infectious diseases in primitive societies.incidence of various infectious diseases in several amazon indian tribes has been determined serologically. diseases that infect only man fall into two distinct categories. those which can persist in an individual for a prolonged period are highly endemic, but those which are infectious only in the acute phase die out quickly after introduction. the suggestion is made that the latter diseases could not perpetuate themselves before the advent of advanced cultures and did not exert selective press ...1975163483
attachment of virulent treponema pallidum to human mononuclear phagocytes.the predominant phagocyte in established human syphilitic lesions is the mononuclear phagocyte. as these leucocytes may be important in immunity to treponema pallidum, the initial interaction between human phagocytes and pathogenic t. pallidum (nichols strain) was studied in vitro. motile, virulent t. pallidum attach to the surface membrane of phagocytes but are not ingested by these cells. heated, non-motile treponemes are not cell-associated but are observed free in the extracellular medium. a ...1978354749
[influence of different components of stored blood on the infectivity of treponema pallidum (nichols strain) (author's transl)].a factor with killing effect at 35 degrees c on treponema pallidum is shown to be in normal human serum. the activity of this factor is increased by the stabiliser of stored blood.--in the presence of the stabiliser t. pallidum loses its infectivity in human serum at 4 degrees c within 10 hours. the mechanism of the reaction is explained.--finally it is discussed whether these observations may be helpful in the prevention of transfusion syphilis.1978359455
comparative behavior of virulent strains of treponema pallidum and treponema pertenue in gradient cultures of various mammalian cells.two strains of virulent treponema pallidum and two of virulent t. pertenue were investigated for their ability to attach to and survive in gradient cultures of five different mammalian cells under aerobic conditions. the strains of t. pallidum studied were the high-rabbit-passage nichols and the low-rabbit-passage kkj. the former was known to readily attach to cottontail rabbit epithelial cells (sf1ep) and to survive in the virulent state for up to 21 days. we therefore compared attachment of th ...1979378851
[immunity aspects in syphilis].until lately, the host-parasite relationship in syphilis registered a certain latency because of the difficult approach to the problem and especially because of the enthusiasm caused by the possible eradication of the disease by penicillin. as these expectations were not confirmed, attention was again focussed on study by modern means of the biology of pathogenic treponema, its antigenic properties, possibility of in vitro cultivation and certain humoral and cellular immune aspects that govern t ...1979379962
electron microscopy of treponemes subjected to the treponema pallidum immobilization (tpi) test. i. comparison of immunoimmobilized cells and control cells.the ultrastructure of cells of t. pallidum nichols subjected to the tpi test was studied in negatively stained specimens. cells incubated in basal medium to which was added either human syphilis serum or heated guineapig serum (gps) showed a normal morphology. this was also the cause for cells incubated with basal medium to which was added either human syphilis serum and heated gps or normal human serum and unheated gps. by dark-field microscopy cells obtained from these different incubation mix ...1979384745
immune responses to soluble antigens of treponemes.sonicates from five cultivable treponemes were used as antigens in delayed hypersensitivity tests and macrophage inhibition assays. immunodiffusion analysis showed that the sonicate comprised two major antigenic components which were not distinguishable in the skin tests. the sonicate antigens elicited significant cell-mediated immunity in guinea-pigs. treponema refringens biotype nichols proved to induce the strongest delayed response. delayed skin hypersensitivity to the antigens of treponema ...1977402976
clinical evaluation of amoxycillin in the treatment of syphilis.following demonstration of in vitro activity of amoxycillin against treponema pallidum, a clinical research group was set up to study the effects of amoxycillin against various stages of syphilitic infection in men. a total of eighty-nine cases, fifteen primary, twenty-nine secondary, thirty late and fifteen adult congenital patients have been investigated. one hundred per cent effectiveness was recorded for primary and secondary syphilis; 66.7% for late syphilis and 60% success for adult congen ...1979520657
humoral immunity in experimental syphilis. i. the demonstration of resistance conferred by passive immunization.evidence of a role for human factor(s) in immunity to experimental syphilis has been provided by the demonstration that passive immunization of rabbits by daily i.v. injections of immune serum significantly delays the appearance and markedly diminishes the severity and duration of lesions which develop after challenge with treponema pallidum. five rabbits were injected daily over 37 days with 3 ml/kg body weight of pooled immune rabbit serum injection with 1.1 x 10(3) t. pallidum, nichols strain ...1976778261
treponema pallidum (nichols strain) in tissue cultures: cellular attachment, entry, and survival.the interaction of treponema pallidum (nichols strain) with cultured cells was investigated under aerobic conditions. cell monolayers derived from rabbit testicular tissue extended the survival of treponemes as indicated by active motility. large numbers of organisms rapidly attached to cultured cells. within 3 h, one to twelve actively motile treponemes were attached to 25 to 50% of the cells. in addition, t. pallidum attained intracellularity as early as 30 min after inoculation of the cell mo ...1975804444
studies on the treponema pallidum immobilizing activity in normal human serum. 6. antigenic relationship between t. pallidum and various mammalian tissues.the immobilizing igm antibody of normal serum and the igg antibody of syphilis serum reacted with different antigens of t. pallidum. the normal serum antibody to t. pallidum cross-reacted with antigens of various mammalian tissues.1976826115
[persistance of treponema palldium after treatment during experimental and human syphilis]. 19751092242
