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prevalence of certain antibodies to selected disease-causing agents in wild turkeys in texas.in texas in 1976 and 1977, rio grande turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from seven counties and eastern turkeys (m. g. silvestris) from one county were tested for antibodies to selected poultry pathogens. standardized serological tests disclosed reactors to salmonella pullorum (2.4%), s. typhimurium (2.3%), and mycoplasma gallisepticum (4.8%). there were no reactors to newcastle disease virus or chlamydia psittaci. prevalence of m. gallisepticum antibody in wild turkeys was significantly ...1979384989
experimental transmission of chlamydia psittaci to turkeys from wild birds.wild birds were inoculated with chlamydia psittaci to determine species that could be potential hosts and vectors in transmitting the agent to domestic turkeys. infection occurred in turkeys exposed to starlings (sturnus vulgaris), common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (molothrus ater), and inca doves (cardafella inca). mourning doves (zenaidura macroura) shed the agent sparingly, but turkeys exposed to them did not become infected, these findings and knowledge of the habit ...1979546413
observations on the involvement of wildlife in an epornitic of chlamydiosis in domestic turkeys.in an investigation of potential wildlife reservoirs of chlamydia psittaci at the site of an acute, highly fatal epornitic of chlamydiosis in domestic turkeys in texas, various species of wild birds and rodents were captured and tested for chlamydial serum antibodies and chlamydiae in their tissues. thirteen (65%) of 20 blackbirds (agelaius sp), 4 (44%) of 9 killdeer (oxyechus vociferus), 3 (27%) of 11 sparrows (passer sp) and 1 of 4 mourning doves (zenaidura macroura) were seropositive, but chl ...1976988009
an epornitic of fatal chlamydiosis (ornithosis) in south carolina turkeys.an unusual epornitic of fatal chlamydiosis occurred in a flock of 10,283 domestic turkeys in south carolina. total mortality over a 2-week period was 483 birds (4.7% of the flock). the principal gross lesion was severe pericarditis, but there was little or no airsacculitis, an observation at variance with many previous reports of chlamydiosis. furthermore, an unusually heavy infestation of the turkeys with sanguivorous black flies (simulium slossonae and s congareenarum) was observed at the time ...19751112744
an outbreak of psittacosis in minnesota turkey industry workers: implications for modes of transmission and control.from june through november 1986, an outbreak of psittacosis occurred in turkey industry workers in central minnesota. a total of 186 suspect cases were identified, and 122 cases (66%) were serologically confirmed. cases occurred in three turkey processing plants, two rendering plants, one farm, and one "further processing" plant (where meat is removed from previously eviscerated carcasses and consumer products, such as roasts, are made). as in previous outbreaks, workers exposed to the viscera o ...19892764001
chlamydia psittaci latex agglutination antigen for rapid detection of antibody activity in avian sera: comparison with direct complement fixation and isolation results.cell-culture-grown chlamydia psittaci of turkey origin was treated with phenol and partially purified by differential centrifugation. the most stable antigen/latex mixture occurred with crude antigen precipitated by dimethyl sulfoxide and digested with trypsin. agglutination reactions occurred within 2 minutes when antigen/latex and antibody-positive serum mixtures were rotated to facilitate contact of the reagents. nonspecific agglutination of control latex occurred with 1.2% of clinical sera. ...19863729870
primary pathogenicity of an european isolate of chlamydia psittaci from turkey poults.chlamydia psittaci was isolated as the sole pathogenic agent from a severe outbreak of respiratory disease in a commercial broiler turkey farm in the netherlands. the mortality rate in the flocks was 65%. clinical signs included conjunctivitis, swelling of the sinus infraorbitalis and sneezing. cloacal excretion of chlamydia was demonstrated in twelve out of fifteen birds examined by a direct immunofluorescence test. in all the fifteen birds antibodies against chlamydia psittaci were detected in ...19938128594
[pilot study of the occurrence of chlamydia psittaci infections in commercial turkey flocks in niedersachsen].turkeys from 8 commercial flocks, of which were 6 clinically healthy, were examined by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for genus-specific chlamydia antigens and also for antibodies against chlamydia psittaci in 4 flocks. results of the tests indicate the presence of chlamydia psittaci infections in all 8 flocks. the percentage of combined cloacal and conjunctival swabs positive for chlamydia antigen ranged from 20-91% [20-70%] whereas the percentage of antibody-positive serum sa ...19948205970
