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culturing anomalies associated with mycoplasma recovered from the tissues of chicks and turkey poults experimentally infected with mycoplasma gallisepticum or mycoplasma gallinarum.tissues of mycoplasma infected chicks and turkey poults were cultured and subcultured on mycoplasma agar. usually, colonies which grew on the agar initially inoculated could be subcultured, but sometimes they could not. at other times, colonies were not seen on the agar initially inoculated but appeared on the subcultured plate.1978353927
prevalence of certain antibodies to selected disease-causing agents in wild turkeys in texas.in texas in 1976 and 1977, rio grande turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from seven counties and eastern turkeys (m. g. silvestris) from one county were tested for antibodies to selected poultry pathogens. standardized serological tests disclosed reactors to salmonella pullorum (2.4%), s. typhimurium (2.3%), and mycoplasma gallisepticum (4.8%). there were no reactors to newcastle disease virus or chlamydia psittaci. prevalence of m. gallisepticum antibody in wild turkeys was significantly ...1979384989
[mycoplasma synoviae control. i. studies on the thermal sensitivity of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas (mycoplasma synoviae, mycoplasma gallisepicum and mycoplasma meleagridis)].a number of experiments were carried out to study the thermal sensitivity of mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma gallisepticum as well as that of young embryos in vitro and in ovo. a full mycoplasmacidal effect was attained after heating in bouillon cultures for six hours at 45 degrees c (including cultures of mycoplasma meleagridis), for two and a half hours at 50 degrees c, for ninety minutes at 52 degrees c and for thirty minutes at 55 degrees c. yoder's method of heating to control these myco ...1978568833
in vivo efficacy of 81.723 hfu, a new pleuromutilin derivative against experimentally induced airsacculitis in chicks and turkey poults.the efficacy of the pleuromutilin derivative 81.723 hfu was tested in chicks and turkey poults by experimentally infecting them with mycoplasma gallisepticum. the data were treated to obtain the mean effective doses, and these were compared to those obtained with tylosin tartrate. the compounds were administered either by ingluvial catheter or via the drinking water. therapy was started on the day of inoculation or 7 days thereafter, respectively. the experiments showed that the compound 81.723 ...19751147586
efficacy trials in turkey poults with tylosin tartrate against mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma meleagridis.tylosin tartrate, administered in the drinking water at a concentration of 0.55 g/litre for the first three days after hatching, was highly effective in controlling the adverse consequences of a mycoplasma gallisepticum infection, established by air sac injection at one day of age, in turkey poults. tylosin was ineffective in controlling m meleagridis infections established in embryo or at one day of age when administered in the drinking water of poults. both mycoplasma isolates used were inhibi ...19751215688
breeder turkey hens seropositive and culture-negative for mycoplasma synoviae.four flocks of clinically normal turkey breeder hens were shown to have suspect and positive mycoplasma synoviae (ms) hemagglutination-inhibition (hi), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and, in some cases, serum plate agglutination serology in the absence of ms isolation. in all cases, hi serology for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and m. meleagridis was negative. acholeplasma laidlawii was isolated from some hens in each of these ms-seropositive culture-negative flocks. immunoblotting was used ...19921417615
serological and microbial survey of mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from six western states.from 1986 to 1989, sera from wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo), including three subspecies (m. gallopavo intermedia, m. gallopavo merriami and m. gallopavo mexicana) trapped in six western states were tested for antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) (n = 724), m. synoviae (ms) (n = 461) and m. meleagridis (mm) (n = 354) using the rapid plate agglutination (rpa) assay. subsamples of these sera were also evaluated using the hemagglutination inhibition (hi) assay for antibody to mg (n = 664) a ...19921548787
mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in south carolina (usa) during 1985 to 1990. sera were tested for mycoplasma gallisepticum and m. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic mycoplasma spp., including m. gallisepticum, m. synoviae, m. meleagridis, and m. iowae. however, m. gallopa ...19921602583
a survey of infectious diseases in wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) from arkansas.wild turkeys (meleagridis gallopavo silvestris) trapped as part of a relocation program by the arkansas game and fish commission were tested for selected infectious diseases and parasites. the 45 birds were trapped at four locations in pope, scott, and montgomery counties (arkansas, usa). forty-four blood samples for serology, 27 blood smears and 12 fecal samples were collected. of the serum samples tested, 20 of 44 (45%) were positive for pasteurella multocida by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...19902250323