[uterine cervical carcinoma and human papillomaviruses].for many years it has been thought that a significant proportion of cervical cancer could be attributed to sexually transmitted agents, such as sperm, smegma, treponema pallidum, gonococcus and herpes simplexvirus type 2. recent advances of molecular biology, however, have revealed that human papillomavirus (hpv) might be the most causative virus of the disease. since hpv type 16 dna was found in a patient with cervical cancer in 1983, many hpv types have been cloned from cervical cancers, also ...19921327090
virulent treponema pallidum activates human vascular endothelial cells.perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, fibrin deposition, and endothelial cell abnormalities consistent with cellular activation are prominent histopathologic features of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium treponema pallidum. because activated endothelial cells play important roles in lymphocyte homing and hemostasis, the ability of virulent t. pallidum to activate cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvec) was investigated. t. pallidum indu ...19921347056
macrophage and lymphocyte functions are down-regulated in newborn rabbits.we have developed an animal model for congenital syphilis. treponema pallidum is injected intravenously into pregnant rabbits and fetuses are infected in utero. as a prelude to characterizing the immunologic consequences of fetal infection, it was necessary to expand on the baseline information about newborn rabbit immune capabilities. studies were undertaken to determine splenic macrophage and t lymphocyte functions with emphasis on newer immunologic parameters. newborns aged 2 weeks were compa ...19921431551
evaluation of new anti-infective drugs for the treatment of syphilis. infectious diseases society of america and the food and drug administration.syphilis is caused by treponema pallidum, a spirochetal bacterium pathogenic only for humans. the clinical course of disease is divided into three stages interspersed by periods of latency. penicillin remains the treatment of choice for all stages of infection; tetracycline or erythromycin may be used as therapeutic alternatives in defined circumstances. patients enrolled in clinical trials should be evaluated clinically, microscopically, and serologically for the presence of the spirochete. all ...19921477221
the outer membrane, not a coat of host proteins, limits antigenicity of virulent treponema pallidum.virulent treponema pallidum reacts poorly with the specific antibodies present in human and rabbit syphilitic sera, a phenomenon often attributed to an outer coat of host serum proteins. here we present additional evidence that the limited antigenicity of virulent organisms actually is due to a paucity of proteins in the outer membrane. initially, we used electron microscopy to demonstrate that the outer membrane is highly susceptible to damage from physical manipulation (i.e., centrifugation an ...19921541522
prevalence of neurosyphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with latent syphilis.a prospective study was done to determine the prevalence of confirmed neurosyphilis (cerebrospinal fluid [csf] venereal disease research laboratory [vdrl]-reactive) in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients with latent syphilis (reactive serum rapid plasma reagin [rpr] and microhemagglutination-treponema pallidum [mha-tp]).19921626576
[the ocular manifestations in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].the ocular manifestations in the infection with the human immunodeficiency virus are mentioned, among which the ischaemic retinal vasculopathy, the presence of dysoric nodules and the retinal vascularity. in addition, the presence of severe ocular manifestation caused by superinfections with cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma gondii, candida albicans and treponema pallidum is reported. lesions of the anterior pole and of the optic nerve are also described. the necessary prophylaxis and treatment measur ...19911667364
experimental congenital syphilis: guinea pig model.neonates born to female guinea pigs of either a highly susceptible (c4d) or a resistant (albany) strain, infected prior to or during pregnancy with a single dose of treponema pallidum, showed in their sera from the first day of life immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies to t. pallidum, circulating immune complexes consisting of igm antibodies and treponemal antigens, and igm rheumatoid factor. although the animals were asymptomatic for a 6-month observation period, several lines of evidence indicate ...19921729190
ultrastructural aspects of infection with treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (pariaman strain).to study ultrastructural aspects of infection with treponema pertenue (pariaman strain), originating from west sumatra, indonesia.19911743714
low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (hiv-1), hiv-2, and human t cell lymphotropic virus-1 infection in somalia.a seroepidemiologic survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), hiv-2, human t cell lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i), and treponema pallidum infection among southern somalis. sera were collected from 1,269 study subjects in the urban area of the capital city, mogadishu, and in the rural towns of merka, qoryoley, and kismayo. the subjects included 57 prostitutes, 79 sexually transmitted disease (std) patients, and 1,133 others, including outp ...19911763791
[karl landsteiner (1868-1943) in memoriam].apart from the discovery of the human blood groups and the rhesus factor landsteiner developed the visualization of spirochaeta pallida by the method of dark field microscopy. furthermore, he demonstrated the transmission of poliomyelitis to monkeys, which made it possible to prove the viral origin of this disease. he gave fundamental impulses to the development of immunobiology (e.g. concept of haptens, specificity of antigens etc.).19911903229
primary syphilis of the rectum--endoscopic and clinical features. report of a case.a 33-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for suspected rectal tumor. endoscopy showed a rectal mass not typical of carcinoma, and histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens revealed granulomatous inflammation. venereal disease research laboratories (vdrl) and treponema pallidum hemagglutination (tpha) tests became positive during hospitalization, and dark-field examination was positive for treponemas, thus allowing the diagnosis of chancre of the rectum. the clinical and endoscopic features ...19911935467
