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high c + g content in parapoxvirus dna.the dnas of eight parapoxviruses (four stomatitis papulosa viruses isolated from infected calves, a pseudocowpox virus isolated from a teat lesion of an infected cow and three orf viruses, one isolated from an infected sheep and two isolated from human infections) were analysed in cscl gradients. the mole % of g+c was calculated from the buoyant density and found to be approx. 63% for all virus isolates examined. parapoxvirus dna thus has by far the highest g+c content of all poxvirus dnas so fa ...1979225418
sero-surveillance for orf antibodies in sheep and goats in saudi arabia employing the elisa technique.a serological survey was conducted on sheep and goats in saudi arabia to detect humoral antibodies against the orf virus. the elisa technique was superior to the agid and cft in detecting such antibodies. of the 239 abattoir serum samples examined, 60 per cent had orf antibodies by elisa while 94.8 per cent of the convalescent sera had antibodies detectable by elisa. with the lack of vaccination and the reports that the clinical disease is commonly seen in different parts of the kingdom, it may ...19921597532
outbreaks of border disease in goats induced by a pestivirus-contaminated orf vaccine, with virus transmission to sheep and cattle.five herds with a total of 276 female goats experienced severe outbreaks of reproductive failure due to a pestivirus-contaminated experimental orf vaccine given early in the breeding season. the reproductive failures comprised barrenness in 42 goats, abortion in 53 and, in 118, the birth of dead or weak kids. the incidence of female goats with such failures was 82 per cent overall, herd incidence rates ranging from 79 to 96 per cent. no progeny showed characteristic signs of border disease (bd). ...19911650802
repeat sequences from complex ds dna viruses can be used as minisatellite probes for dna fingerprinting.in a search for new fingerprinting probes for use with sheep, repeat sequences derived from five poxviruses, an iridovirus and a baculovirus were screened against dna from sheep pedigrees. probes constructed from portions of the parapox viruses, orf virus and papular stomatitis virus and the baculovirus from the alfalfa looper, autographa californica, nuclear polyhedrosis virus all gave fingerprint patterns. probes from three other poxviruses and an iridovirus did not give useful banding pattern ...19911892249
contagious pustular dermatitis (orf) infection in sheep and goats in saudi arabia. 19911909477
parapoxvirus papillomatosis in the muskoxen (ovibos moschatus): genetical differences between the virus causing new outbreak in a vaccinated herd, the vaccine virus and a local orf virus.since 1981 a domesticated muskoxen herd had been successfully vaccinated against papillomatosis with homogenated, glutaraldehyde inactivated papilloma tissue. in the fall of 1985 a new clinical outbreak of disease occurred, affecting previously infected as well as vaccinated animals. the purification of parapox virions directly from papilloma tissue and orf scabs collected in a local sheep farm was followed by restriction endonuclease analysis of viral dna. the morphological identity of purified ...19902169188
[recent information about the orf virus of small ruminants].new scientific findings in the field of immunobiology and diagnosis of parapoxvirus ovis (orf-virus) as the causal agent of a zoonosis are presented. the adaptation of orf-virus to cell lines and its in vitro multiplication without difficulties offer the possibility for extensive studies into the biology of parapoxviruses. the development of monoclonal antibodies (mab) against an attenuated orf-virus strain (d-1701) led to the elaboration of a simplified, cheap and highly sensitive "antigen dete ...19902219103
a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the humoral antibody response of the sheep to orf virus infection.the serological response of naturally and experimentally infected lambs to orf virus infection was analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) together with the western blotting technique. the combination of these two methods permitted a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the response, which revealed considerable variation between animals. despite this, all post-exposure sera reacted with a polypeptide (molecular weight 40 kilodaltons) which appears to be a component of t ...19872448946
in vivo and in vitro characteristics of contagious ecthyma virus isolates: host response mechanism.three vero cell culture-adapted contagious ecthyma virus (cev) isolates were compared by plaque morphology, ability to induce vesicles in skin and in vivo growth curve characteristics by sampling sequentially experimental skin lesions produced in four sheep and one goat. two of the isolates (cev-29a and cev-378) were from outbreaks of ecthyma in sheep and one (cev-102) from a human case of orf. when replicating in vero cells, the viruses exhibited similar growth parameters, but were distinguisha ...19892466365
cell lines for growth of sheep viruses. 19892549933
comparison of contagious ecthyma virus genomes by restriction endonucleases.restriction enzyme analysis with kpni revealed heterogeneity among 10 different strains of contagious ecthyma virus from sheep, musk ox, dall sheep and humans. hybridization of electroblots indicated deletion of dna segments and changes in nucleotide sequences.19852986582
orf virus and vaccinia virus do not cross-protect sheep.inoculation of lambs with a new zealand strain of orf virus (nz 2) failed to protect them against subsequent infection with the lister strain of vaccinia virus. similarly, in the reciprocal test, vaccinia virus failed to protect against subsequent orf virus infection. inoculation with either orf virus or vaccinia virus alone afforded protection against reinfection with the same virus. these results have relevance to the use of vaccinia virus gene vectors in sheep.19883178493