a pathologic study of wild turkeys in connecticut.during the 1984 to 1986 spring hunting seasons in connecticut, viscera from 300 hunter-killed wild turkeys and blood samples from live-trapped wild turkeys were examined in order to establish a health profile on the state's wild turkey population. seven species of endoparasites were recovered from 224 (75%) of 300 birds: metroliasthes lucida, ascaridia dissimilis, heterakis gallinarum, syngamus trachea, capillaria species, trichomonas gallinarum, and eimeria species. the most prevalent parasites ...19883168472
serologic response of rio grande wild turkeys to experimental infections of mycoplasma gallisepticum.the serologic response of rio grande wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) was determined. free-ranging turkeys were caught in southern texas, shipped to the university of wisconsin, madison, and housed in isolation facilities. fourteen birds were exposed to mg, by intratracheal and intranasal inoculation. eight birds received sterile broth only. two wk prior to the end of the experiment, mg exposed turkeys were stressed by challenge with a serologically ...19883193562
serological monitoring of eastern wild turkeys for antibodies to mycoplasma spp. and avian influenza viruses.from 1981 through 1986, plasma or serum samples were obtained from 322 wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from georgia (n = 111), kentucky (n = 21), louisiana (n = 22), north carolina (n = 118), tennessee (n = 19), missouri (n = 24) and iowa (n = 7). these samples were tested for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) and in most instances, m. synoviae (ms), m. meleagridis (mm), and avian influenza (ai) virus. all 322 turkeys were seronegative for mg by the rapid plate agglutination (rpa) t ...19883373642
experimental mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys.the effects of mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo). three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to mg by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after i ...19883411710
evaluation of serologic tests for mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys. 19853981747
early lesions in chicken and turkey embryos inoculated with mycoplasma gallisepticum strain s6 at various stages of incubation. 19685686257
performance of 3 successive generations of specified-pathogenfree chickens maintained as a closed flock.no antibodies against salmonella pullorum, mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae, haemophilus gallinarum, fowl pox virus, marek's disease virus, herpes virus of turkey, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian adenovirus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus, avian leukosis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus and newcastle disease virus were detectable in the sera obtained from these chickens in 3 generations at various ages. antibodies against i ...19806253742
wildlife surveillance during a mycoplasma gallisepticum epornitic in domestic turkeys.during a major mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) epornitic in domestic turkeys, tracheal swabs were collected and cultured from 477 and 770 potentially exposed wild mammals and birds, respectively. all culture attempts were negative. serum-plate (sp) and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests on 770 bird sera revealed low titers (less than or equal to 1:40) in 0.9% of tested house sparrows, 1.1% of brown-headed cowbirds, 35.7% of common grackles, 1.0% of starlings, and 16.6% of eastern meadowlarks. ...19827159324
dna diversity among isolates of campylobacter jejuni detected by pcr-based rapd fingerprinting.a pcr-based randomly amplified polymorphic dna method was used to amplify campylobacter jejuni dna using a single oligonucleotide primer derived from either a homologous source or from mycoplasma gallisepticum. the method was able to detect the heterogeneity of amplified dna from human, chicken and turkey sources and can be used as a tool to study the epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni infection.19957571378
detection of mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in turkey blood samples by elisa and by the slide agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests.comparative examination of a total of 1,030 blood samples from six turkey flocks of three eastern hungarian turkey farms was performed by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and slide agglutination (sa) tests and by a competitive elisa visualizing the inhibition by a positive test serum of the reaction between a monoclonal antibody and the specific epitope of mycoplasma gallisepticum recognized by it. all the three tests detected the flocks which were certainly infected. the highe ...19947810403