human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in borno state of nigeria.results of a study to determine if patients attending sexually transmitted diseases (std) clinics are at high risk to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection are presented. the 206 patients who attended the std clinic at the maiduguri general hospital consisted of 200 males and 6 females, most of whom were aged between 20 and 29 years and were single. only one of the 206 serum samples (0.49%) was confirmed seropositive for hiv-1 antibodies. however, cultures from 143 of 174 swabs taken from ...19902124396
sexually transmitted diseases in victims of rape.the risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease as a result of rape is not known, in part because it is difficult to ascertain whether infections were present before the assault or acquired during it. to investigate this question, we examined female victims of rape within 72 hours of the assault and again at least one week after the assault. of the 204 girls and women initially examined within 72 hours of the rape, 88 (43 percent) were found to have at least one sexually transmitted disease ...19902155389
neurosyphilis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. 19902180367
hiv, hbv, delta-agent and treponema pallidum infections in two rural african order to compare the seroepidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), hepatitis b virus, delta agent and treponema pallidum infections in two rural populations living in north uganda (kitgum district) and in central burundi (butezi, ruyigi region), 448 sera were tested for hbs-ag, hbs-ab, and anti-hiv antibodies and screened for syphilis using the t. pallidum haemagglutination (tpha) test. hbs-ag positive sera were also tested for anti-delta antibodies. overall seropositivity rates in ...19902189236
effect of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection on the course of syphilis and on the response to evaluate evidence that concurrent infection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) alters both the natural history of syphilis (by increasing the frequency of early neurosyphilis) and the response to penicillin.19902240901
sexually transmitted diseases in leprosy patients in north and northeastern india. a futile search for human immunodeficiency virus antibody.three-hundred-eighty-four leprosy patients were clinically examined for sexually transmitted diseases (std) in north and northeastern india, revealing a high incidence (5.2%) of std among them. eighteen males, one female, and one eunuch were found to have chancroid ulcer, gonococcal urethritis, lymphogranuloma inguinale, and primary chancre. of these patients, only 100, selected randomly, could be screened serologically for std due to treponema pallidum, herpes simplex (type 1 and 2), entamoeba ...19902280116
prevalence of human t-cell leukemia virus antibody among heterosexuals living in amsterdam, the determine the heterosexual spread of human t-cell leukemia virus (htlv-i) infections, a cohort of 472 individuals with more than 5 heterosexual partners in the 6 months before entry was studied. they were recruited from visitors to the clinic for sexually transmitted diseases of the municipal health service. half of the study group was born in the netherlands, 13% in surinam or the dutch antilles, and 8% in turkey or morocco. seventy percent were involved in commercial sex. three persons were ...19902280259
immunoglobulin class and subclass restriction of autoimmune responses in secondary syphilis.the immunoglobulin (ig) class and igg subclasses of autoantibodies to commercial vdrl antigen, creatine kinase (ck), and fibronectin (fn) in the sera of patients with various stages of syphilis were quantified using solid-phase radioimmunoassays (ria) and elisa. sera from patients with active secondary syphilis, initially positive for anti-fn and anti-ck autoantibodies by ria, were re-evaluated by elisa using monoclonal antibodies (moab) for detection of human ig class and subclass responses. re ...19902372987
antigenic interrelationship between endoflagella of treponema phagedenis biotype reiter and treponema pallidum (nichols): molecular characterization of endoflagellar proteins.purified endoflagella from nonpathogenic treponema phagedenis biotype reiter were characterized biochemically and compared antigenically with the endoflagellar proteins of treponema pallidum. t. phagedenis biotype reiter endoflagella were dissociated into constituent polypeptides by incubation under conditions which disrupt noncovalent bonds. chymotrypsin peptide maps of t. phagedenis biotype reiter endoflagellar proteins revealed that the 37- and 33-kilodalton (kda) major components shared sign ...19862430886
lyme disease.lyme disease is of interest to the neurologist and neuroscientist for a variety of reasons. as more arthropod hosts throughout the world are infected with the causative organism, borrelia burgdorferi, the illness in humans is becoming more prevalent; in addition, recognition of the disease in humans and susceptible animals is increasing. the neurological manifestations include acute and chronic forms, and it has become clear that b. burgdorferi has joined treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus ...19892472690
serum lipoprotein binding by treponema pallidum: possible role for proteoglycans.acquisition by the syphilis spirochaete, treponema pallidum, of radioiodinated total human plasma lipoprotein and lipoprotein subfractions was examined. time dependent and saturation binding kinetics were observed for total lipoproteins and subfractions, including high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins (ldl), and very low density lipoproteins. all subfractions competed equally well in binding iodinated total lipoproteins and individual subfractions, but apoproteins common to all sub ...19892474485
retroviral infections (hiv-1, hiv-2, and htlv-i) in rural northwestern tanzania. clinical findings, epidemiology, and association with infections common in africa.during a three-week period in march/april 1987, the authors examined 253 consecutive patients referred to a rural hospital in northwestern tanzania. sera were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2), and human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i), as well as for various parasites, hepatitis b virus, and treponema pallidum. neopterin (urinary and serum) was chosen as the immunologic parameter. in eight of the 253 patients ( ...19892546423