chlamydia psittaci in turkeys: pathogenesis of infections in avian serovars a, b and d.at 7 days of age, 4 groups, each of twenty specific pathogen free turkeys kept in isolation units were inoculated by aerosol with the texas turkey strain (avian chlamydia psittaci serovar d), strain 92/1293 (avian chlamydia psittaci serovar d), strain 84/55 (avian chlamydia psittaci serovar a) or strain 89/1326 (avian chlamydia psittaci serovar b). a fifth group of 4 specific pathogen free turkeys were sham inoculated controls. at daily intervals for 10 days and then twice weekly up to 34 days p ...19958748540
[avian chlamydia psittaci phyla and their pathogenic significance for turkeys].the present study demonstrates that chlamydia psittaci is an important cause of respiratory disease in turkeys in europe. the serotyping of isolates revealed that european turkeys frequently become infected with chlamydia psittaci serovar d strains, but also can become infected with serovar a and b strains. in turkeys, differences in pathogenicity were observed not only between strains belonging to the serovars a (strain 84/55), serovar b (strain 89/1326) and serovar d (texas turkey strain and s ...19969157743
turkeys are protected from infection with chlamydia psittaci by plasmid dna vaccination against the major outer membrane protein.plasmid dna expressing the major outer membrane protein (momp) of an avian chlamydia psittaci serovar a strain has been tested for its ability to raise an immune response and induce protection against challenge with the same serovar. a combined parenteral (intramuscular injection) and mucosal route (dna drops administered to the nares) of dna inoculation was compared with gene gun-based immunization. the gene gun delivery of pcdna1/momp as well as the intramuscular-intranasal dna delivery primed ...199910540159
interaction between turkey monocytes and avian chlamydia psittaci in the presence of mycoplasma sp.: the importance of nitric oxide.the interaction between chlamydia psittaci and turkey monocytes was studied in vitro. purified monocytes were inoculated with c. psittaci, in the presence or absence of mycoplasma hyorhinis. whereas turkey monocytes produced high amounts of nitric oxide (no) following the inoculation with m. hyorhinis, inoculation with c. psittaci did not induce no production in these phagocytes. the monocytes strongly supported chlamydial growth, as demonstrated by the presence of inclusion forming units, the p ...200010736525
protection of turkeys against chlamydophila psittaci challenge by parenteral and mucosal inoculations and the effect of turkey interferon-gamma on genetic immunization.plasmid dna (pcdna1::momp a) expressing the major outer membrane protein of an avian chlamydophila psittaci serovar a strain was tested for its ability to induce protective immunity against challenge with the same c. psittaci serovar. a combined parenteral (intramuscular injection) and mucosal route (dna drops administered to the nares) of dna inoculation was compared to three other, different routes of administration (intramuscular inoculation, dna drops administered to the nares and aerosol im ...200111380698
infectious disease survey of rio grande wild turkeys in the edwards plateau of texas.state wildlife agencies have translocated thousands of wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) since the 1930s to reestablish this species. because of threats to the domestic poultry industry and wild birds, screening for selected infectious agents has become routine since the early 1980s. one of the principal sources for rio grande wild turkeys (m. gallopavo intermedia) for translocation purposes was the edwards plateau of texas (usa). unfortunately, turkey abundance has declined in the southern edw ...200212528453
characterization in mice of a turkey ornithosis virus of low virulence. 195913654820
key role of chlamydophila psittaci on belgian turkey farms in association with other respiratory pathogens.two hundred turkey sera from eight belgian and two french farms were tested for the presence of antibodies against avian pneumovirus (apv), ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ort), mycoplasma gallisepticum, mycoplasma meleagridis and chlamydophila psittaci. at slaughter, c. psittaci, apv and ort antibodies were detected in 94, 34 and 6.5% of the turkeys, respectively. no antibodies against m. gallisepticum or m. meleagridis were present. additionally, turkeys on three belgian farms were examined f ...200515795081