[orf: recontamination 8 months after the original infection. review of the literature apropos of a case].frequent in france among domesticated sheep and goats, contagious pustular dermatitis of the sheep is called orf when it occurs in man. the authors present a case of recontamination in a woman farmer of the cher department (central france), who had been bottle-feeding lambs affected with the zoonosis. this 71-year old woman developed papules, then papulopustules on the ulnar aspect of her hands and wrists (fig. 1). within a few days, these lesions were 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter and surrounded with ...19863545022
contagious pustular dermatitis (orf) of sheep affecting the ear following ear tagging. 19873606509
survival of orf virus under british winter conditions. 19863727328
orf. a case report with histologic, electron microscopic, and immunoperoxidase studies.orf is an occupational skin disease acquired through contact with infected animals. in humans, orf is usually a self-limited disease that resolves spontaneously within four to 24 weeks. we report a case with multiple lesions of orf, acquired by contact with a wild sheep. the patient was temporarily immunosuppressed by a concomitant viral hepatitis. we reviewed the histologic and electron microscopic findings. also, we attempted to stain the parapoxvirus in the skin of the patient, using the immu ...19853883947
detection of antigen by fluorescence in orf virus lesions in sheep. 19853892874
[ecthyma of sheep and goats].contagious pustular dermatitis (cpd, contagious ecthyma, orf) is a highly contagious viral disease afflicting sheep and goats. the infectious agent is a parapoxvirus which is widespread and also contagious for humans (zoonosis). recently the disease in sheep and goats is marked by increased incidence and severe cases which cause many losses especially among lambs in fattening farms. the immunity of once infected animals is based on cellular defense mechanisms which are very unstable. the most su ...19853895568
attempted reactivation of contagious ecthyma in dall sheep.dexamethasone was administered to 2 dall ewes that had clinically recovered from contagious ecthyma in an attempt to reactivate contagious ecthyma in the sheep. clinical signs of disease were not detected within 24 days after corticosteroid injection, and virus was not detected in tissues collected at necropsy.19854037507
on contagious ecthyma and its treatment in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus). 19854041120
[human orf infection].ecthyma contagiosum is caused by a member of the parapoxvirus group, the so-called orf virus. the typical feature of the disease is described, and some of its peculiarities are illustrated by means of a case report.19854082696
camel contagious ecthyma (pustular dermatitis).in 1979, pustular dermatitis caused by a virus belonging to the family poxviridae , genus parapoxvirus , was observed among camels in some areas of mongolia . the morbidity in adults ranged from 10 to 80%, of 2 to 3-month-old suckling camels between 50-70% and it reached 100% in 1-year-old animals. in the beginning, pustules developed around the mouth followed by papular elevations and scab formation. the virus designated camel contagious ecthyma (cce) grew on the chorionallantoic membrane (cam) ...19846145344
[atopic dermatitis and pox-virus superinfections (author's transl)].subjects afflicted with atopic dermatitis are particularly predisposed to such viral superinfections as verruca, herpes (eczema herpeticum) and vaccinia (eczema vaccinatum). knowledge of superinfection by the molluscum contagiosum virus is more recent and the authors describe one case. the orf virus (responsible for ovine ecthyma contagiosum), however, has never been described as responsible for the profuse superinfection of an atopic eczema. the authors observed one case of this in a child, aty ...19816275765
prevalence of antibodies of selected infectious disease agents in the peninsular desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates) of the santa rosa mountains, california. 19826285010
effect of passively-acquired antibodies and vaccination on the immune response to contagious ecthyma virus.lambs which received colostrum from ewes vaccinated with contagious ecthyma (ce) virus and other lambs vaccinated with ce virus were compared for serum anti-ce immunoglobulin (ig)g levels, delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) responses to ce viral antigen, and protective immunity to challenge with ce virus. ewes vaccinated 3-4 weeks prior to parturition transferred ce antibody to lambs via colostrum. although these lambs had higher levels of antibody at challenge than lambs vaccinated when 1-4 da ...19846506446
[an (unusual) case of ecthyma in goats]. 19846537867
ocular infection with orf virus.orf virus infection of the pericanthal eyelid skin and conjunctiva was diagnosed by electron microscopy. orf is a paravaccinia virus responsible for contagious pustular dermatitis in sheep and goats. it occasionally affects humans. the patient was a farmwife who had recently handled lambs. she had a raised ulcerating lesion at the inner canthus, follicular conjunctivitis, and lymphadenopathy. treatment with 35% idoxuridine in dimethylsulfoxide on the skin and 0.5% idoxuridine ointment on the con ...19846539075
[erythema multiforme major (stevens-johnson syndrome) caused by orf virus infection]. 19846540487
orf virus infection of workers in the meat industry.two hundred and thirty-one cases of orf were reported in one year from 18 meat works slaughtering lambs and sheep. this represented 1.4 percent of the total employees at these works and 4 percent of those working on the mutton slaughter board. one hundred and nineteen of these reports were accompanied by samples of the lesion and 85 percent of lesions contained orf virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. the tasks that led to the greatest risk of contracting orf were related to han ...19836571964
serologic and experimental investigations of contagious ecthyma in alaska.serologic evidence of contagious ecthyma (ce) was found in domestic sheep (ovis aries), domestic goats (capra hircus), dall sheep (ovis dalli), and musk-ox (ovibos moschatus) in alaska. a moose (alces alces) calf and a caribou (rangifer tarandus) fawn were susceptible to experimental infection and both developed antibody titers as a result. ce virus was isolated from lesions of dall sheep which were involved in a natural outbreak of the disease.19836644914
experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.hand-reared mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. all four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with ...19836685778
cytotoxic antibodies in orf virus infection of sheep. 19826750991
contagious ecthyma in an adult dall sheep (ovis dalli dalli) in alaska. 19827097867
the inoculation of rabbits with dermatophilus congolensis and the simultaneous infection of sheep with d. congolensis and orf virus. 19817320237
[control of ecthyma contagiosum (pustular dermatitis) of sheep with a new parenteral cell culture live vaccine]. 19817331595
[recent developments in the diagnosis of parapoxviruses].neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against parapoxviruses (ppv) were generated by immunizing balb/c-mice with gradient-purified ppv orf d-1701 or purified envelopes. epitope specificity studies identified three distinct epitopes localized in the virus envelope. these antigenic sites allowed a differentiation between orf and stomatitis papulosa viruses. for a rapid diagnosis of parapoxviruses transmission-electron microscopy, immunofluorescence- or immunoperoxidase-staining, ...19947519370
the restricted igg1 antibody response to maedi visna virus is seen following infection but not following immunization with recombinant gag protein.maedi-visna (mvv) is a retrovirus of the subfamily lentivirinae which includes hiv, simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). infection of its natural host, the sheep, does not cause overt immunodeficiency, but rather a chronic inflammatory disease. however, subtle immunological changes following infection have been reported including a sheep igg1 subclass-restricted mvv-neutralizing antibody. here we demonstrate by western blotting that there is no igg2 serum ...19957586678
parapoxvirus of red deer: evidence for its inclusion as a new member in the genus parapoxvirus.there are three accepted members of the parapoxvirus genus, orf virus (ov), papular stomatitis virus (psv), and pseudocowpox virus (pcv). ov is maintained in sheep and goats and psv and pcv in cattle. restriction endonuclease profiles of the dna derived from representatives of these established members of the genus were compared with profiles from a parapoxvirus recently isolated from red deer. in no case did the profile of this latter virus (dpv) resemble those generated from the other parapoxv ...19957747456
lack of cross-protection between vaccinia virus and orf virus in hysterectomy-procured, barrier-maintained lambs.hysterectomy-procured, barrier maintained lambs were immunised with either of virus or vaccinia virus and subsequently challenged with both viruses. under these conditions lambs were protected from challenge with the homologous virus but no cross-protection was observed. the feeding of colostrum that contained antibodies to orf virus had no effect on the duration of viral lesions. immunoblotting analysis and elisa of serum samples taken during the course of the experiment indicated that the anim ...19947801537
experimental cross-infection of sheep and goats with different isolates of contagious ecthyma virus. 19947945102
parapox infection in a gazelle kid (gazella gazella).a captured gazelle kid (gazella gazella) held in a mixed herd of sheep and goats in israel developed the characteristic lesions of contagious ecthyma. clinical diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopy and histopathology examinations of infected tissue.19948028113
identification and characterization of an orf virus homologue of the vaccinia virus gene encoding the major envelope antigen p37k.dna sequence analysis of a 1.55-kb region located 10 kb from the left end of the orf virus nz-2 strain (ov nz2) genome revealed an open reading frame, b2l, encoding a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 41.67 kda. this protein (p42k) shows 42% amino acid sequence identity to the vaccinia virus (vac) major envelope antigen p37k. in addition, p42k shows homology to a protein encoded by molluscum contagiosum virus (42.8% identity) and another encoded by fowlpox virus (38.3% identity). thes ...19948030257
local epidermal viral infections: comparative aspects of vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus in man and orf virus in sheep. 19948156048
immune responses of patients to orf virus infection.orf is a disease of sheep and goats which is caused by a parapox virus. it can be transmitted to humans, and is considered an occupational hazard by those handling sheep. in this paper we present the first report of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to naturally acquired orf virus infection in humans. lymphoproliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients to an orf virus antigen were vigorous soon after infection, but rapidly declined. orf virus antibody le ...19948186108
a close comparative study on the response of sheep and goats to experimental orf infection.a comparative experimental study of the clinico-pathological and serological response of sheep and goats to orf infection was made. all infected animals depicted typical orf lesions and seroconverted. the clinical, serological, gross and histopathological responses were similar in both species. however, the disease span was longer in sheep than in goats. it was concluded that sheep could play an important role in maintenance of the virus in the environment.19938237197
homologs of vascular endothelial growth factor are encoded by the poxvirus orf virus.a gene encoding a polypeptide with homology to mammalian vascular endothelial growth factors (vegfs) has been discovered in the genome of orf virus (ov), a parapoxvirus that affects sheep and goats and, occasionally, humans. the gene is transcribed abundantly early in infection and is found immediately outside the inverted terminal repeat at the right end of the genome. in the nz2 strain of ov (ov nz2), the gene encodes a polypeptide with a molecular size of 14.7 kda, while in another strain, ov ...19948254780
