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[dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep in the democratic republic of germany district of frankfurt/oder].in the district of frankfurt/oder of the german democratic republic, faecal examinations of 143 sheep stocks revealed a 31.3 percent infection with dicrocoelium dendriticum. in different territories of the district, the intensity of the infection with dicrocoelium dendriticum varied remarkably. detailed investigations demonstrated, that the parasite was limited to pastures with brownearth soil. routine examinations revealed the fact, that the egg-output of dicrocoelium dendritcum was very variab ...19751190548
factors influencing the metacercarial intensity in ants and the size of dicrocoelium dendriticum metacercarial cysts.during the 1990 grazing season, ants found attached to plants were collected from sheep pastures at monthly intervals and examined for dicrocoelium metacercariae. the species formica pratensis and f. rufibarbis showed average metacercarial intensities of 76 and 38 respectively. in addition to the ant species, the intensity of infection was found to be dependent on the length of the ant. the volume of metacercarial cysts was influenced by the intensity per ant relative to ant length but not by th ...19911795087
the efficacy of netobimin, 15 mg/kg, against dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep. 19892756624
activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.the anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. a single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body ...19882974592
treatment of dicrocoelium dendriticum with a combination of thiophanate and brotianide. 19883218049
dicroceliasis (lancet fluke disease) in an hiv seropositive man.dicroceliasis is an unusual zoonotic trematode infection caused by the lancet liver fluke, dicrocoelium dendriticum. grazing herbivores (usually sheep or cattle) are the definitive hosts. the life cycle proceeds through two intermediate hosts: the land snail and the field ant. human infection is acquired by consuming the field ant. this case report describes a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient who presumably acquired this parasite from bottled water contaminated with ants. a brie ...19883336179
isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase (ec 1.1.1.27) in dicrocoelium dendriticum and fasciola hepatica (trematoda).the isoenzymes of ldh (ec 1.1.1.27) were studied in dicrocoelium dendriticum and fasciola hepatica by horizontal electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. six isoenzymes in d. dendriticum and four in f. hepatica were detected. densitometric scans demonstrated that the enzyme pattern of ldh in d. dendriticum parasitizing hepatic tissue of capra hircus was clearly different from the one obtained when the trematode parasitized other hosts such as bos taurus or ovis aries.19863943300
endoparasites of hares (lepus timidus l. and l. europaeus pallas) in finland.intestinal and lung parasites of 85 mountain hares (lepus timidus) and 24 european hares (l. europaeus) were examined. the species of parasites found in both hare species were trichostrongylus retortaeformis zeder, 1800; mosgovoyia pectinata goeze, 1782 and protostrongylus pulmonalis froelich, 1802. eimeria semisculpta madsen, 1938 and e. townsendi carvalho, 1943 were found only in the european hares and eimeria leporis nieschulz, 1923 and dicrocoelium dendriticum rudolphi, 1819 only in the moun ...19836644932
histopathology of liver in iranian sheep naturally infected with dicrocoelium dendriticum. 19817305499
ultrastructural investigations on the vitellaria of the digenean dicrocoelium dendriticum.the paired vitellaria of the parasitic plathelminth dicrocoelium dendriticum are composed of numerous follicles each of which contains vitellocytes at different stages of maturation and is enveloped by a basal lamina-like structure and a cytoplasmic sheath. the differentiation process of vitellocytes has been subdivided into three stages on the basis of morphological and functional characteristics. stage i vitellocytes have a high nucleo/cytoplasmic ratio and a poorly differentiated cytoplasm ma ...19938269405
dicrocoelium dendriticum (rudolphi, 1819) looss, 1899 in turkey. i. field studies of intermediate and final hosts in the south marmara region, 1968. 19715103094
[effectiveness of cambendazole (bonlam paste) in sheep invaded by tramatodes (dicrocoelium dendriticum)].tests were performed to examine the effectiveness of a new form of cambendazole (bonlam paste, produced by msd, usa) in sheep, naturally invaded by the trematodes dicrocoelium dendriticum. single administration of 25 mg per 1 kg live weight induced a rapid decrease in the number of the excreted eggs of d. dendriticum, as counted during ovoscopic examination seven, ten, and fifteen days after administration of the chemical. the intenseffectiveness of the preparation, determined post mortem, was 9 ...197899862
infection patterns in the first intermediate host of dicrocoelium dendriticum.in order to establish the infection patterns in the first intermediate host of dicrocoelium dendriticum, investigations were carried out on sheep pastures situated in the eastern part of brandenburg, germany, during the grazing periods in 1986, 1987, 1989 and 1990. it was found that the majority of specimens of the first intermediate host, helicella obvia, become infected in the autumn of their second year of life, when their shell diameter is of medium size. the percentage of snails containing ...19938333129
seroprevalence of fasciola hepatica infection in sheep in northwestern spain.to estimate the prevalence of fasciola hepatica infection in sheep in the león province (northwestern spain), we conducted a survey between october 1992 and may 1993. a total of 767 samples of feces and serum were collected from sheep over 1 year of age belonging to 152 flocks randomly selected from the 4 natural regions of león province. samples were analyzed by a standard coprological sedimentation method and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using excretory-secretory produ ...19957731921