development of a chlamydophila psittaci species-specific and genotype-specific real-time pcr.a chlamydophila psittaci species-specific real-time pcr targeting the rdna ribosomal spacer was developed as well as a genotype-specific real-time pcr targeting the cp. psittaci outer membrane protein a (ompa) gene. the sybr green-based species-specific real-time pcr detected cp. psittaci genotypes a to f, and the recently discovered e/b genotype. the genotype-specific real-time pcr could easily distinguish genotypes c, d, f by use of taqman probes. genotypes a, b and e could not be distinguishe ...200516120253
evaluation of a recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chlamydophila psittaci antibodies in turkey sera.chlamydophila psittaci (formerly chlamydia psittaci) is one of the major pathogens associated with turkey respiratory disease. devastating outbreaks with high mortality rates, similar to those of 1950 to 1970 in the usa occasionally occur, but respiratory signs without or with low mortality mostly characterize outbreaks now a day. accurate diagnostic methods should be made available. the present study examined the sensitivity and specificity of a recombinant elisa (rmomp elisa) for detecting cp. ...200616701067
evaluation of the persistence and gene expression of an anti-chlamydophila psittaci dna vaccine in turkey muscle.dna vaccination has been shown to elicit specific cellular and humoral immune responses to many different agents in a broad variety of species. however, looking at a commercial use, the duration of the immune response against the vaccine is critical. therefore the persistence of the dna vaccine, as well as its expression, should be investigated. we conducted these investigations on a dna vaccine against chlamydophila psittaci, a gram-negative intracellular bacterium which causes respiratory dise ...200616764710
a comparative study of detecting chlamydophila psittaci in pet birds using isolation in embryonated egg and polymerase chain reaction.this study, for the first time in turkey, investigated the existence of chlamydophila psittaci and determined the prevalence of its disease, chlamydiosis, in pet birds. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was compared with other testing methods that have been typically used in the diagnosis of c. psittaci. fecal specimens (n =96) of avian origin were tested by pcr and two identification methods, modified gimenez staining (mgs) and direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining (fa). the ...200617274283
evaluation of a chlamydophila psittaci infection diagnostic platform for zoonotic risk assessment.reports on zoonotic transmission of chlamydophila psittaci originating from poultry are incidentally published. during recent studies in european turkeys we isolated c. psittaci genotypes a, b, d, e, f, and e/b, all considered potentially dangerous for humans. this encouraged us to analyze the zoonotic risk on a belgian turkey farm, from production onset until slaughter, using a chlamydophila psittaci diagnostic platform. twenty individually marked hens, as well as the farmer and two scientists, ...200818003799
evaluation of the prophylactic use of ovotransferrin against chlamydiosis in spf turkeys.chlamydophila (c.) psittaci infections are highly prevalent in turkeys and the economical and public health importance of these infections has been recognized since 1950. as there are no vaccines, antibiotic treatment (tetracylines, enrofloxacine) is often needed to allow marketing of poultry. in this study, we explored the use of ovotransferrin (ovotf), a natural anti-microbial protein, in preventing an experimental c. psittaci infection in specific pathogen free (spf) turkeys. turkeys were tre ...200818603383
chlamydophila psittaci zoonotic risk assessment in a chicken and turkey slaughterhouse.chlamydophila psittaci causes respiratory disease in poultry and can be transmitted to humans. we conducted a c. psittaci zoonotic risk assessment study of a chicken and turkey slaughterhouse. eighty-five percent of the slaughtered chicken flocks tested positive by pcr and culture. genotype d was discovered. fifty-seven percent of the slaughtered turkey flocks tested positive by pcr and culture. genotype d was present. for the chicken slaughterhouse employees, 7.5% and 6% tested positive for c. ...201020592139
zoonotic transmission of chlamydia psittaci in a chicken and turkey hatchery.chlamydia psittaci is an obligately intracellular gram-negative bacterium causing respiratory disease (chlamydiosis) or asymptomatic carriage in birds. c. psittaci is a zoonotic agent causing psittacosis or parrot fever in humans. vertical and/or horizontal transmission via eggs might have serious repercussions on the c. psittaci infection status of poultry flocks and thus on zoonotic risk for all workers along the poultry supply chain. we therefore studied the presence of c. psittaci in a hatch ...201121393457
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