lizards, other species of rodents, jack rabbits, and deer ...19911875357
first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in southern california.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was isolated from the blood of a dusky-footed wood rat, neotoma fuscipes baird, in the san bernardino mountains of southern california. antigenic, protein, and molecular analyses demonstrated that the isolate varied slightly from most isolates of b. burgdorferi from northern california and was clearly distinct from other species of borrelia that are endemic to the state. this is the first reported iso ...19921625299
genetic diversity among borrelia burgdorferi isolates from wood rats and kangaroo rats in california.twenty-nine borrelia burgdorferi isolates, obtained from dusky-footed wood rats (neotoma fuscipes) and california kangaroo rats (dipodomys californicus) in california, were analyzed genetically. chromosomal dna was examined by restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) and gene probe restriction fragment length polymorphism. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the plasmid profiles of the isolates. rea, the method with the greatest discrimination, disclosed 24 distinct restriction p ...19937905880
natural and experimental borrelia burgdorferi infections in woodrats and deer mice from california.sequestration of spirochetes and concurrent histopathologic lesions were evaluated in tissues of borrelia burgdorferi-infected dusky-footed woodrats (neotoma fuscipes) and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). rodents were either wild-caught and naturally infected or were experimentally infected by tick bite, by intramuscular (i.m.) injection of cultured spirochetes, or by i.m. injection of tick suspensions. samples of host tissues, including skin, blood, ear, brain, eye, heart, lung, liver, splee ...19947933283
reservoir competence of four chaparral-dwelling rodents for borrelia burgdorferi in california.aspects of the reservoir competence of four rodents for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, were evaluated in california. rodents were live-trapped and ear-punch biopsies were cultured during each season. a second set of biopsies was cultured from representative individuals after 2-3 weeks of captivity and the results of culturing biopsies taken on both dates were compared with the results of feeding ixodes pacificus larvae on hosts xenodiagnostically. the prevalence of infections ...19968651378
ixodes (ixodes) jellisoni and i. (i.) neotomae (acari:ixodidae): descriptions of the immature stages from california.nymphal and larval stages of ixodes (ixodes) jellisoni cooley & kohls and i. (i.) neotomae cooley are described for the first time. these 2 tick species occur only in the western united states, predominantly in california. the primary host for i. jellisoni is the california kangaroo rat, dipodomys californicus (merriam); that for i. neotomae is the dusky-footed woodrat, neotoma fuscipes baird. the etiologic agent of lyme disease borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner ...19968667376
evaluation of permethrin-impregnated cotton balls as potential nesting material to control ectoparasites of woodrats in california.the dusky-footed woodrat, neotoma fuscipes baird is a natural reservoir of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, in california. to investigate the potential of host-targeted insecticide to control the tick vectors of b. burgdorferi, permethrin-impregnated or untreated cotton balls were distributed in metal cylinders as potential nesting material adjacent to 95 woodrat houses in chaparral-covered rangeland. laboratory experiments demonstra ...19968667381
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from neotoma fuscipes, peromyscus maniculatus, peromyscus boylii, and ixodes pacificus in oregon.the number of lyme disease cases in oregon has increased in recent years despite the fact that the pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi, has never been isolated in the state. rodent and tick surveys were undertaken in 1997 to isolate and characterize strains of b. burgdorferi from oregon and to identify potential reservoirs and vectors of lyme disease. borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from neotoma fuscipes, peromyscus maniculatus, p. boylii, and ixodes pacificus. both n. fuscipes and p. maniculatus w ...199910466976
ecology of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae), rodents, and birds in the sierra nevada foothills, placer county, california.this study examined the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in host-seeking adult and nymphal ixodes pacificus cooley & kohls and estimated the i. pacificus infestation and b. burgdorferi infection of rodent and avian hosts in the western sierra nevada foothills of northern california. additionally, we identified species likely to participate in an enzootic cycle for b. burgdorferi in this yellow pine transition habitat. evidence of infection with b. b ...200011126549
persistent infection in neotoma fuscipes (muridae: sigmodontinae) with ehrlichia phagocytophila sensu lato.dusky-footed wood rats (neotoma fuscipes baird) and two species of peromyscus mice (p. maniculatus wagner and p. truei shufeldt) were collected over a 16-month period from three sites in sonoma county, california. blood was collected from 93 wood rats and 177 mice and serum or plasma was tested for seroreactivity with ehrlichia phagocytophila sensu lato (also known as the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent). thirty-five (37.6%) wood rats and 15 (8.5%) mice were seropositive. positive neotoma ...200111693866
detection and characterization of borrelia bissettii in rodents from the central california coast.this is the first report of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from san luis obispo county, with most isolates obtained from a previously unreported host, neotoma lepida thomas. b. burgdorferi sensu lato was identified in seven rodent species, including the california vole, microtus californicus peale; dusky-footed woodrat, neotoma fuscipes baird; desert woodrat, neotoma lepida thomas; brush mouse, peromyscus boylii baird; california mouse, peromyscus californicus gambel; deer mouse, per ...200415311469
the roles of birds, lizards, and rodents as hosts for the western black-legged tick ixodes pacificus.we compared the infestation by ixodid ticks of lizards, rodents, and birds collected simultaneously within areas representing common habitat types in mendocino county, ca. lizards were infested only by ixodes pacificus cooley and kohls, birds by i. pacificus and haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), and rodents by i. pacificus, i. spinipalpis hadwen and nuttall, i. woodi bishopp, dermacentor occidentalis marx, and d. variabilis (say). infestation by i. pacificus larvae and nymphs of lizards ...200415709249