orf virus infection in pregnancy.orf virus infection is endemic among sheep and goats, and can occur in humans who handle these animals. orf virus infection in humans causes a characteristic skin lesion, and systemic symptoms can occur. very little is known about orf virus infection in human pregnancy. a case of orf virus infection, with onset at 33 weeks gestation, is presented. there were no pathological findings in the infant born at term, or in the placenta.19938303253
comparison of native and subunit antigens as elisa reagents for the detection of antibodies against scabby mouth virus.a simple elisa test to detect antibodies against scabby mouth virus (smv) has been developed. native whole virions and subunits of smv generated by boiling the virus in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (sds) detergent and beta-mercaptoethanol were compared as elisa assay reagents using naive and hyperimmune sera from sheep and rabbits. approximately 2 x 10(4) intact virus particles per microtiter well were required to generate a positive to negative signal of 0.8:0.3 elisa o.d. units when ...19958545973
immune responses of the camel (camelus dromedarius) to contagious ecthyma (orf) virus infection.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed together with a western blotting technique for the detection of total and specific igg and igm antibodies to the contagious ecthyma (orf) virus in camel (camelus dromedarius) sera and for identifying the seroreactive antigens of the virus. an outbreak of generalised contagious ecthyma in camels was diagnosed for the first time in libya; the seropositivity rate in a herd with clinically affected camels was 37.9% (and was related to clinic ...19958604544
cytolytic activity and associated serine protease expression by skin and afferent lymph cd8+ t cells during orf virus reinfection.following orf virus reinfection in sheep, cd8+ t cells were recruited to the lesion site in the skin during the period of viral replication and appeared in increased numbers in afferent lymph draining the infection site. a proportion of the cd8+ t cells were activated, particularly in the skin, as determined by their expression of the cytolytic cell-associated serine protease, blt-esterase. this was a useful marker for activated cytolytic cells as there was a good correlation between afferent ly ...19968609492
tissue culture-propagated orf virus vaccine protects lambs from orf virus challenge.twenty, eight-day-old specific pathogen-free (spf) lambs were vaccinated by a single scarification approximately 4 cm in length on the inner right thigh with a double-pronged applicator. the titre of live virus in the vaccine was 10(7.2) tcid50/ml and the estimated dose per lamb was 0.04 ml. three months and six months later 10 of the vaccinated lambs and five age-matched unvaccinated control specific pathogen free lambs were challenged by a single scarification with virulent virus on the inner ...19968677620
genomic analysis of a transposition-deletion variant of orf virus reveals a 3.3 kbp region of non-essential dna.restriction endonuclease analysis of the dna extracted orf virus strain nz2, which had been serially passaged in primary bovine testis cells, revealed a population of variants that had over-grown the wild-type virus. at least three distinct mutant forms were identified in which the right end of the genome had been duplicated and translocated to the left end, accompanied by deletions of sequences at the left end. sequencing of a single variant isolated from the heterogeneous population revealed t ...19958847502
natural transmission of orf virus from clinically normal ewes to orf-naive sheep.the apparent natural transmission of orf virus from clinically normal ewes to susceptible sheep was observed during a border disease vaccine experiment. the 14 susceptible sheep were persistently infected with border disease virus and had been reared indoors in isolation from other sheep since birth. their ages ranged from two to four years and they were housed in two groups; group 1 consisted of four sheep persistently infected with the moredun strain of border disease virus and group 2 consist ...19968903019
the activation status of ovine cd45r+ and cd45r- efferent lymph t cells after orf virus reinfection.the dynamics and activation status of cd4+ and cd8+ t-cells differentially expressing the cd45r (220 kda) antigen were studied in prefemoral efferent lymph draining the site of cutaneous reinfection with orf virus. cd4+, cd45r+ lymphoblasts preceded cd4+, cd45r- lymphoblasts during the first 48 h after reinfection. thereafter, the output of both total and blast-transformed cd4+, cd45r- t-cells increased in proportion to the cd4+, cd45r+ cells for the duration of the virus reinfection. output of ...19968910744
cytokines and their inhibitors in orf virus infection.the epitheliotropic parapoxvirus, orf virus, can repeatedly infect sheep skin. a specific immune response is generated as reinfections induce smaller lesions with quicker resolution times than primary lesions. cyclosporin-a treatment abrogates this partial immunity. cytokine mrnas detected in lesion biopsies include the transcripts for il-1 beta, il-3 gm-csf, tnf-alpha and, less reproducibly, ifn-gamma. cd4+ t-cells predominate in afferent lymph draining the site of infection, and are the major ...19968988872
a novel strategy for determining protective antigens of the parapoxvirus, orf virus.we investigated the feasibility of using vaccinia virus (vac) recombinants containing large multigene fragments of orf virus dna to identify protective antigens of orf virus (ov). sixteen ov strain nz2 dna fragments with an average size of 11.4 kb were recombined into vac strain lister. each fragment was mapped relative to ov restriction endonuclease maps but was otherwise uncharacterized. together the recombinants represent 95% of the ov genome in an overlapping manner. immunofluorescence showe ...19979123861
