arthropoda as zoonoses and their implications.some aspects of changing patterns of arthropodal infections and arthropod-borne diseases in mediterranean areas are briefly discussed. selected examples are given, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of the synanthropic flea ctenocephalides felis felis and on health problems caused by human infections with argas reflexus, the common tick of urban pigeons in europe. finally, the risk of the emergence of lyme borreliosis (borrelia burgdorferi) is considered in relation to the increasing spr ...19921441188
epidemiology and prevalence of seropositivity against borrelia burgdorferi antigen in la rioja, spain.the aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge of the epidemiology of lyme disease. a seroepidemiologic study was made by evaluating the different levels of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in a five hundred serum representative sample of a population from the province of la rioja, spain. samples were randomly selected and stratified to take into account sex, age, rural or urban residence, and geographical area. all subjects included in the study were asked to fill out a questionnaire ...19921631381
molecular characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes ricinus in northern sweden.ixodes ricinus ticks, harbouring borrelia burgdorferi, were found in an area in northern sweden, not thought to be endemic for lyme borreliosis. this investigation took place at norrbyskär, an island situated in the bothnian gulf, 63 degrees 33'n/19 degrees 52'e. one of 42 nymphal and 8/43 adult i. ricinus ticks collected carried spirochetes as seen by phase contrast microscopy. pure bacterial cultures were obtained from 2 of the ticks. western blot analysis using species-specific monoclonal ant ...19921641595
a comparison of the occurrence of borreliae in nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus ticks.the prevalence of borreliae in 209 nymphal and 251 adult ixodes ricinus was investigated in two areas of southern moravia, czechoslovakia, using the dark-field and the giemsa stained-smear techniques. the proportions of infected ticks were 3.8% in nymphs and 10.6% in adults of area a, while they were 29.1% in nymphs and 35.9% in adults of area b. the mean number of borreliae per tick was about 3 to 10 times greater in adult than in nymphal i. ricinus. the results indicate a significant role of n ...19911930561
[recent information on tick-borne diseases (i)].tick-borne encephalitis (central european encephalitis) and lyme disease (erythema chronicum migrans) are diseases mainly transmitted by ticks of the ixodes ricinus species. the tick-borne encephalitis, a virus infection, can produce severe encephalitic symptoms. there is no specific treatment but the infection can be prevented by active or passive immunization. lyme disease is caused by a spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi). due to the variety of often uncharacteristic symptoms this infection is ...19902158155
[lyme disease in yugoslavia].presented are results of the last five-year period study of the lyme disease in yugoslavia. on the basis of published papers and professional communications over 2500 cases of lyme disease.were detected in our country within this period. presented are common epidemiologic and clinical features of the disease and particularly cases diagnosed in belgrade. since 1987 a group of various specialists has been working on the research project in collaboration with many centres in the country. indirect i ...19902238508
[occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ricinus in the netherlands].in a 1989 surveillance to study the infection rate of ixodes ricinus ticks with borrelia burgdorferi, a total of 1838 nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 20 locations in the netherlands. by means of a culture method using modified barbour-kelly-stoenner medium nymphs were examined in pools of 4 and adults were examined individually. with 63 out of 75 isolates propagation and serological identification were possible. all of these 63 isolates were identified as borrelia burg ...19902374615
[first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme spirochaeta) from ticks in hungary].31 field collected ixodes ricinus adult ticks were investigated for the lyme-disease spirochete. 5/31 ixodes ricinus contained borrelia burgdorferi. the spirochete was successfully cultivated in four cases, and they were found in two ticks by immunofluorescence technique and dark field microscopy, as well. two of the isolated strains were tested by western blot. the antigen pattern in both strains showed marked bands in 41 and 60 kd antigen, but only a week band appeared at 32 kd, with the lack ...19911996203
otolaryngologic aspects of lyme disease.lyme disease is a systemic illness caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the bite of a tick in the ixodes ricinus complex. while the illness is often associated with a characteristic rash, erythema migrans, patients may also present with a variety of complaints in the absence of the rash. the otolaryngologist may be called upon to see both groups of patients, with any number of signs and symptoms referable to the head and neck, including headache, neck pain, odynophagi ...19912041438
lyme disease: a clinical review.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted primarily by ixodes dammini ticks in the northeast and upper midwest, by ixodes pacificus in western states, and by ixodes ricinus in europe. lyme disease can affect the skin, nervous system, heart, eyes, and joints, and is diagnosed in patients with these characteristic clinical features: exposure to an endemic area and usually a positive serologic test for b. burgdorferi six or more weeks after infection. full ...19911944020
[borrelia infections of the skin--progress of knowledge since the discovery of lyme disease].the description of lyme disease in 1976 and the detection of its causative agent, the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi), in 1982 led to an increase in our knowledge of the course of b. burgdorferi infection and its clinical manifestations. the classic tick-borne dermatoses erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), lymphadenosis benigna cutis (labc) and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) were proven by isolation of the spirochete from skin lesions to be caused by b. burgdorferi infe ...19911917458