[dicrocoelium dendriticum egg in feces of 2 somali boys in denmark. transitory elimination after arrival to denmark].a case of spurious infection with dicrocoelium dendriticum in two somali boys in denmark, who had eaten sheep's liver, is described. the diagnosis was established by careful questioning regarding culinary habits.19957652996
[spurious infections by the small liver fluke (dicrocoelium dendriticum) in switzerland 1976-1980].the lancet fluke is a common parasite in swiss sheep and cattle. from 1976 to 1980, 77 patients were found to have eggs of d. dendriticum in the stool. no genuine human infection could be diagnosed, and in all patients the coprologic finding of d. dendriticum eggs had to be considered the result of spurious infections due to the consumption of infected livers. the annual incidence of stool specimens positive for d. dendriticum eggs was between 0.20 and 0.38%.19817280624
studies on the parasitic helminths of slaughtered animals in iraq. i. parasitic helminths of the liver of herbivores.the livers and lungs of 580 sheep, 160 goats, 418 cattle, 50 camels and 48 buffaloes slaughtered in baghdad in april-july, 1981 were examined for helminth parasites; 14.3% of the sheep, 0.6% of the goats, 18.2% of the cattle, 72.0% of the camels and 8.3% of the buffaloes were infected with trematodes and cestodes. dicrocoelium dendriticum is reported from the livers of sheep in iraq for the first time.19836660965
acid bohr effect of a monomeric haemoglobin from dicrocoelium dendriticum. mechanism of the allosteric conformation transition.the dioxygen affinity of dicrocoelium dendriticum haemoglobin was determined as a function of ph with a thin-layer diffusion technique. from the oxygen dissociation and association curves hill coefficients h equal 1 were obtained throughout. ultracentrifugation studies prove this haemoglobin to be monomeric irrespective of ph and ligation state. thus, dicrocoelium haemoglobin is a non-cooperative monomer. it has the highest o2 affinity so far known for any monomeric haemoglobin: its half-saturat ...19863956482
an evaluation of the efficacy of netobimin against dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.a trial was carried out to assess the efficacy of a nitrophenylguanidine compound, netobimin against dicrocoelium dendriticum in naturally infected sheep. at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg bodyweight administered orally the drug was highly effective, producing a mean reduction of 98.9 per cent in the fluke burdens of treated animals compared with untreated controls. no side effects were observed in the treated sheep.19873824841
[a rare case of human autochthonous dicrocoeliasis in czechoslovakia].the first case of not imported dicroceliasis in czechoslovakia is reported in an eleven-year-old boy. the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints for about half a year. diarrhea frequently alternated with constipation, the abdominal pain was mainly in the region of the pancreas. with the exception of eosinophilia (16%), all other laboratory findings (blood count, elfo, urinalysis) were within normal values. eggs of dicrocoelium dendriticum were repeatedly found in stool specimens. the ...19892765975
isoenzyme patterns of phosphatases and esterases in fasciola hepatica and dicrocoelium dendriticum.a study was made of alkaline and acid phosphatase isoenzymes and non-specific esterases in homogenates of the trematodes fasciola hepatica and dicrocoelium dendriticum obtained from infected tissues of capra hircus and ovis aries using horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the esterase patterns in f. hepatica and d. dendriticum were different. homogenate of f. hepatica from both hosts gave four enzyme bands. for d. dendriticum, however, while homogenates of parasites from c. hircus also ...19892728320
dynamics of the elimination of dicrocoelium dendriticum (trematoda, digenea) eggs in the faeces of lambs and ewes in the porma basin (león, nw spain).the elimination of dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in sheep faeces from 4 localities in the upper and middle porma river basin was recorded at monthly intervals between march 1986 and march 1987. the faecal material was taken directly from the rectum of the animals (10% of the flock in each village). the sedimentation technique and mcmaster egg counting chambers were used to analyze the faecal samples. of the 995 samples examined, 63.6% contained d. dendriticum eggs and the number of eggs per gram ...19911952698
efficacy of intraruminal albendazole boluses against dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.the anthelmintic potential of albendazole (abz) in intraruminal boluses (proftril-captec) was investigated in sheep harbouring naturally acquired dicrocoelium infection. the anthelmintic efficacy was assessed by coprological testing during the autumn pasture and comparison of worm counts in 22 necropsied animals (11 treated and 11 untreated) at the end of the experiment. the mean faecal egg count (epg) in treated animals dropped significantly during week 2, and between the 4th and the 12th week ...19921480598
prevalence of dicrocoeliosis in sheep and goats in himachal pradesh, india.a survey incorporating field and abattoir studies was carried out on the prevalence of dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep and goats in the kangra valley of himachal pradesh (india). coprological studies on these migratory animals revealed that 8.1% of sheep and 4.1% of goats were positive for dicrocoeliosis, with a mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) of 702.1 for sheep and 566.7 for goats. the necropsy liver examination of slaughtered animals revealed that 24.1% of sheep and 12.3% of goa ...19968720564