identification and characterization of an endoflagellar antigen of borrelia burgdorferi.the 41-kd antigen of borrelia burgdorferi is an immunodominant protein that is recognized early by antibodies in sera from lyme disease patients and known to be associated with the endoflagella. we identified the 41-kd endoflagellar antigen to be a single polypeptide with an apparent isoelectric point (pi) of 6.5 by two-dimensional (2-d) electrophoresis. this polypeptide, which we designated p41f alpha, was heavily labeled by 125i in 2-d autoradiographs of b. burgdorferi whole-cell lysates and w ...19892738156
unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis and abnormal humoral immune response to treponema pallidum antigens in a homosexual man with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection.the case presented here involves a 32-year-old homosexual man with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) seropositivity and unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis. the patient presented with syphilitic keratoderma and chorioretinitis, and his appearance superficially resembled that of a patient with reiter's syndrome. although nontreponemal and treponemal tests for syphilis showed reactivity, the patient's humoral immune response to individual polypeptides of treponema pallidum, measured by w ...19882963840
cloning and expression of the major 47-kilodalton surface immunogen of treponema pallidum in escherichia coli.monoclonal antibodies directed against the 47-kilodalton (kda) major outer membrane surface immunogen of virulent treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were used to select escherichia coli recombinant clones expressing the 47-kda immunogen. the phenotype of the clones was dependent on the presence of recombinant plasmid in the host cell. southern hybridization revealed that the cloned t. pallidum subsp. pallidum dna sequence was an accurate representation of the t. pallidum subsp. pallidum genomic ...19863021631
serological investigations for antibodies against treponema pallidum on the cape verde islands (santiago and santo antao)--2. report.on the cape verde islands, santiago and santo antao 581 human blood samples were collected. the vdrl and tpha tests were employed in the serological examinations of samples for antibodies against treponema pallidum. positive reactions were shown in 2 of the 191 sera from the santiago island and in 12 of the 390 sera from the santo antao island in both the vdrl and the tpha tests. including the alone tpha-positives of 5 and 8 sera respectively, results in a 3.7% of positive sera for santiago and ...19883049242
rabbit model of disseminated syphilis: immunoblot and immunohistologic evidence for a role of specific immune complexes in lesion pathogenesis.circulating immune complexes (cic) containing treponema pallidum proteins have been preliminarily implicated as inducers of a neutrophilic vascular reaction in early human cutaneous lesions of secondary syphilis. to clarify the role of specific cic in producing cutaneous and renal lesions, 12 rabbits were studied at the following intervals after induction of disseminated syphilis: 20 days (4 rabbits: biopsies of normal and lesional skin for direct immunofluorescence (imf) for (igg, igm, iga, clq ...19883294256
activation of the classical and alternative pathways of complement by treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and treponema vincentii.both in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that complement plays an important role in the syphilitic immune responses. few quantitative data are available concerning activation of the classical pathway by treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and no information is available on treponemal activation of the alternative pathway. activation of both pathways was compared by using t. pallidum subsp. pallidum and the nonpathogen t. vincentii. with rabbit and human sources of complement, both organi ...19873305362
[infection with the hepatitis b virus (hbv), the human t-lymphotropic retrovirus (hiv) and treponema pallidum in jailed minors]. 19873307838
etiology of nonvesicular genital ulcers in winnipeg.twenty-eight patients with recent onset of nonvesicular ulcerative genital lesions were studied prospectively to define the microbial etiology. causative agents identified included herpes simplex virus (hsv), chlamydia trachomatis, haemophilus ducreyi, and treponema pallidum. three women and 25 men (seven of whom were homosexual) were studied. ten patients did not have an etiology identified. nine patients had syphilis, six had genital herpes, one had chancroid, one had granuloma inguinale, and ...19873494322
electron microscopy studies of human intestinal spirochetes.the ultrastructure of twenty human intestinal spirochetes was analyzed using the electron microscope. negatively stained cells were generally found to be loosely and irregularly waved. the isolates had cell dimensions ranging from 0.18-0.35 micron in width and from 3.9-14.2 micron in length. twin bundles of flagella were present in the space between the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane. the majority of isolates had five flagella inserted sub-terminally at each cell end. human intestin ...19873609249
sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting as a serological tool in the diagnosis of syphilitic infections.the utility of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting as a serological tool in the diagnosis of human syphilitic infections was examined. in model experiments, rabbits were immunized with treponema pallidum or t phagedenis, and the antisera were tested for cross-reactivities with both sets of antigens. a major t. pallidum antigen with a molecular weight of ca. 17,000 appeared to be the most reliable specific antigenic marker as assessed by the immunoblotting tec ...19853881473
four-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of treponema pallidum antibody.further studies of a four-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure to detect treponema pallidum antibody are described. high-titered antibody, produced in rabbits by intravenous injection of t. pallidum, was used to coat polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates. to these plates a known concentration of t. pallidum was added, followed in successive steps by serial dilutions of human sera and appropriately diluted peroxidase-labeled anti-human immunoglobulin g antibody. o-phenylenediamine was ...19853884654