suspected lyme borreliosis in sheep.two cases of suspected lyme borreliosis in lambs are described. the clinical signs observed resemble those described for lyme borreliosis in dogs and horses. the lambs were approximately six months old and came from two different flocks in a district heavily infested with ixodes ricinus ticks. the lambs had pronounced lameness in one leg, generally bad condition and poor appetite. they had high serum levels of igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi when tested in an elisa. the other lambs in the ...19921595160
a clinical and sero-epidemiological study of 190 belgian patients suffering from lyme borreliosis.we present a sero-epidemiological study of 190 belgian cases of lyme borreliosis, a multisystemic disease caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by a tick bite. the whole spectrum of clinical pictures was observed in these patients, including "erythema chronicum migrans" (63%), neurological involvement (47%) and arthritis (22%), frequently in combination. our results are compared to findings in other countries. among the 437 ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the sambre an ...19892683538
[lyme disease and borrelia burgdorferi infections in europe].lyme disease is endemic in europe. the strains of the causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, seem to be antigenically more heterogeneous than the north american isolates. the only documented vector for this bacterium in europe is ixodes ricinus, but other vectors might be involved as observed in the united states. the tick hosts are not yet well documented in europe. human infection occurs principally during summer months. the clinical aspect of the disease has particular features in europe: at ...19892683896
capacity of european animals as reservoir hosts for the lyme disease spirochete.the abundance of spirochete-infected ixodes ricinus ticks naturally derived from endemic rodents was compared to identify the reservoir hosts of the agent of lyme disease at a series of enzootic sites in central europe. black-striped mice appear to be the most important rodent host for the tick and infect more ticks with borrelia burgdorferi than do other mice and voles tested. although rodents infect about half of the ticks that feed on them, lizards infect none. these spirochete-incompetent ho ...19921538153
studies on the ecology of lyme disease in a deer forest in county galway, ireland.the abundance of the tick ixodes ricinus (l.) and the infection rate of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi (johnson et al.) were compared on either side of a deer fence in a forest park in county galway, ireland, in an attempt to elucidate the role of fallow deer, dama dama, and woodmice, apodemus sylvaticus, in determining the population density of i. ricinus and the transmission of b. burgdorferi. the results showed that tick numbers were much higher on the deer side of the fence, although the de ...19921460628
changes in the protein profile and antigenicity of different borrelia burgdorferi strains after reintroduction to ixodes ricinus ticks.eight swiss strains of borrelia burgdorferi, with various protein profiles and the north-american strain b31 were artificially introduced into ixodes ricinus ticks and reisolated 10 days later. all isolates were subsequently examined by sds-page analysis. comparing initial isolates with the reisolates, we observed that 7 out of 9 strains changed their protein pattern with respect to the major proteins ospa, ospb and the 22 kda protein after passage in the tick. the strains ne2, ne4 and ne83 with ...19921437234
incompetence of roe deer as reservoirs of the lyme borreliosis determine whether the roe deer, capreolus capreolus l. may serve as a reservoir host for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, evidence of spirochetal infection was sought in nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) that had engorged as larvae on roe deer. sixteen roe deer were shot in lyme disease enzootic areas of south-central sweden during august-november 1990 and august 1991. an average of 276 (range, 84-658) larvae of i. ricinus was collected ...19921404260
[the identification of borrelia isolated in the soviet union and czechoslovakia from ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks].seven strains of the causative agent of lyme borreliosis have been isolated from ticks of the species ixodes ricinus (l.) obtained at the territories of leningrad province, lithuania and czechoslovakia. the strains have been studied in reactions with 5 types of monoclonal antibodies. all isolated strains belong to serotype ii according to barbour's system and are typical for european strains.19902145716
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks of the canton tessin (switzerland).in the northern alps it is hard to find an ixodes ricinus population which does not harbour borrelia burgdorferi. the infection rates range from 5 to 34% for adults and nymphs to 3.1% for larvae. this study shows that the infection rates on the southern side of the alps are similar, at 25% for adults, 36.2% for nymphs and 3.2% for larvae. with respect to tick species other than i. ricinus, we did not succeed in finding any spirochetes in dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis punctata, ixodes hex ...19902132440
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ricinus ticks in berlin (west).in 1986, 1711 nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus orginating from berlin (west) forests were examined individually or in pools of up to 10 ticks for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis. detection of borreliae was carried out by means of a culture method using modified barbour-stoenner-kelly-medium (bsk ii). tick populations from 14 out of 15 locations contained positive specimens. the calculated minimal infection rate of pooled ticks was 2.5% in nymphs (n = ...19892929194
prevalence of borreliae in ixodes ricinus ticks from southern moravia, czechoslovakia.a total of 378 adult ixodes ricinus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in four localities of two districts (breclav, znojmo) in south moravia and examined microscopically. borreliae were identified in giemsa-stained midgut smears from 32 (i.e. 8.5%) ticks (9.4% females, 7.2% males); the infection rate varied between 0.0 and 11.4% in the four localities examined. among female ticks, significantly more were found to be infected in autumn (19.7%) than in spring (5.8%). dark-field (df) and ...19902093618