antibodies to selected disease agents in translocated wild turkeys in california.wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) trapped within california (n = 715) or imported into california from other states (n = 381) from 1986 to 1996 were tested for exposure to certain disease agents. prevalence of antibody to mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis, salmonella pullorum, salmonella typhimurium, newcastle disease virus, and avian influenza virus was low (0-4%) for wild turkeys trapped within california. with the exception of antibody prevalence to m. meleagridis of 33%, the ...200010682760
cases of swollen head syndrome in broiler chickens in greece.from 50 commercial broiler flocks included in a study concerning respiratory disease, signs of swollen head syndrome (shs) were shown in eight. postmortem examination was performed in eight birds showing signs of shs from each flock. the trachea and head from each bird were collected for laboratory investigation. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used for the detection of viral and avian mycoplasma antigens in the trachea, and bacteriologic examinations were performed from the inf ...200111569754
occurrence of conjunctivitis, sinusitis and upper region tracheitis in japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica), possibly caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum accompanied by cryptosporidium sp. infection.on a farm raising approximately 75,000 japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica) for egg production, the diseased quail showed clinical signs of swelling of the head, nasal discharge, increased lacrimation, and decreased egg production. the flock experienced a mortality rate of 5.7% per day. macroscopic observation revealed large, gelatinous masses of caseous exudate in the sinuses, egg peritonitis, and airsacculitis. microscopically, non-purulent or purulent inflammation accompanied by lympho ...200212396337
infectious disease survey of rio grande wild turkeys in the edwards plateau of texas.state wildlife agencies have translocated thousands of wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) since the 1930s to reestablish this species. because of threats to the domestic poultry industry and wild birds, screening for selected infectious agents has become routine since the early 1980s. one of the principal sources for rio grande wild turkeys (m. gallopavo intermedia) for translocation purposes was the edwards plateau of texas (usa). unfortunately, turkey abundance has declined in the southern edw ...200212528453
brain and muscle lesions caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkey poults. 196514266927
response of the turkey to mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. 196514336873
prevalence of infectious diseases in ring-necked pheasant flocks in poland.the health status of ring-necked pheasants in view of the prevalence of infectious diseases was estimated in polish pheasantries in the years 1997-2000. anatomicopathological, microbiological and serological examinations were carried out on birds derived from 26 pheasantries, including birds randomly selected from 18 flocks and sick or dead birds sent from 8 pheasantries. antibodies specific to the following viruses were detected in serum blood samples: he, ae, ap, reo, ai, adeno group 1, md, nd ...200314510048
key role of chlamydophila psittaci on belgian turkey farms in association with other respiratory pathogens.two hundred turkey sera from eight belgian and two french farms were tested for the presence of antibodies against avian pneumovirus (apv), ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ort), mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and chlamydophila psittaci. at slaughter, c. psittaci, apv and ort antibodies were detected in 94, 34 and 6.5% of the turkeys, respectively. no antibodies against m. gallisepticum or m. meleagridis were present. additionally, turkeys on three belgian farms were examined f ...200515795081
differential detection of turkey coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus, and bovine coronavirus by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.the objective of the present study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method for differential detection of turkey coronavirus (tcov), infectious bronchitis coronavirus (ibv), and bovine coronavirus (bcov). primers were designed from conserved or variable regions of nucleocapsid (n) or spike (s) protein gene among tcov, ibv, and bcov and used in the same pcr reaction. reverse transcription followed by the pcr reaction was used to amplify a portion of n or s gene of the cor ...200616137773
separating mycoplasma gallisepticum field strains from nonpathogenic avian mycoplasmas.mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) has repeatedly emerged as a serious problem in u.s. broiler, layer, and turkey industries. tracing the source of an outbreak is essential if mg control is to be accomplished. amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp), random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) are valuable tools used to study mg epidemiology, allowing diagnosticians to determine the source of mg infections. in some past outbreaks, aflp, ra ...200617274301