new technologies for use in the surveillance and control of the republic of ghana, treponemal antigen tests performed on finger-prick blood from patients with yaws proved to be as sensitive as those tests performed on whole sera, and this mode of collection was more economical and acceptable than venipuncture. under field conditions, dark-field microscopic examination of suspect yaws lesions was difficult as compared with collection of serous exudate in heparinized capillary tubes examined later in a reference laboratory. direct staining of lesion exu ...19853892633
reduction of nonspecific background staining in the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test.the nonspecific background fluorescence which occurs with the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test for syphilis was found to result from a reaction between serum-treated treponema pallidum organisms and the conjugated antihuman gamma-globulin. it was also shown that beta-lipoprotein and albumin were the important contributing factors in human serum. various dilutions of 2.5% trypsin in phosphate-buffered saline specifically reduced background fluorescence under proper test conditions. ...19684177869
localization of treponema pallidum immobilizing antibody in human immunoglobulins. 19684194912
treponema pallidum within cells of a primary chancre from a human female. 19744593836
[recent studies on latant syphilis, experimental and human]. 19664874728
spontaneous deaths among rabbits inoculated with treponema pallidum less than 2 weeks before. abnormal susceptibility in apparently normal laboratory rabbits indicated by serological tests for human syphilis. 19684879353
late ocular syphilis: transfer of infection from man to experimental animals. 19694985895
immunity in experimental syphilis. iv. serological reactivity of antigens extracted from gamm-irradiated treponema pallidum and treponema reiteri.miller, james n. (university of california school of medicine, los angeles), j. h. de bruijn, and j. h. bekker. immunity in experimental syphilis. iv. serological reactivity of antigens extracted from gamma-irradiated treponema pallidum and treponema reiteri. j. bacteriol. 91:583-587. 1966.-ultrasonic lysate preparations extracted from virulent treponema pallidum, nichols strain, suspensions exposed to 652,800 r of gamma-irradiation exhibited a loss in the serological reactivity of their heat-la ...19665327359
[syphillis. an up-to-date physio-biological view of the main topics. ii- the evolutive process of experimental syphilitic infection and a comparison with clinical symptoms in man (author's transl)].for lack of being able to grow treponema pallidum, the only possibility that we have to study its biological behavior is to have recourse to experimentation upon animals. the stade comprising primary and secondary syphilis is characterized by visible "warning signals" which are not serious for the patient himself. but all their importance lies in the fact that they reveal the dissemination of t. pallidum inside the whole body. thus, the healing alone or the disappearance of the lesion does not n ...19816266031
a case-control study of stillbirths at a teaching hospital in zambia, 1979-80: serological investigations for selected infectious agents.sera were obtained from 266 mothers of singleton stillborn babies (cases) and 266 mothers of live-born babies (controls), matched for parity, who delivered at the university teaching hospital, lusaka, zambia, between october 1979 and april 1980. tests were performed on 262 samples from cases and 261 from controls. the microhaemagglutination assay for treponema pallidum (mha-tp) was reactive in 54% of cases and 29% of controls; the rapid plasma reagin (rpr) 18-mm circle card test was reactive at ...19846334574
molecular characterization of common treponemal antigens.a molecular characterization of cross-reactive antigens of treponema pallidum nichols and treponema phagedenis biotype reiter that are reactive with normal and syphilitic human sera is described. at least 8 common polypeptides, 14 t. pallidum-specific antigens, and 2 t. phagedenis biotype reiter-specific antigens were identified.19836341249
microenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of specific igm antibodies in human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using a highly purified soluble antigen prepared from pathogenic treponema pallidum (nichols) was carried out to detect specific igm antibodies in syphilis. serum specimens from 365 patients with untreated or treated syphilis were tested by the elisa and by the 19s(igm) fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed test. in the elisa sera were preabsorbed with aggregated human igg to eliminate any rheumatoid factor present. sera from 331 healthy blood dono ...19836342706
identification and preliminary characterization of treponema pallidum protein antigens expressed in escherichia coli.we have previously described the construction in escherichia coli k-12 of a hybrid plasmid colony bank of treponema pallidum (nichols strain) genomic dna. by screening a portion of this bank with an in situ immunoassay, we identified six e. coli clones that express t. pallidum antigens. in this study, the recombinant plasmids from each of these clones have been analyzed in e. coli maxicells and have been found to encode a number of proteins that are not of vector pbr322 origin and are, therefore ...19836347894
effect of serum concentration and metabolic inhibitors on the attachment of treponema pallidum to rabbit cells.the effect of host-cell metabolism on the attachment of treponema pallidum to mammalian cells in vitro was studied. the growth of baby rabbit genital organ (brgo) cells was enhanced by increasing the concentration of serum ("serum shift-up") in the growth medium. cells starved for 24 h in serum-free medium showed a burst of dna synthesis when shifted to fresh medium containing 20% serum. in aerobic conditions, they were much more heavily coated with attached t. pallidum than cells shifted to 20% ...19836348288
cloning and expression of treponema pallidum (nichols) antigen genes in escherichia coli.hybrid pbr322 plasmid clone banks comprised of more than 125,000 recombinant dna clones and representing the entire treponema pallidum nichols genome were constructed in escherichia coli k-12 rr1. the two clone banks individually contain over 53,000 and 72,000 recombinant clones. the number average and mass average sizes of the cloned dna inserts were found to be approximately 12 and 13 kilobase pairs, respectively, indicating the presence of large treponemal dna inserts in a majority of recombi ...19836358023