survival and infectivity of dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs under field conditions in nw spain.a study was made of the survival of dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in sheep faeces in an area with a temperate climate (nw spain). it appears that mortality is independent of the age of the eggs and that there is a marked seasonality within the period of time considered (20 months). a study was also carried out on the infectivity of d. dendriticum eggs by experimental infections of suitable intermediate hosts. the data show that no loss took place in infectivity during the period of study (15 mon ...19836686380
effect of some abiotic factors on the survival of dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in laboratory conditions.in the present work the results obtained from the study of the effect of temperature, rh, uv radiation and day-night thermal variations, in controlled laboratory conditions, on the survival of d. dendriticum eggs in sheep faeces are described. mortality was seen to be maximum with a rh of 75-80% and temperatures higher than 18 degrees c. the results are compared with those obtained in natural conditions. it is suggested that the final cause of the mortality of the eggs both in laboratory and nat ...19846540223
pathophysiological studies on dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in sheep.red cell kinetics and plasma protein metabolism were investigated in two experiments using 20 adult sheep naturally infected with dicrocoelium dendriticum, but free of other liver and gastrointestinal helminths. in the first experiment, where groups of animals with low to high dicrocoelium burdens were injected with 51cr-labelled red cells and 125i-labelled albumin, the results indicated that there were no significant differences in the turnover rate of labelled red cells or albumin between any ...19911897119
proton nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the heme cavity structure of liver fluke (dicrocoelium dendriticum) methemoglobin.the 1h nuclear magnetic resonance characteristics of met-cyano and met-aquo hemoglobin from the sheep bile duct parasite dicrocoelium dendriticum have been compared to those of other monomeric hemoglobins and myoglobins. by varying temperature and ph, it was found that the studied material is a mixture of several isozymes differing slightly in their structural features around the heme cavity. the heme in-plane rhombic asymmetry, as indicated by the spread of the heme methyl hyperfine shifts, is ...19846096565
parasites of livestock in asir province, southwestern saudi arabia.thirteen parasite species, three trematodes, five cestodes, one nematode, and four arthropods, have been reported in livestock in asir, southwestern saudi arabia. the occurrence of dicrocoelium dendriticum in imported sheep and paramphistomum cervi in indigenous cattle is recorded for the first time in saudi arabia.19902267729
fasciola hepatica and dicrocoelium dendriticum: isoenzyme patterns of malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme.the mdh isoenzymes and me isoenzymes (ec.1.1.1.39) in two helminth parasites, f. hepatica and d. dendriticum, obtained from two host species (capra hircus and ovis aries), were studied by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. f. hepatica mdh showed three isoenzymatic bands; d. dendriticum mdh, only two. no difference was noted between the enzyme profiles, or the densitometric scans in samples from specimens from different host species. f. hepatica me presented three bands, that of d. dendritic ...19883202330
comparative evaluation of agar gel precipitation, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and passive haemagglutination tests for the diagnosis of dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in sheep and goats.the sensitivity and specificity of the agar gel precipitation test (agpt), counter immunoelectrophoresis (ciep) and passive haemagglutination test (pht) were evaluated for the diagnosis of dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in naturally infected sheep and goats. two hundred and forty five sheep and goat sera samples were tested using phosphate buffered saline, ph 7.2 extracted adult fluke antigen. ciep detected 69.8% of the infected animals and was found to be the most sensitive, followed by pht ...19968750692
characterization of adult dicrocoelium dendriticum by isoelectric focusing.water soluble extracts of 3131 adult specimens of dicrocoelium dendriticum from cattle, sheep and goats, mainly from león province, were analysed by isoelectric focusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gels. activity of the following enzymes was studied: lactate dehydrogenase (ldh, ec 1.1.1.27), glucose phosphate isomerase (gpi, ec 5.3.1.9), phosphoglucomutase (pgm, ec 2.7.5.1), acid phosphatase (acp, ec 3.1.3.2), alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-gpdh, ec 1.1.1.8), hydroxybutyrate dehydr ...19989687590
studies on the incidence and pathogenesis of dicrocoelium dendriticum in slaughtered sheep in riyadh abattoir, saudi arabia.the incidence of dicrocoelium dendriticum in slaughtered sheep both local and imported was carried out in al riyadh abattoir. a percentage of 28 was found among condemned livers. the highest rate of dicrocoelium infection was among naheemi sheep imported from turkey. recommendations to control this parasitic disease are necessary since it is a modern dangerous zoonotic parasite.19938482874
[antigenic structure of dicrocoelium dendriticum (rudolphi, 1819)].the purpose of this paper was to study the antigenic structure of dicrocoelium dendriticum with a particular consideration of its antigenic relationship between f. hepatica and paramphistomum sp. studies of the antigenic composition of somatic extract of d. dendriticum and its four fractions obtained by gel separation chromatography on sephadex g 75 were carried out by using double diffusion reaction with homologous (sdd) and heterogeneous (sfh, sps) rabbit sera as well as sera of sheep naturall ...19872455289
[effect of bolus administration of albendazole into the rumen on gastrointestinal nematodes and the dicrocoelium dendriticum trematode in sheep].the efficacy of intraruminal albendazole (abz) capsules (proftril-captec) and the effect of treatment on productivity parameters were studied in two experiments totally on 466 ewes naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and trematodes d. dendriticum. ovoscopical tests revealed that treated animals remained negative during 10-12 weeks after the administration of capsules and that pasture contamination with helminths was significantly reduced. necropsy revealed 96.9-99.2% efficacy agai ...19948053117