habitat-related variation in infestation of lizards and rodents with ixodes ticks in dense woodlands in mendocino county, california.during the spring and early summer of 2002, we examined the relative importance of borrelia-refractory lizards (sceloporus occidentalis, elgaria spp.) versus potential borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)-reservoirs (rodents) as hosts for ixodes pacificus immatures in 14 woodland areas (six oak, five mixed oak/douglas fir, and three redwood/tanoak areas) distributed throughout mendocino county, california. lizards were estimated to serve as hosts for 93-98% of all larvae and > or =99.6% of all ...200415347025
sylvatic maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales) in northern california: untangling the web of transmission.lyme borreliosis is associated with several genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) (spirochaetales), but human disease has been associated only with borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in the western united states. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of rrf-rrl amplicons from 124 tick and mammalian isolates from various habitats yielded 13 rflp patterns. of these patterns, six were patterns previously associat ...200616892634
ectoparasite diversity and exposure to vector-borne disease agents in wild rodents in central coastal california.a survey of wild rodents was performed in the morro bay area of central coastal california to determine serological and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum dumler, barbet, bekker, dasch, palmer, ray, rikihisa, and rurangirwa, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, francisella tularensis mccoy, and yersinia pestis yersin; to describe the ectoparasitic fauna on important vector-borne disease hosts; and to determine whether pathoge ...200717427705
effect of prescribed fire for tick control in california chaparral.prescribed fire was investigated as a method for controlling ixodid and argasid ticks in chaparral habitats in northern california. two experimental and two adjacent control plots within a wildlife preserve were monitored for 1 yr postburn. ticks were collected by flagging vegetation, by co2-baited pitfall trap, and by live-trapping rodents. twice as many rodents were caught at control sites compared with burn sites and no dusky-footed woodrats, neotoma fuscipes baird, were found in the treatmen ...200919769046
transmission cycles of borrelia burgdorferi and b. bissettii in relation to habitat type in northwestern california.this study was undertaken to determine which rodent species serve as primary reservoirs for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi in commonly occurring woodland types in inland areas of northwestern california, and to examine whether chaparral or grassland serve as source habitats for dispersal of b. burgdorferi- or b. bissettii-infected rodents into adjacent woodlands. the western gray squirrel (sciurus griseus) was commonly infected with b. burgdorferi in oak woodlands, whereas exam ...200920514140
effects of an invasive forest pathogen on abundance of ticks and their vertebrate hosts in a california lyme disease focus.invasive species, including pathogens, can have important effects on local ecosystems, including indirect consequences on native species. this study focuses on the effects of an invasive plant pathogen on a vertebrate community and ixodes pacificus, the vector of the lyme disease pathogen (borrelia burgdorferi) in california. phytophthora ramorum, the causative agent of sudden oak death, is a non-native pathogen killing trees in california and oregon. we conducted a multi-year study using a grad ...201020941513
avian hosts of ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae) and the detection of borrelia burgdorferi in larvae feeding on the oregon junco.larval and nymphal western blacklegged tick, ixodes pacificus cooley & kohls (acari: ixodidae), were collected from birds, rodents, and lizards at quail ridge reserve located in napa county in northwestern california. species from three vertebrate classes were sampled simultaneously from two transects during two consecutive spring seasons. feeding larval and nymphal ticks were removed and preserved for counting, examination and testing for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hy ...201121845945
impacts of an introduced forest pathogen on the risk of lyme disease in california.global changes such as deforestation, climate change, and invasive species have the potential to greatly alter zoonotic disease systems through impacts on biodiversity. this study examined the impact of the invasive pathogen that causes sudden oak death (sod) on the ecology of lyme disease in california. the lyme disease bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in the far western united states by a suite of animal reservoirs including the dusky-footed woodrat (neotoma fuscipes) and deer mo ...201222607076
remarkable diversity of tick or mammalian-associated borreliae in the metropolitan san francisco bay area, california.the diversity of lyme disease (ld) and relapsing fever (rf)-group spirochetes in the metropolitan san francisco bay area in northern california is poorly understood. we tested ixodes pacificus, i. spinipalpis, and small mammals for presence of borreliae in alameda county in the eastern portion of san francisco bay between 2009 and 2012. analyses of 218 borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bb sl) culture or dna isolates recovered from host-seeking i. pacificus ticks revealed that the human pathogen b ...201425129859
fine-scale genetic structure of woodrat populations (genus: neotoma) and the spatial distribution of their tick-borne pathogens.dusky-footed woodrats are territorial cricetid rodents that individually occupy large stick houses from which they foray to gather food, find mates, and engage in other activities. these rodents are often bitten by ixodes spp. ticks and are reservoirs of some strains of tick-borne bacterial pathogens such as anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi. limited dispersal by hosts and vectors could create fine-scale population structure where related hosts and pathogen exposure are co-distr ...201626530982
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