a homolog of interleukin-10 is encoded by the poxvirus orf virus.a gene encoding a polypeptide with homology to interleukin-10 (il-10) has been discovered in the genome of orf virus (ov) strain nz2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats, and humans. the predicted polypeptide sequence shows high levels of amino acid identity to il-10 of sheep (80%), cattle (75%), humans (67%), and mice (64%), as well as il-10-like proteins of epstein-barr virus (63%) and equine herpesvirus (67%). the c-terminal region, comprising two-thirds of the ov protein, is identical t ...19979151886
the immune and inflammatory response to orf virus.orf virus is a zoonotic, epitheliotropic dna parapox virus that principally infects sheep and goats. the fact that the virus can repeatedly reinfect sheep has provoked an interest in the underlying cellular, virological and molecular mechanisms for its apparent escape from the host protective immune response. the local immune and inflammatory response in skin and the cell phenotype and cytokine response in lymph analysed around a single lymph node are characteristic of an anti-viral response. an ...19979280386
molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans.the current members of the genus parapoxvirus are orf virus (orfv), bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpoxvirus (pcpv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). bpsv and pcpv are maintained in cattle while orfv is maintained in sheep and goats, but all three are zoonoses. only the recently reported pvnz has yet to be recorded as infecting humans. tentative members of the genus are camel contagious ecthyma virus, chamois contagious ecthyma virus and sealpoxvirus. the separ ...19979413523
the orf virus ov20.0l gene product is involved in interferon resistance and inhibits an interferon-inducible, double-stranded rna-dependent kinase.the parapoxvirus orf virus was resistant to type 1 (ifn-alpha) and type 2 (ifn-gamma) interferons in cultures of ovine cells. the recently identified orf virus ov20.0l gene exhibits 31% predicted amino acid identity to the vaccinia virus e3l interferon-resistance gene, and is referred to as the (putative) orf virus interferon-resistance gene (ovifnr). the objective of this study was to determine whether ovifnr was involved in interferon resistance. recombinant ovifnr as a thioredoxin fusion prot ...19989640243
ovine diseases. orf.orf virus is an epitheliotropic dna parapoxvirus with a worldwide distribution that induces acute pustular lesions in the skin of sheep, goats and man. genetic mapping and sequencing of the orf virus genome have revealed that orf virus has a typical poxvirus distribution of genes, with those essential for viral dna synthesis, replication and packaging located in the central region, and those involved in virulence concentrated in the terminal regions. the immune and inflammatory response to orf v ...19989689744
the orf virus: a disease of the farming community. 19989763971
restriction endonuclease profiles of orf virus isolates from the british isles.a comparison of dna profiles of representative isolates of orf virus, obtained using four different restriction endonucleases (re), showed that the enzyme ecori could be used to discriminate between wild-type virus isolates and vaccine strains. the enzyme was used to compare the re profiles of orf virus isolates from 43 outbreaks of orf that occurred in vaccinated flocks between 1988 and 1993; 21 outbreaks yielded wild-type virus, 10 yielded vaccine viruses, three produced both vaccine and wild- ...19989773469
analysis of genomic rearrangement and subsequent gene deletion of the attenuated orf virus strain d1701.the orf virus (ov) strain d1701 belongs to the genetically heterogenous parapoxvirus (ppv) genus of the family poxviridae. the attenuated ov d1701 has been licensed as a live vaccine against contagious ecthyma in sheep. detailed knowledge on the genetic structure and organization of this ppv vaccine strain is an important prerequisite to reveal possible genetic mechanisms of ppv attenuation. the present study demonstrates a genomic map of the approximately 158 kbp dna of ov d1701 established by ...19989784065
a novel type of vascular endothelial growth factor, vegf-e (nz-7 vegf), preferentially utilizes kdr/flk-1 receptor and carries a potent mitotic activity without heparin-binding domain.vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) mediates endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and vascular permeability via the endothelial cell receptors, kdr/flk-1 and flt-1. recently, a gene encoding a polypeptide with about 25% amino acid identity to mammalian vegf was identified in the genome of orf virus (ov), a parapoxvirus that affects sheep and goats and occasionally, humans, to generate lesions with angiogenesis. in this study, we examined the biological activities and receptor of o ...19989813035
orf virus encodes a homolog of the vaccinia virus interferon-resistance gene e3l.a homolog of the vaccinia virus (vac) interferon resistance gene e3l has been discovered in orf virus strain nz-2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats and humans. the gene is located 20 kb from the left terminus of the orf virus genome and is transcribed towards this terminus. rnase protection studies have been used to define the limits of the gene and northern analysis revealed that it is expressed early in infection. the predicted amino acid sequence of the orf virus protein shares 31% id ...19989857983
the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against orf virus with other parapoxviruses and the identification of a 39 kda immunodominant protein.a panel of 27 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was raised against orf virus. sixteen of these mabs reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of 65 kda, 8 reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of 39 kda and three remain uncharacterised. reactivity of the mabs with a library of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing various regions of the nz-2 orf virus genome identified the approximate positions of the genes encoding these 2 immunodominant orf virus proteins. the gene encoding the 39 ...19989930187
vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf)-like protein from orf virus nz2 binds to vegfr2 and neuropilin-1.orf virus, a member of the poxvirus family, produces a pustular dermatitis in sheep, goats, and humans. the lesions induced after infection with orf virus show extensive proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, dilation of blood vessels and dermal swelling. an explanation for the nature of these lesions may lie in the discovery that orf virus encodes an apparent homolog of the mammalian vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) family of molecules. these molecules mediate endothelial cell pr ...199910077638
immunomodulation by virulence proteins of the parapoxvirus orf virus.three orf virus putative virulence proteins are described that exhibit immunomodulatory functions. the ovifnr gene at the left terminus of the viral genome encodes an interferon resistance protein with homology to the e3l gene of vaccinia virus. ovifnr functions by preventing a dsrna-dependent kinase from inhibiting virus and cell protein synthesis as part of the interferon-induced anti-viral state within infected cells. the orf virus orthologue of the ovine interleukin-10 (vil-10) gene is locat ...199910614496
orf virus encodes a novel secreted protein inhibitor of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-2.the parapoxvirus orf virus encodes a novel soluble protein inhibitor of ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) and interleukin-2 (il-2). the gm-csf- and il-2-inhibitory factor (gif) gene was expressed as an intermediate-late viral gene in orf virus-infected cells. gif formed homodimers and tetramers in solution, and it bound ovine gm-csf with a k(d) of 369 pm and ovine il-2 with a k(d) of 1.04 nm. gif did not bind human gm-csf or il-2 in spite of the fact that orf virus ...200010627542
detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction.the genus parapoxvirus includes four members, bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv), pseudocowpox virus (pcpv), orf virus (orfv) and parapoxvirus of red deer in new zealand (pvnz). a set of primers for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was designed to detect viral dna from cells infected with each of the four parapoxviruses. the set of primers resulted in the amplification of appropriately sized products from cells infected with bpsv, pcpv, orfv and pvnz, respectively. the pcr method was applied ...200010680970
molecular characterization of brazilian isolates of orf virus.outbreaks of an epidermic disease suggesting parapox virus infections have been observed in all major herds of sheep and goats from different geographical areas of brazil. clinical samples (dried scabs) were collected and orf virus was isolated and characterized by electron microscopy in previous work. in order to characterize these viruses at the molecular level, a modified methodology for genomic dna extraction directly from scabs was used and such dna was used to derive the restriction enzyme ...200010781724
in vivo t-cell subset depletion suggests that cd4+ t-cells and a humoral immune response are important for the elimination of orf virus from the skin of sheep.in vivo lymphocyte subset depletion offers a unique opportunity to study the roles of different cellular components of the immune system of sheep during infection with orf virus. lambs were depleted of specific lymphocyte subsets by the intravenous administration of monoclonal antibodies against ovine lymphocyte surface markers and then challenged with orf virus. the skin lesions that developed were scored visually as to their severity. blood samples were collected to monitor the lymphocyte depl ...200010802292
[human orf and erythema multiforme].orf is a disease of sheep due to a parapoxvirus. transmission in man is possible, and is generally benign, self-limited condition. although, rare complications have been mentioned. we report a case of orf with erythema multiforme in a young girl.200010844261
generation of recombinant parapoxviruses: non-essential genes suitable for insertion and expression of foreign genes.orf virus (ov) is an epitheliotropic poxvirus and belongs to the genus parapoxvirus (ppv). ppv, especially ov, is regarded as a promising candidate for an expression vector. among available live vaccines only strain d1701 represents a highly attenuated ov strain with clearly reduced pathogenicity. therefore, we started to identify potentially non-essential genes or regions of d1701, which might be suitable for insertion and expression of foreign genes. the present contribution reviews some of th ...200011000469
sequence and functional analysis of a homolog of interleukin-10 encoded by the parapoxvirus orf virus.orf virus is a large dna virus and is the type species of the parapoxvirus genus of the family poxviridae. orf virus infects the epithelium of sheep and goats and is transmissible to humans. recently we discovered a gene in orf virus that encodes a polypeptide with remarkable homology to mammalian interleukin (il-10) and viral encoded il-10s of herpes viruses. the predicted polypeptide sequence shows high levels of amino acid identity to il-10 of sheep (80%), cattle (75%), humans (67%) and mice ...200011022792
sheep poxvirus identification from clinical specimens by pcr, cell culture, immunofluorescence and agar gel immunoprecipitation assay.some 40 clinical specimens of skin lesions from sheep pox suspected cases were investigated by four different diagnostic assays: pcr, virus isolation in lamb testis cell cultures, direct immunofluorescent assay (difa) and antigen detecting agar gel immune precipitation test (agipt). all the specimens were positive by pcr and virus isolation, 29 were positive by difa and 16 by agipt. using virus isolation on cell cultures as the gold standard, the pcr sensitivity was 100%, while that of difa and ...200011040094
viral vascular endothelial growth factor plays a critical role in orf virus infection.infection by the parapoxvirus orf virus causes proliferative skin lesions in which extensive capillary proliferation and dilation are prominent histological features. this infective phenotype may be linked to a unique virus-encoded factor, a distinctive new member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) family of molecules. we constructed a recombinant orf virus in which the vegf-like gene was disrupted and show that inactivation of this gene resulted in the loss of three vegf activitie ...200011044114