trematodiasis in turkey: comparative efficacy of triclabendazole and niclofolan against natural infections of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica in sheep.a new fasciolicide, triclabendazole, tested at single oral dose rates of 5 and 10 mg/kg body-weight, proved to be highly effective (greater than 99%) against chronic field infections of fasciola hepatica and f. gigantica in sheep. the performance of the new drug compared favourably with niclofolan at the recommended dose. neither product was effective against dicrocoelium dendriticum and paramphistomum spp.19846747253
effect of a controlled-release albendazole capsule on parasitism and productivity of sheep.the efficacy of intraruminal albendazole (abz) capsules (profitril-captec) and the effect of treatment on productivity were studied in 300 ewes infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and the trematode dicrocoelium dendriticum. coprological tests revealed that treated animals remained negative for 10 weeks after the administration of capsules. contamination of pasture with nematode larvae was significantly reduced during the whole experiment. necropsy of 14 animals (seven treated and seven untr ...19911788934
a preliminary study on dicrocoeliasis in egypt, with a general review.dicrocoelium dendriticum (d. dendriticum) is a lancet-shape liver fluke that affects sheep and mammals including man. human and animal infections have been world widely reported particularly in some of the eastern mediterranean sheep raising countries. infection is acquired by eating the second intermediate host (17 species of ants) with raw fruits, vegetables, herbs or even with the drinking water. as for the first intermediate host, there is about 54 different species of land snails. in spite ...200312739803
the influence of flotation solution, sample dilution and the choice of mcmaster slide area (volume) on the reliability of the mcmaster technique in estimating the faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal strongyles and dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.the present study was aimed to evaluate the influence of flotation solution, sample dilution, and the choice of mcmaster slide area (volume) on the reliability of the mcmaster technique in estimating the faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal (gi) strongyles and dicrocoelium dendriticum in a composite sample of faeces from naturally infected sheep. fourteen flotation solutions having densities between 1.200 and 1.450, and six sample dilutions, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40 and 1:50 were used. each ...200415265576
parasite control in transhumant situations.transhumance is defined as 'seasonal moving of livestock to regions of different climate'. it is an integral part of livestock production in many parts of the world and takes several forms including moving of livestock from lowland to mountainous pastures or from dry to humid areas. the impact of transhumance on parasite populations of livestock and on parasite control is described, mainly using examples from europe. the epidemiology of trichostrongylidosis of cattle, mainly caused by ostertagia ...19947846845
prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in south american camelids in switzerland.a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of endoparasitic infections in south american camelids (sac) in switzerland. qualitative and quantitative coproscopic examinations were performed in 38 farms during the grazing period. management practices with possible interference with parasitic infections were analyzed. on the farm level prevalences of endoparasitic infections were: trichostrongyles 87%; trichuris sp. 74%; capillaria sp. 68%; nematodirus battus ...200617009711
larval development of dicrocoelium dendriticum in cernuella (xeromagna) cespitum arigonis under controlled laboratory conditions.the larval development of dicrocoelium dendriticum (digenea: dicrocoeliidae) in experimentally infected cernuella (xeromagna) cespitum arigonis (schmidt, 1853), a species of mollusc important in the epidemiology of dicrocoeliosis in spain, has been studied. a total of 948 specimens of this mollusc, distributed in five batches, were tested with individual doses of 50 to 150 parasite eggs, obtained from sheep, after 4 days without food. after infection these molluscs and control specimens were kep ...19979443949
human infection with dicrocoelium dendriticum in riyadh district (saudi arabia).dicrocoelium dendriticum (the lancet fluke) is less common liver parasite. adults inhibit bile duct, while characteristic eggs pass in stools. during one academic year, a total of 1196 patients referred to parasitology laboratory from king abdel aziz university hospitals, 121 patients were positive for d. dendriticum. the majority was saudis, and only 32 of the 121 patients (26.4%) had true dicrocoeliosis, as detected by re-examination after three days of liver free diet. the other patients have ...200312739807
efficacy of albendazole against dicrocoelium dendriticum. 19807445356
dicrocoelium dendriticum infestation of mouflons (ovis musimon) in catalonia. 19989802199
myrrh (commiphora molmol) in treatment of human and sheep dicrocoeliasis dendriticum in saudi arabia.dicrocoeliasis dendriticum is now imposing itself as an animal and zoonotic helminthic disease in many arabian countries. myrrh extract of commiphora molmol (mirazid) successfully and safely treated clinically and parasitologically proven 18 human dicrocoeliasis dendriticum patients. the dose was 2 capsules (300 mg each) given on an empty stomach an hour before the breakfast for six successive days. cure (100%) was achieved clinically and by stool analysis for two months follow up. besides, fift ...200415287191