case records of the massachusetts general hospital. weekly clinicopathological exercises. case 15-1984. mass in the iris and a skin rash in a young man. 19846366563
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in a patient with syphilis. identification of antitreponemal antibody and treponemal antigen in renal tissue.a 37-year-old man presented with biopsy-proved rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and a strongly positive fluorescent treponemal antibody result. the patient was treated with hemodialysis, plasmapheresis, methylprednisolone, and penicillin, with rapid improvement and stabilization of renal function. antibody was eluted from the frozen renal tissue and demonstrated a strongly positive reaction to the treponemal antigen when used in the fluorescent treponemal antibody test. in addition, when s ...19846375366
double-conjugate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulins g and m against treponema enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the simultaneous measurement of immunoglobulin g (igg) and igm was developed to detect antibodies to treponema pallidum. wells of polystyrene microtiter plates were coated with t. pallidum antigen, diluted patient serum was added, and igg and igm which bound to the t. pallidum antigen were measured by the simultaneous addition of alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-human igg and horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-human igm. bound igg was detected f ...19846394613
campylobacter jejuni myocarditis.a case of campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) myocarditis in a young man is described. c. jejuni was isolated from the patient's stools and he developed specific antibodies to this organism. tests for other etiological agents (salmonella, shigella, brucella abortus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus group a, treponema pallidum and coxsackievirus b) proved negative.19846488601
condylomata lata of the toewebs: a case report of an unusual manifestation of syphilis.the case of a young man with condylomata lata in the toewebs of both feet is presented. treponema pallidum was identified in these lesions. examination two weeks after intramuscular injection of 2.4 x 10(6) units of benzathine penicillin showed resolution of the lesions on the toewebs.19846505920
lymphocyte transformation and the effect of circulating immune complexes in humans with syphilis.peripheral blood lymphocytes and serum obtained from patients with secondary syphilis were studied in vitro by the technique of lymphocyte transformation. the sera from these patients also were examined for circulating immune complexes by the method of precipitation with polyethyene glycol. the lymphocytes responded poorly to in vitro stimulation with mitogens and treponemal antigens. in addition, the lymphocyte responses were poorer in autologous syphilitic serum than in normal human serum. the ...19826755769
genetic relationship between treponema pallidum and treponema pertenue, two noncultivable human pathogens.genetic relationships among two strains of treponema pallidum (nichols and kkj) and a strain of t. pertenue were determined by measuring the degree of deoxyribonucleic acid sequence homology. the results in indicated that these three virulent, noncultivable treponemes were genetically indistinguishable. like t. pallidum (nichols), t. pertenue (gauthier) had no detectable deoxyribonucleic acid sequence homology with t. phagedenis (biotype reiter), t. refringens (biotype noguchi), or with salmon s ...19806986367
molecular characterization of receptor binding proteins and immunogens of virulent treponema pallidum.receptor binding proteins of treponema pallidum were identified by incubation of [35s]methionine-labeled, soluble t. pallidum preparations with formaldehyde-fixed hep-2 cells. three major treponemal proteins (bands 1--3) that avidly bound to the eucaryotic cell surface were detected by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. brief trypsin treatment of hep-2 cells before formaldehyde fixation reduced the extent of the interaction of these treponemal macromolecul ...19806987326
chemical and biological properties of a peptidoglycan isolated from treponema pallidum kazan.a peptidoglycan layer of treponema pallidum kazan was isolated by solubilization of whole cells with 1% warm sodium dodecyl sulfate and subsequent digestion of an insoluble residue with proteases. electron microscopy revealed that the peptidoglycan was isolated as a single-layered sacculus of less than 5 nm in thickness, freed from axial filaments and an envelope sheath. an isolated peptidoglycan fraction was mainly composed of glucosamine, muramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, ornithine, and gl ...19817012020
antigenic analysis of treponema pallidum: cross-reactions between individual antigens of t. pallidum and t. antigens were demonstrated in the nichols pathogenic strain of treponema pallidum when tested by cross immunoelectrophoresis against rabbit antibodies raised by immunization with t. pallidum sonicate. indirect evidence was obtained for the presence of two more t. pallidum antigens. of the nine antigens six reacted with antibodies in a human syphilitic serum pool. cross-reactions between individual t. reiter antigens and the seven directly demonstrated t. pallidum antigens were studied by d ...19817015484
analysis of serum igg against treponema pallidum protein antigens in experimentally infected rabbits.sensitive and highly specific radioimmunoprecipitation and gel electrophoreses-fluorography were used to monitor the serum igg response of experimentally infected rabbits against key protein antigens of treponema pallidum. the sera from six rabbits challenged intradermally (id) and six intratesticularly (it) with t pallidum were examined over a period of four months. a specific antibody response to most treponemal surface proteins (including those ligands implicated as mediating host-cell-surfac ...19817028207
expression of treponema pallidum antigens in escherichia coli.treponema pallidum dna was cloned in a bacteriophage. clones were screened for expression of treponema pallidum antigens by an in situ radioimmunoassay on nitrocellulose, with the use of subsequent reactions with syphilitic serum and radioiodinated staphylococcus aureus protein a. one clone, which gave a strong signal, codes for at least seven antigens that react specifically with human antibodies to treponema pallidum.19827041257