prevalence of mycoplasma antibodies in lesser prairie-chicken sera.serologic testing by the serum plate agglutination (spa) procedure was performed to detect the presence of cross-reacting antibodies to mycoplasma meleagridis, mycoplasma synoviae, and mycoplasma gallisepticum in lesser prairie-chickens (tympanuchus pallidicinctus) trapped over a 2-yr period in finney and kearny counties of southwestern kansas. sera examined from birds (n = 50) obtained in march-april 2000 tested positive for m meleagridis, m. synoviae, and m. gallisepticum at levels of 6%, 10%, ...200212243537
serologic incidence of some diseases in kansas wild turkeys.wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo, n = 1164) were tested for mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis, mycoplasma synoviae, and salmonella pullorum from 1990 to 1997. although 3.3% of the turkeys were suspect for one or more diseases, only 0.9% were serologically positive for m. gallisepticum. these 11 positives were all from one country in south-central kansas.19989645333
mycoplasmoses in poultry.the most important mycoplasmas isolated from domestic avian species include mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), m. synoviae (ms), m. meleagridis (mm) and m. iowae (mi). mg causes chronic respiratory disease of chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys, resulting in economic losses. ms causes infectious synovitis or mild upper respiratory disease. mm infects only turkeys, causing airsacculitis and sub-optimal production and hatchability. mi is associated with reduced hatchability in turkey flocks. ...19969190023
pathogenicity of strains of the ijknqr group of avian mycoplasmas for turkey embryos and poults.strains of mycoplasmas isolated from turkey embryos and identified as belonging to the ijknqr group of avian mycoplasmas were found to produce lethal infections in experimentally exposed turkey embryos. some strains produced exudative airsacculitis in experimentally exposed poults. of 4 strains used to inoculate poults, two produced moderate airsacculitis, one produced a slight airsacculitis, and one had little or no effect on turkey poult air sacs. microscopic examination revealed that the air- ...19817271648
an investigation of the persistence of mycoplasma gallisepticum in an eastern population of wild turkeys.mycoplasma gallisepticum infection had been confirmed by culture and serology among wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in close association with domestic fowl on cumberland island, georgia (usa) in 1980. in 1988, wild turkeys were surveyed by serologic and cultural methods for evidence of m. gallisepticum. chickens (gallus gallus) and guinea fowl (numida meleagris) from the site where the disease was originally detected also were tested by serologic and cultural methods for m. gallisepticum infe ...19912023330
isolation of mycoplasma gallopavonis from free-ranging wild turkeys in coastal north carolina seropositive and culture-negative for mycoplasma gallisepticum.serum samples and choanal cleft swabs were collected from livetrapped and hunter killed wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) from martin and bertie counties, north carolina (usa). sera were tested for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma synoviae and mycoplasma meleagridis by hemagglutination inhibition (hi). sera from 33% (five of 15) of livetrapped turkeys were positive for antibodies to m. gallisepticum by hi, and all were negative for antibodies to m. synoviae and m. meleagridis. ...19921548788
molecular characterization of mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from turkeys.mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from several turkey flocks at different locations in the united states that were clinically affected with respiratory disease. five of these isolates from four series of outbreaks had patterns similar to the 6/85 vaccine strain of m. gallisepticum by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis using three different primer sets, whereas with a fourth primer set (opa13 and opa14), only two of the isolates were similar to 6/85. results obtained by sequenci ...200415529978
mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in wild-type turkeys living in close contact with domestic fowl.mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from 2 wild-type turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) and 1 domestic turkey living in close contact on a farm in tehama county, california. sinusitis was detected in 2 of 14 wild-type turkeys and in 1 of 12 feral broad-breasted bronze turkeys, but in none of several chickens on the premises. the entire mixed flock was captured, sinus aspirates were collected from affected birds, and blood samples were obtained from all birds for serologic testing. blood samples als ...19836643238
[amyloidosis in turkeys (meleagris gallopavo f. domestica)--a case report].high prevalence of leg disorders in fattening meat turkey farm was observed. four birds as well as tracheal and joint swabs were submitted to the bavarian health and food safety authority in oberschleissheim and to the institute of poultry diseases, faculty of veterinary medicine, free university of berlin. at the post-mortem, all birds showed an inflammation of the hock joints (intertarsal joint). the histopatholical investigations revealed a chronic inflammation of the joint and amyloid deposi ...201424881274
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