parasiticidal effects of peroxynitrite on ovine liver flukes in vitro.peroxynitrite (onoo-) is a cytotoxic anion, produced by interaction between nitric oxide and superoxide in vivo in some inflammatory cells. this study investigated its effects on fasciola hepatica and dicrocoelium dendriticum isolated from ovine livers and kept in bile at room temperature. peroxynitrite was synthesized using a quenched flow reactor and assayed spectrophotometrically. it was applied at different concentrations (10(-3.5) to 10(-2.3 m)) to the flukes kept in bile. the viability of ...200111316475
contributions to and review of dicrocoeliosis, with special reference to the intermediate hosts of dicrocoelium dendriticum.an epidemiological study on dicrocoeliosis caused by dicrocoelium dendriticum was carried out on sheep, molluscs and ants in the mountains of león province (nw spain) between 1987-1991. the results concerning the intermediate hosts and a review of some aspects of dicrocoeliosis are summarized. mollusc collection for the helminthological study was random throughout the study area at fortnightly intervals. twenty-nine gastropoda species were identified. d. dendriticum infection was only detected i ...200111769295
prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern ethiopia.a 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern ethiopia. during may 2003 to april 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and gi tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of haramaya, harar, dire dawa and jijiga in eastern ethiopia. all animals were raised in the farming areas ...200717969715
relationship between egg output and parasitic burden in lambs experimentally infected with different doses of dicrocoelium dendriticum (digenea).the relationship between egg elimination and parasitic burden was studied in two groups of 12 lambs experimentally infected with 1000 and 3000 dicrocoelium dendriticum metacercariae, respectively. half the animals in each group were slaughtered 2 months post-infection (p.i.) and the other half 6 months p.i. in order to detect and follow elimination of d. dendriticum eggs by the lambs, faeces samples collection started one and a half months p.i. and continued fortnightly until the end of the expe ...200010622605
a comparison of five methods for dna isolation from liver and rumen flukes to perform its-2+ amplification.five different dna isolation methods (4 commercial kits and a modification of phenol-chloroform method) were compared for the discrimination of adults of fasciola hepatica and dicrocoelium dendriticum (liver flukes), and calicophoron daubneyi (rumen fluke) collected from sheep in southern italy. the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of ribosomal dna (rdna) plus flanking 5.8s and 28s sequence (its-2+) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from serial diluted dna templates (6 n ...200718412040
ultrastructral studies on the tegument of dicrocoelium dendriticum (rudolphi, 1819) looss 1899.the tegument of dicrocoelium dendriticum was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. it consists of an anucleate surface syncytium and a deeper nucleated zone. the syncytial layer covers the entire surface of the fluke. it is connected to the nucleated zone through thin cytoplasmic strands. the syncytium is bounded by an apical plasma membrane which is highly folded. this layer mainly contains abundant mitochondria of varying size and shape, and two types of granules, dumbbell ...200312739798
detection of acetylcholinesterase activity and gamma-aminobutyric acid binding sites in dicrocoelium dendriticum.in the present study we report the presence of acetylcholinesterase activity and gamma-aminobutyric acid binding sites in crude extracts of dicrocoelium dendriticum. this indirectly demonstrates the presence of acetylcholine and gaba. the presence of these neurotransmitters could indicate the existence of two systems implicated in the neurotransmission of the digenea.200011031762
multivariate spatially-structured variability of ovine helminth infections.a cross-sectional survey was carried out on 2004-2005 in the campania region, southern italy, to study the multivariate geographical distribution of four different sheep helminths, i.e. fasciola hepatica (liver fluke), calicophoron (paramphistomum) daubneyi (rumen fluke), dicrocoelium dendriticum (lancet fluke), and the gastrointestinal strongyle haemonchus contortus. a series of multivariate bayesian hierarchical models based on square root transformation of faecal egg counts were performed. th ...200718686259
preliminary study on genetic variability of dicrocoelium dendriticum determined by random amplified polymorphic dna.genetic variability of adult specimens of dicrocoelium dendriticum has been studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd). the worms were collected from the infected livers of different sheep from several localities in león province (nw spain). dna fragments were amplified by means of decamer primer oligonucleotides of arbitrary sequence. some primers produce complex and highly variable patterns of amplified dna in d. dendriticum. intra- and inter-population genetic variability of adult ...199911269322
purification and partial characterization of proteinase activity in eggs of dicrocoelium dendriticum.a preliminary purification has been carried out by continuous elution electrophoresis of a 49.5 kda protease of crude extracts from dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs. the enzyme showed a high capacity to degrade the collagen derivative azocoll at acidic ph. although it is necessary to carry out further experiments to confirm any physiological role, this protease could be implicated in penetration mechanisms.200111316473
[water as risk factor for helminthiasis in domestic ruminants in the central and southern italy and zoonotic risk].the findings of recent epidemiological surveys regarding the distribution of helminths in sheep, cattle, and buffaloes in central and southern italy show that the presence of water in breeding, such as streams, canals, brooks, rivers and lakes, is a risk factor for the following helminths, agents of emerging zoonosis: fasciola hepatica, dicrocoelium dendriticum, trichostrongylus spp., ostertagia spp., nematodirus spp., haemonchus spp., bunostomum spp., and oesophagostomum spp. the authors report ...200314677258