scanning electron microscopy of the attachment of treponema pallidum to nerve cells in vitro.treponema pallidum (nichols strain) was incubated with cultured nerve cells derived from rat embryos. primary cultures were established from dorsal root ganglia, superior cervical ganglia, and spinal cord. using phase contrast microscopy treponemes were seen to interact with the nerve cells in a similar manner to other cultured mammalian cells. organisms began to attach within minutes after inoculation, actively motile organisms attached at the tip of one end, higher numbers of organisms attache ...19827049315
flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte immunophenotypes in persons infected with treponema characterize the human immune response to syphilis, we determined the effect of infection with treponema pallidum on the percentage of the various lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of infected and uninfected persons. monoclonal antibodies labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or phycoerythrin were used to perform dual color analysis on a facscan with the following markers: cd3 for total t cells, cd4 for t helper cells, cd8 for t suppressor cells, cd19 for b cells, and ...19947496914
prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis c virus in populations at low and high risk for sexually transmitted diseases in rio de order to investigate the sexual transmission of the hepatitis c virus (hcv), the prevalence of specific antibodies in populations at high and low risk for sexually transmitted diseases (stds) was evaluated. the population at low risk for stds was composed of persons who voluntarily donated blood at the hospital universitário clementino fraga filho (hucff) between july and november, 1990 (n = 2494). the population at high risk for stds was drawn from an ongoing study on the natural history of ...19937509022
characterization of outer membranes isolated from treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete.previous freeze-fracture electron microscopy (em) studies have shown that the outer membrane (om) of treponema pallidum contains sparse transmembrane proteins. one strategy for molecular characterization of these rare om proteins involves isolation of t. pallidum oms. here we describe a simple and extremely gentle method for om isolation based upon isopycnic sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation of treponemes following plasmolysis in 20% sucrose. evidence that t. pallidum oms were isolate ...19957591054
genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in abidjan, ivory coast.a cross-sectional study among female sex workers in abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and hiv-related immunosuppression. among 1209 women tested for hiv, 962 (80%) were seropositive. hiv infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (p < .05). genital ulcer ...19957594681
hiv-1, hiv-2, htlv-i/ii and treponema pallidum infections: incidence, prevalence, and hiv-2-associated mortality in an occupational cohort in guinea-bissau.the prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (hiv-1, hiv-2), human t-lymphotropic virus types i and ii (htlv-i/ii), and syphilitic infections and the association between these infections were determined in a cohort of police officers in guinea-bissau. between january 1990 and december 1992, 1,384 subjects (1,241 men and 143 women) were included in the study; and of the first 879 tested, 561 were tested at least for a second time. the overall seroprevalence of hiv-1 ...19957600111
infectious disease markers in autologous and directed donations. 19957655581
comparison of the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (fta-abs) test with the fta-abs double staining test for detection of antitreponemal immunoglobulin m in the 19s fraction of human serum.a widely used immunoglobulin m (igm) detection assay for the diagnosis of neonatal congenital syphilis is the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test used with fractionated serum (fta-abs 19s igm test). reading the results of the fta-abs test is more cumbersome than reading those of the fta-abs double staining (fta-abs-ds) test, a confirmatory test for specific igg. to verify that the fta-abs-ds test used with an anti-human igm conjugate could detect specific igm in fractionated serum sa ...19937678016
prevalence of anti-hepatitis c virus in the blood donor population of rio de janeiro.the prevalence of hepatitis c virus (hcv) antibodies in 2,557 asymptomatic volunteer brazilian blood donors is reported. using the line immunoassay (inno-lia) as a confirmatory test on elisa anti-hcv-positive reacting sera, a prevalence rate of 2.7% for anti-hcv positivity was found. by comparison, prevalences of 1.6% for hepatitis b surface antigen, 0.9% for treponema pallidum, 0.4% for human immunodeficiency virus and 0.04% for trypanosoma cruzi were observed. only 57% of the hcv-positive dono ...19937692672
neurosyphilis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. 19957700294
hospital-based study of sexually transmitted diseases at murewa rural district hospital, zimbabwe zimbabwe, sexually transmitted diseases are highly prevalent and represent a significant amount of the workload for physicians.19957709319
drug therapies for sexually transmitted diseases. clinical and economic considerations.sexually transmitted diseases (stds) are common, and result in immense social and economic costs. in some countries they have a major demographic impact. because many stds facilitate the transmission of hiv, the consequences of stds are further increasing. at the same time, this association between stds and hiv provides one of the ways in which drug therapy should be very cost effective. the perspective taken in this article is a societal one, and broader issues than those directly related to dr ...19957789285
treponema pallidum and borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and synthetic lipopeptides activate monocytes/macrophages.the observation that the major membrane immunogens of the spirochetal pathogens. treponema pallidum and borrelia burgdorferi are lipoproteins prompted studies to investigate macrophage activation by the 47-kda lipoprotein of t. pallidum and the acylated outer surface protein a (ospa) of b. burgdorferi. both lipoproteins induced the synthesis of biologically active tnf-alpha and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in a murine macrophage cell line transfected with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase ...19957876555