selective induction of apoptosis in antigen-presenting cells in mice by parapoxvirus ovis.viruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid host immune reactions. here we report a mechanism by which parapoxvirus ovis (ppvo) interferes with antigen presentation. ppvo (orf virus) causes orf, an acute skin disease of sheep and goats worldwide. importantly, ppvo can repeatedly infect its host in spite of a vigorous inflammatory and host immune response to the infection. we demonstrate in a mouse system that ppvo induces apoptosis in a significant number of antigen-presenting cells after ...200111312341
subversion and piracy: dna viruses and immune evasion.during the co-evolution of viruses with their vertebrate hosts, the dna viruses have acquired an impressive array of immunomodulatory genes to combat host immune responses and their hosts have developed a sophisticated immune system to contain virus infections. in order to replicate, the viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit key host anti-virus responses that include apoptosis, interferon production, chemokine production, inflammatory cytokine production, and the activity of cytotoxic t-cel ...200111676616
detection of cellular cytokine mrna expression during orf virus infection in sheep: differential interferon-gamma mrna expression by cells in primary versus reinfection skin lesions.in sheep infected with the parapoxvirus orf virus, primary infection orf skin lesions developed and resolved within 8 weeks. reinfection lesions were smaller and resolved within 3 weeks. the host response in the skin was characterized by an accumulation of neutrophils, dendritic cells, cd4+ t cells, cd8+ t cells, b cells and t19+ gammadelta t cells. the magnitude of this accumulation paralleled orf virus replication in the skin. in situ hybridization was used to detect cells expressing interfero ...200111730927
polymerase chain reaction for laboratory diagnosis of orf virus infections.the orf virus of sheep and goats is one of several zoonotic parapoxviruses. in the ovine/caprine host it causes contagious ecthyma (contagious pustular dermatitis, scabby mouth), but in humans it normally causes solitary or clustered orf lesions, typically on hands, arms or face. in addition to disease in the animals, the virus can be quite a nuisance as an occupational hazard in farmers and butchers. clinical diagnosis is often possible, but laboratory diagnosis is sometimes necessary. for viru ...200211744431
parapoxviruses: from the lesion to the viral genome.viruses of the genus parapoxvirus from the family poxviridae cause widespread but localized diseases of small and large ruminants. the economically most important disease is contagious pustular dermatitis or contagious ecthyma among sheep and goats, often simply called orf. the parapoxviruses (ppv) can be transmitted to man leading to localized lesions that are named pseudocowpox or milkers' node as being mostly restricted to the hands and fingers. in cattle two forms of ppv manifestation are co ...200211911596
orf virus-encoded interleukin-10 stimulates the proliferation of murine mast cells and inhibits cytokine synthesis in murine peritoneal macrophages.orf virus (orfv) is the type species of the parapoxvirus genus and produces cutaneous pustular lesions in sheep, goats and humans. the genome encodes a polypeptide with remarkable homology to interleukin-10 (il-10), particularly ovine il-10, and also to il-10-like proteins encoded by epstein-barr virus (ebv) and equine herpesvirus. il-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine that can exert either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive effects on many cell types. we have expressed and purified c-terminal fla ...200211961259
orf virus immuno-modulation and the host immune response.orf virus encodes a range of immuno-modulatory genes that interfere with host anti-virus immune and inflammatory effector mechanisms. the function of these reflects the pathogenesis of orf. the orf virus interferon resistance protein (ovifnr) and virus il-10 (vil-10) inhibit interferon production and activity. in addition the vil-10 suppresses inflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages and keratinocytes. the virus gm-csf inhibitory factor (gif) is a novel virus protein that binds ...200212072264
immunity and counter-immunity during infection with the parapoxvirus orf virus.orf virus is a dna parapoxvirus that causes orf, an acute debilitating skin disease of sheep, goats and humans. in sheep, a vigorous immune response involving neutrophils, dermal dendritic cells, t cells, b cells and antibody is generated after infection. cd4(+) t cells, ifn-gamma and to a lesser extent cd8(+) t cells are involved in partial protection against infection. in spite of this, orf virus can repeatedly infect sheep albeit with reduced lesion size and time to resolution compared to pri ...200212297324
characterization of parapoxviruses circulating among wild japanese serows (capricornis crispus).we antigenically and molecularly compared 5 parapoxvirus isolates and 7 viral dna samples from clinical lesions of japanese serows with 3 viruses from sheep and goats. all isolates from japanese serows except one, ishikawa-s, reacted with six monoclonal antibodies to orf virus (orfv). restriction endonuclease analysis using amplified viral dna showed the orfv-specific pattern in all samples except ishikawa-s, which showed a bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv)-specific pattern. partial nucleot ...200212363024
characterisation of immunodominant protein encoded by the f1l gene of orf virus strains isolated in italy.we analysed the molecular properties of the immunodominant protein of different orf virus strains isolated in italy. the f1l encoding genes and the deduced amino acid sequences of all strains were determined and compared, and they showed several mutations. structural analysis was carried out in order to assess the influence of amino acid variations on protein structure demonstrating a conservation of the secondary structure. western blot analysis and immunogold electron microscopy showed that al ...200212376759