natural dicrocoeliasis in imported sheep, jeddah, saudi arabia.dicrocoelium dendriticum is a common liver fluke of sheep and other herbivorous animals. examination of imported sheep showed 40% in somalian sheep, 26% in turkish and 2% in native breed sheep. the results were discussed with stress on epidemiology.199910605513
the effect of transportation and confinement stress on egg production by dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep.the effect of transportation and confinement stress on dicrocoelium dendriticum egg production was investigated. sheep passing a minimum of 200 eggs g-1 of faeces were selected from a naturally infected flock. a group of six ewes (group a) was transferred to the laboratory premises and kept indoors for 28 days, while another group (b) of six ewes remained on pasture and was used as a control. faecal examinations and egg counting were performed weekly, on all sheep, from one week before to 28 day ...199910654403
serum antibodies to dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep from sardinia (italy).an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with dicrocoelium dendriticum excretory/secretory antigens was used to evaluate the presence of serum antibodies against the trematode in 738 sheep randomly chosen in sardinia (italy). coprological sedimentation was used to discover egg-output. seropositivity was detected in 86.2% tested sheep, whereas faecal prevalence was 6.7%; all that were faecal-positive also were elisa-positive.200312547170
partial characterization and isolation of 130 kda antigenic protein of dicrocoelium dendriticum adults.the study focused on characterizing and isolating dicrocoelium dendriticum antigens or their fractions that could be used for the immunological diagnosis of dicrocoeliosis. somatic (soag) and excretory-secretory antigens (esag) were analyzed by sds-page and their specificity was evaluated by western blot with homologous and heterologous sera. the antigens were partially purified by chromatographic techniques of gel-filtration (sephacryl s-300) and ion exchange (hitrap-deae-sepharose). western bl ...200516165277
field and experimental studies on dicrocoelium dendriticum and dicrocoeliasis in northern spain.the transmission, control and the relationship between dicrocoelium dendriticum and its definitive (sheep and cattle) and intermediate (molluscs and ants) hosts under natural and experimental conditions are described. eleven species of molluscs and four of ants were found infected with larval d. dendriticum in león province, north-west spain. infected ants were observed between april and november and in tetania at 7.5-26.9 degrees c. the highest shedding of eggs by sheep and cattle was detected ...200516336711
[the incidence of dicrocoelium dendriticum in emmental].a cross-sectional field study on the prevalence of dicrocoelium dendriticum was performed in the emmental. the study included 211 bovines, 170 equines, 20 ovines, 46 caprines and 23 rabbits (from 119 farms). in addition, laboratory routine diagnostic data obtained from 2.840 animals--all originating from the same area of investigation--were assessed in the same way. the infection extent concerning the different animal species were the following: bovines 46%, equines 12%, ovines 30%, caprines 48% ...200617009717
the use of mm3 monoclonal antibodies for the early immunodiagnosis of ovine fascioliasis.this study reports a new capture elisa (mm3-sero) for the serodiagnosis of sheep fascioliasis, based on the use of the monoclonal antibody (mab) mm3. like our previously reported indirect elisa method, based on the use of a fplc-purified fraction (fraction iv) of the fasciola hepatica excretion/secretion antigens (esas), this new test was able to detect animals infected with very small numbers of metacercariae (5-40) and showed no cross-reaction with sera from sheep infected with other parasites ...200717436943
[some biochemical parameters in sheep infected with endoparasites (fasciola spp., dicrocoelium dendriticum, hydatid cysts, trichostrongylidae and protostrongylidae)].this study was performed in order to investigate the variations of some blood biochemical parameters as well as the levels of vitamin. b(12) and some macro elements in sheep infected with endoparasites. the blood samples were taken from the sheep that were to be slaughtered in the van municipality slaughterhouse while the stool samples were taken after the slaughtering of the same animals. the postmortem examinations were made to investigate for the presence of fasciola spp., d. dendriticum and ...200717471414
characterization of the 28s and the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal dna of dicrocoelium dendriticum and dicrocoelium hospes.isolates of dicrocoelium dendriticum (n=150) from sheep and cattle bred in southern italy and isolates (n=5) of d. hospes from a bos indicus from senegal were characterized genetically. the 28s region and the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) plus flanking 5.8s and 28s sequences (its-2+) of ribosomal dna (rdna) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from individual flukes. regarding the 28s rdna, sequences of 568 and 581 bp were obtained for d. dendriticum and d. hosp ...200717605007
morphological and molecular differentiation between dicrocoelium dendriticum (rudolphi, 1819) and dicrocoelium chinensis (sudarikov and ryjikov, 1951) tang and tang, 1978 (platyhelminthes: digenea).dicrocoelium dendriticum (rudolphi, 1819) and dicrocoelium hospes (looss, 1907) are recognised to affect the liver of domestic and wild ruminants. a third species, dicrocoelium orientalis which was described from musk deer in the baikal region of the former soviet union and re-named to dicrocoelium chinensis (sudarikov and ryjikov, 1951) tang and tang, 1978 was isolated from other species of deer in asian countries and from mouflon and roe deer in europe. scant information is available for d. ch ...200717803950