virulent treponema pallidum promotes adhesion of leukocytes to human vascular endothelial cells.perivasculitis and endothelial cell abnormalities are characteristic histopathologic features of syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by treponema pallidum. to extend earlier studies demonstrating that t. pallidum activates endothelial cells, we now show that virulent t. pallidum, but not heat-killed t. pallidum or nonpathogenic treponema phagedenis, promotes increased adherence of lymphocytes and monocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. lymphocytes and monocytes are the t ...19947927729
identification of lactoferrin-binding proteins from treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum and treponema denticola.lactoferrin-binding or -associated proteins were identified in treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum and treponema denticola by affinity column chromatography using human lactoferrin and detergent-solubilized, radiolabelled spirochaetes. two discrete polypeptides of t. pallidum with masses of 45 and 40 kda and a broad band from 29-34 kda exhibited association with human apo- and partially ferrated lactoferrin. t. denticola produced two proteins that associated with a lactoferrin affinity matrix ...19947934885
the response of symptomatic neurosyphilis to high-dose intravenous penicillin g in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) may affect both the natural course of syphilis and the response to treatment. we examined the response to treatment with high-dose penicillin g in hiv-infected patients with symptomatic neurosyphilis.19947969296
brief report: cerebral syphilitic gumma confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction in a man with human immunodeficiency virus infection. 19947969298
human immunodeficiency virus infection in long-distance truck drivers in east africa.a cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection among long-distance truck drivers in kenya.19948002691
evaluation of neurosyphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.the diagnosis of neurosyphilis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) remains problematic. we examined the use of the treponema pallidum hemagglutination (tpha) index and quantitative tests of csf by means of microhemagglutination-t. pallidum for diagnosis of neurosyphilis in 58 hiv-infected persons with latent syphilis who had not recently received therapy for syphilis. five patients (9%) had reactive csf vdrl tests and thus had proven neurosyphilis. for 13 patients (2 ...19948011805
infectious complications of tattoos.tattooing carries several medical risks, including the transmission of infectious diseases. we review the published literature on the transmission of hepatitis b virus, human immunodeficiency virus, treponema pallidum, papillomavirus, mycobacterium tuberculosis, and other organisms by tattooing. education, through public health measures, should promote the prevention of infectious disease transmission. particular populations who could benefit from education include prisoners, individuals involve ...19948038318
[condyloma acuminatum in female urethra: a case report].a case of female intraurethral condyloma acuminata is present in this report. a 52-year-old woman visited our hospital with the chief complaint of miction pain and bloody secretions. thirty seven years previously, she had had a pudental tumor resected which was diagnosed as condyloma acuminata. physical examination revealed two child-finger-head sized, polypoid tumors which arose from about 5 mm inside the external urethral orifice. laboratory findings were negative for rapid plasma reagin card ...19948085526
effects of hiv infection on the serologic manifestations and response to treatment of syphilis in intravenous drug describe the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection on the serologic manifestations and response to treatment of syphilis in intravenous drug users.19938094280
high rate of infection with the human t-cell leukemia retrovirus type ii in four indian populations of argentina.sera from 215 non-drug-injecting toba and mataco-mataguayo pure indians belonging to four communities in northern argentina were examined using assays that allow differentiation between reactivities due to type-specific antigens of the human t-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (htlv). three of these populations have very little contact with non-indian groups and reside in remote, isolated areas. htlv-ii type-specific seroreactivity was present in 24 (13.7%) of the 175 indians older than 13 years of a ...19938249280
[syphilitic orchitis: report of a case].syphilitic orchitis ir recently a rare disease in japan. a 44-year-old man visited our hospital with the complaint of swelling of the right scrotum. he first noticed it about a half year ago, but the swelling mitigated without any therapy. the right testis was about the size of a hen's egg, elastic hard, and slightly rugged when he first visited our hospital. treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (tpha) and rapid plasma reagin (rpr) were positive. we performed high orchiectomy because we cou ...19938266868
[prevalence of hepatitis c virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among japanese female prostitutes].to investigate the incidence of hepatitis c virus (hcv) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in japanese sexual workers, 191 out of 194 female prostitutes working in a certain district of the tokyo metropolitan area were tested for anti-hcv, anti-hepatitis b virus (hbv), anti-hiv and anti-treponema pallidum (tp). they were also interviewed with regard to their past history of blood transfusion, vaccination against hbv, liver diseases and repeated skin piercing treatments such as tatt ...19938329759
clarithromycin therapy of experimental treponema pallidum infections in hamsters.clarithromycin was shown to be effective therapy for treponema pallidum infections in hamsters. clarithromycin therapy was effective when initiated either 1 or 8 days after infection. the delay in initiation of therapy allowed an active infection to develop. the treponemal burden in lymph tissue of treated hamsters was eradicated, as determined by dark-field microscopy and by inoculation of lymph material into susceptible hamsters. treatments with clarithromycin and the 14-hydroxy metabolite of ...19938494384
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