a comparison of the anti-inflammatory and immuno-stimulatory activities of orf virus and ovine interleukin-10.orf virus causes pustular skin lesions (orf) in sheep, goats and humans. the virus encodes an interleukin-10 (orfvil-10) that is identical in amino acid composition to ovine il-10 (ovil-10) over the c terminal two-thirds of the polypeptide, but not in the n terminal third. the immuno-suppressive and immuno-stimulatory activities of orfvil-10 and ovil-10 were compared. both orfvil-10 and ovil-10 inhibited tnf-alpha and il-8 cytokine production from stimulated ovine macrophages and keratinocytes a ...200212457984
construction of a recombinant orf virus that expresses an echinococcus granulosus vaccine antigen from a novel genomic insertion site.the potential of recombinant poxviruses as expression vectors has been extensively studied using vaccinia virus but there has been only limited transfer of this technology to the parapoxvirus genus. we detail here the construction of a recombinant orf virus that expresses an antigenic peptide (eg95) of the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease, echinococcus granulosus. expression of this foreign antigen was regulated by a synthetic early/late poxvirus transcriptional promoter and levels of e ...200312607106
orf virus-encoded interleukin-10 inhibits maturation, antigen presentation and migration of murine dendritic cells.orf virus (orfv) belongs to the genus parapoxvirus and induces cutaneous pustular lesions in sheep, goats and humans. orfv is unusual in that it has the ability to reinfect its host and this suggests that the generation of immunological memory has been impaired, thus exposing the host to subsequent infection. the discovery that orfv encodes an il-10-like virokine raises the question of whether this factor adversely affects the cells that initiate the acquired immune response. we examined the eff ...200312692274
growth of contagious pustular dermatitis virus in human tissue cultures. 196114467780
severe persistent orf in young goats.orf (contagious ecthyma) is a viral disease of small and wild ruminants, humans, and less frequently other species. in sheep and goats, the disease is characterized by the formation of vesiculo-proliferative lesions in the skin of lips and nostril. here, a form of generalized orf in 16 goat kids from 2 different locations in west texas is described. the disease was characterized by multifocal, severe, proliferative dermatitis that persisted from about 2 months of age until the goat kids were eut ...200314535541
treatment of orf poxvirus lesion with cidofovir cream. 200314614378
genomes of the parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) and orf virus (orfv), members of the genus parapoxvirus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of bpsv strain bv-ar02 and orfv strains ov-sa00, isolated from a goat, and ov-ia82, isolated from a sheep. parapoxvirus (ppv) bv-ar02, ov-sa00, and ov-ia82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide com ...200414671098
genetic characterization of orf viruses isolated from various ruminant species of a zoo.in the present study, an outbreak of proliferative dermatitis in musk ox (ovibos moschatus), sichuan takin (budorcas taxicolor tibetana) and domestic shetland sheep (ovis aries) in a zoo is described. skin lesions consisted of severe, persistent, multifocal, proliferative dermatitis in musk ox, and mild, transient, focal, dermatitis in the sichuan takin and shetland sheep. parapoxviruses were isolated from skin lesions, and characterized by restriction enzyme analysis and partial gene sequencing ...200415019099
heparin binding activity of orf virus f1l protein.the orf virus is the type species of the parapoxvirus genus and is the causative agent of contagious echtyma, a debilitating skin disease of sheep and goats, which can also affect man. the virus exhibits a restricted host range, even if it has been shown to bind to a wide range of tissues of non-permissive species. this ability is an argument for its potential use as an expression vector. since most mammalian cell types express heparan sulfate (hs) surface receptors, we assumed that hs could ser ...200415351483
diagnosis of orf virus infection in humans by the polymerase chain reaction.the orf virus is the causal agent of contagious ecthyma in goats and sheep. the infection can be transmitted to humans and represents a typical example of occupational zoonosis. in italy, the incidence of human infection remains uncertain because the disease is rarely reported or diagnosed. in this paper, we report a case of human orf virus infection and the laboratory methods of diagnosis. we demonstrated a genomic identity between the conserved and the variable regions of the genome of the vir ...200415646056
isolation and partial characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a skin lesion of a weddell seal.a solitary skin lesion was found on the neck of a weddell seal (leptonychotes weddellii), chemically immobilized in queen maud land (70 degrees 09's, 05 degrees 22'e) antarctica 2001. the lesion was elevated and 3cm in diameter, consisting of partly fresh and partly necrotic tissue, and proliferative papilloma-like structures were seen. electron microscopy on a biopsy from the lesion revealed typical parapoxvirus particles. polymerase chain reaction (pcr; b2l gene) generated amplicons of approxi ...200515681058
a viral infection of the hand commonly seen after the feast of sacrifice: human orf (orf of the hand).orf of the hand is an uncommon zoonotic infection caused by a dermotropic dna virus that belongs to the parapoxvirus genus of the family poxviridae. it is transmitted to humans through contact with infected sheep and goats and is reported as an occupational disease. we report nine cases of human orf seen in the hands of individuals, who were not occupationally exposed, after the feast of sacrifice in turkey. three cases were teachers and six out of the nine were housewives. we observed musculosk ...200516050510
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