evaluation of techniques for the enumeration of dicrocoelium eggs in sheep faeces.to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative techniques for the enumeration of dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in faeces, eggs were added to fluke free sheep faeces to achieve densities of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 800 eggs per gram (epg) (5 replicates per density). the faecal egg counts were determined by a modified mcmaster method (wetzel, 1951) utilizing solutions of znso4 (sp. g. 1.3 and 1.45), k2co3 (sp. g. 1.45) and hgi2/ki (sp. g. 1.44) for flotation or by a sedimentation technique (4 sedimentat ...199910337228
[hepatobiliary fascioliasis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis in domestic animals in haiti].in haiti, hepatobiliary fascioliasis and hepatic hydatid cysts cause major economic losses among livestock. surveys show high prevalence rates for bovine distomatosis caused by fasciola hepatica (10.7% to 22.78%). among small ruminants, the prevalence of distomatosis is low (sheep: 3.2%, goats: 0.9%) although dicrocoelium dendriticum is found in 1.1% of sheep. hepatic hydatidosis is more common among pigs (5.2%) and sheep (2.1%) than among goats (0.9%) and cattle (0.3%). in the case of dogs, 21% ...200718293622
abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections and its economic implications in the region of trikala, greece.the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of carcasses and viscera during meat inspection, and their economic implication, was estimated in a year long abattoir survey of 10 277 slaughtered farm animals in the region of trikala, greece. the organs examined for the presence of parasitic lesions during meat inspection were: liver and lungs of all animals, rumen of cattle, small intestine of lambs and kids, and muscles of cattle and swine. the parasitic lesions observe ...200212241028
covariate selection in multivariate spatial analysis of ovine parasitic infection.gastrointestinal (gi) strongyle and fluke infections remain one of the main constraints on health and productivity in sheep dairy production. a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004-2005 on ovine farms in the campania region of southern italy in order to evaluate the prevalence of haemonchus contortus, fasciola hepatica, dicrocoelium dendriticum and calicophoron daubneyi from among other parasitic infections. in the present work, we focused on the role of the ecological characteristics of ...201021167615
phase i biotransformation of albendazole in lancet fluke (dicrocoelium dendriticum).dicroceliosis, a lancet fluke infection, is a frequent parasitosis of small ruminants and the anthelmintic drug albendazole (abz) is effective in control of this parasitosis. the aim of our project was to study the metabolism of abz and abz sulphoxide (abz.so) in lancet fluke. both invitro (subcellular fractions of fluke homogenates) and exvivo experiments (adult flukes cultivated in medium) were performed for this purpose. abz was metabolised invitro by lancet fluke nadph-dependent enzymes by t ...200918565554
effects of strategic anthelmintic treatments on the milk production of dairy sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal strongyles.the present paper was aimed at assessing the benefit of strategic anthelmintic treatments on milk production in four commercial dairy sheep farms in southern italy whose animals were naturally infected by gastrointestinal (gi) strongyles and dicrocoelium dendriticum. the scheme was based on two treatments timed in relationship to parturition, i.e. the first with moxidectin in the periparturient period and the second with netobimin at the mid/end of lactation. on each farm, two similar groups (20 ...200818644674
liver flukes promote cholelithiasis in sheep.the main objective of this study was to investigate whether cholelithiasis in sheep is related to parasitism or other commonly observed disorders such as liver abscesses. additionally, the features of the observed biliary calculi are described. the livers of 254 randomly selected clinically healthy adult dairy sheep were used. all visible concretions in the bile were considered as stones. based on the macroscopical examination, 60 livers were normal, 40 were parasitized with fasciola hepatica, 4 ...201121330055
igg antibody response to es or somatic antigens of dicrocoelium dendriticum (trematoda) in experimentally infected sheep.the elisa technique was used to study the kinetics of igg antibodies against excretory-secretory (es) and somatic (so) antigens of dicrocoelium dendriticum in the sera of 32 lambs: 12 experimentally infected with 1,000 metacercariae, 12 with 3,000 and 8 controls. both antigen types were used at a 2 microg/ml concentration. dilutions of sera and the anti-sheep igg peroxidase conjugate were: 1:200 and 1:6,000, respectively. optical density values for each type of antigen in the two infected groups ...200010894473
zoonotic dicrocoeliasis dendriticum in a farmer's family at giza governorate, egypt.dicrocoeliasis (lancet liver fluke disease) is caused by dicrocoelium dendriticum, a trematode living in bile ducts of sheep, cattle and other mammals including man. human infection is asymptomatic or mild to moderately severe, but being sporadic or rarely reported. this paper reported zoonotic dicrocoeliasis dendriticum among a farmer's family and his domestic animals. the father and mother were successfully treated with triclabendazole and the children and animals were successfully treated wit ...201121980771
experimental elisa for diagnosis of ovine dicrocoeliosis and application in a field survey.dicrocoeliosis is a parasitic disease caused by trematodes belonging to the genus dicrocoelium. it usually produces mild symptoms, and for this reason, dicrocoeliosis often remains undetected. its diagnosis is mostly based on postmortem examination of the liver or on coprological assays for in vivo diagnosis. however, the latter method has scant sensitivity and because of the long pre-patency of dicrocoelium spp. only permits late diagnosis. in the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent a ...200919107521
a cross-sectional coprological survey of liver flukes in cattle and sheep from an area of the southern italian apennines.a cross-sectional coprological survey of liver flukes (fasciola hepatica and dicrocoelium dendriticum) was conducted on 81 bovine farms and 197 ovine farms with animals pasturing in an area (3971 km(2)) of the southern italian apennines. the farms were selected to be uniformly distributed throughout the study area using geographical information system (gis) software. between june 1999 and march 2000, faecal samples were collected from 975 cattle and 3940 sheep and examined using a modified mcmas ...200212208041
[coprological diagnosis: what's new?].analysis of faecal samples for the presence of parasite eggs, larvae, cysts and oocysts is the most widely used diagnostic procedure both in veterinary and human parasitology. after its fundation by c. j. davaine in 1857, several copromicroscopic techniques have been developed. the mcmaster technique developed and improved at the mcmaster laboratory of the university of sidney (whose name derives from one of the great benefactors in veterinary research in australia, the mcmaster family) is the m ...200415305703
in vitro oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics in the lancet fluke (dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the effects of albendazole and albendazole sulphoxide ex vivo.dicrocoeliosis, a parasitic infection caused by dicrocoelium dendriticum (lancet fluke), is often treated by the anthelmintic drug albendazole (abz). in the lancet fluke, abz metabolism via enzymatic sulphoxidation was found, but no information about abz oxidases has been available. the aim of our project was to find out which enzyme of the lancet fluke is responsible for abz sulphoxidation, as well as to assay the activities of oxidation enzymes. we also studied whether ex vivo 24-h exposures o ...201020560773
the abattoir condemnation of meat because of parasitic infection, and its economic importance: results of a retrospective study in north-eastern iran.in nine districts in the north of khorasan province, in north-eastern iran, a 5-year retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalences, in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs, of the parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of the animals' carcasses and viscera (and the economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal). between 20 march 2005 and 19 march 2010, 436,620 animals (45,360 cattle, 275,439 sheep, 115,674 goats and 147 camels) were slaugh ...201021144183
update on trematode infections in sheep.trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke fasciola hepatica. hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are fasciola ...201222521973
mouflon (ovis musimon) dicrocoeliosis: effects of parasitosis on the activities of biotransformation enzymes and albendazole metabolism in liver.parasitic infections can modify the host's ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics by altering the biotransformation enzymes; these changes may have various pharmacological, toxicological or physiological consequences. in our study, several activities of liver biotransformation enzymes and in vitro metabolism of albendazole (abz) were tested and compared in non-infected mouflons (ovis musimon) and in mouflons infected by lancet fluke (dicrocoelium dendriticum). subcellular fractions of ...200717386978
predicting risk habitats for the transmission of the small liver fluke, dicrocoelium dendriticum to grazing ruminants.a multiple regression model was used to analyse if the structure of vegetation and soil patches in grazed units (pastures) can be used as explanatory variables to predict the prevalence of dicrocoelium dendriticum, a common parasite of cattle and sheep, in grazing cattle stocks on the baltic island of öland in southern sweden. the scale dependency was evaluated by comparing three levels of spatial resolution of patches. prevalence data were obtained from slaughtered animals. our models predict t ...201122109870
immunohistochemical study of the local immune response in lambs experimentally infected with dicrocoelium dendriticum (digenea).phenotypic expression of inflammatory cells in liver and hepatic lymph nodes (hln) has been examined in lambs experimentally infected with dicrocoelium dendriticum using immunohistochemical techniques. thirty-two lambs, 12 infected with 1,000 d. dendriticum metacercariae, 12 with 3,000, and 8 controls were used. half the lambs in each group were slaughtered on days 60 and 180 post-infection (p.i.), respectively. primary antibodies (abs) against t cell epitopes (cd3+, cd4+, cd8+ and wc1+ gammadel ...200717393185
calibration and diagnostic accuracy of simple flotation, mcmaster and flotac for parasite egg counts in sheep.the present study was aimed at carrying out a calibration and a comparison of diagnostic accuracy of three faecal egg counts (fec) techniques, simple flotation, mcmaster and flotac, in order to find the best flotation solution (fs) for dicrocoelium dendriticum, moniezia expansa and gastrointestinal (gi) strongyle eggs, and to evaluate the influence of faecal preservation methods combined with fs on egg counts. simple flotation failed to give satisfactory results with any samples. overall, flotac ...201021216533
hepatic marker enzymes, biochemical parameters and pathological effects in lambs experimentally infected with dicrocoelium dendriticum (digenea).hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameter values were analysed in the sera of 32 lambs: 12 infected with 1,000 dicrocoelium dendriticum metacercariae, 12 with 3,000 and eight controls. blood samples were collected at intervals of 30 days from day 0 post-infection (p.i.). half the lambs in each group were slaughtered on days 60 and 180 p.i, respectively. a histopathological and ultrastructural study was carried out on the liver, gall bladder and hepatic lymph nodes of all animals. a minute increa ...200415197580
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