[ixodes ricinus, a demonstrated vector of borrelia burgdorferi in spain]. 19912051824
incidence of tick-bite in man in aland islands: reference to the spread of lyme borreliosis.the common tick ixodes ricinus is a vector both for the virus of tick-borne viral encephalitis (kumlinge disease, kd) and of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme borreliosis, lb). bites of the tick are believed to be common in aland, an island province of finland in the baltic sea. kd has been seen there for many years, and cases of lb have been diagnosed lately. the purpose of this study was to find the incidence of tick-bite among the population with possible implications for the spread of lb. a questio ...19902320965
transmission of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi).the field and laboratory evidence incriminating nymphal ixodes dammini as the main vectors of borrelia burgdorferi is substantial. furthermore, other members of the ixodes (ixodes) ricinus 'complex', including i. ricinus, i. persulcatus, i. pacificus, and i. scapularis, are competent vectors of the lyme disease spirochete. although ticks in other genera are also naturally infected with b. burgdorferi, experimental evidence suggests that amblyomma and dermacentor ticks are inefficient vectors of ...19892667921
epizootiology of lyme borreliosis.borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted from animals to humans by ticks belonging primarily to the ixodes ricinus complex. transmission occurs during feeding, either by salivation, regurgitation, or by both processes. two eurasian (ixodes ricinus and i. persulcatus) and three north american (i. dammini, i. scapularis and i. pacificus) species vector b. burgdorferi to humans. all ticks feed on three different host animals during their lives, and each species parasitizes a relatively large number of d ...19911947808
epizootiology of borrelia in ixodes tick vectors and reservoir hosts.four north american and two european species of ixodes ticks harbor borreliae. three of the north american species--ixodes dammini, ixodes scapularis, and ixodes pacificus--and two old world species--ixodes ricinus and ixodes persulcatus--feed on a wide range of hosts, including humans; the north american ixodes dentatus has a predilection for cottontail rabbits and rarely parasitizes humans. in lyme disease foci in north america where i. dammini is common, borrelia burgdorferi or similar types ...19892682957
[chronic borrelia disease of the central nervous system].a few years ago meningoradiculitis garin-bujadoux-bannwarth (bannwarth's syndrome) was discovered to be a neurological manifestation of lyme disease transmitted by tick-bites and caused by ixodes-ricinus-spirochaete (borrelia burgdorferi). not enough attention is given to the fact that more serious and chronic disease of the central nervous system may be entailed. two cases are reported in which detection of the borrelian-antibodies corroborated the diagnosis. after parenteral treatment with pen ...19873670517
[lyme borreliosis: should we prepare for an epidemic?].lyme borreliosis results from the persistent infection with a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the geographic distribution of these ticks depends on specific climatic and ecologic conditions. lyme borreliosis is a disease with protean manifestations whose distribution is world-wide. in north america, the disease usually begins between may and august with a characteristic rash, erythema chronicum migrans, accompanied by non specific or meningit ...19911866842
[survey during 4 years of the infestation level of the tick ixodes ricinus (acari ixodidae) by borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme borreliosis, in 2 forests in brittany].the authors followed, during 4 years consecutively, from 1987 to 1990, by immunofluorescence, the frequency of b. burgdorferi in an amount of 677 nymphs of i. ricinus tick, collected fasting by flagging in 2 forests in brittany (france). percentages obtained in each of these forests do not reveal significative differencies statistically and seem to show a relative stability, from one year to the following, during the considered period, of the infestation levels in ticks.19911807855
loss of lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on european determine whether blackbirds (turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of central europe, may contribute to the transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. european blackbirds experience intense exposure to ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. in nature, subadult i. ricinus ticks found feeding on ...19921740177
[lyme disease in switzerland: ocular involvement].lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by a tick (ixodes ricinus). lyme disease is divided into three stages (infection, dissemination and immunological reactions). ocular manifestations are rare except for conjunctivitis and facial nerve palsy. switzerland is an endemic zone for lyme disease; the presence of an atypical pars planitis should prompt a search for lyme disease.19921614153
stage-associated risk of transmission of the lyme disease spirochete by european ixodes more closely define the risk of infection by the agent of lyme disease in europe, we determined whether spirochetal prevalence increases throughout the development of the ixodes ricinus vector tick. of all ticks that could be flagged from vegetation, i. ricinus were by far the most abundant. spirochetal infection rates in the adult stage of this tick (15%) are no higher than those in nymphs (18%) but greatly exceed those in larvae (0.7%). this tick therefore appears to attain infection mainly ...19921480608
[survey of the infestation level of the ixodes ricinus tick by borrelia burgdorferi. complimentary report].in a recent report, we gave results of a 4 year consecutively survey (1987 to 1990) of the level of ixodes ricinus nymphs infested by borrelia burgdorferi in two forests of the western part of france. this brought us to conclude that there was a relative stability for this level in course of time. results of this survey kept on in 1991 oblige us to partly modify our conclusion, on account of an important dropping of the tick infection frequency in one of the two forests, this perhaps in connecti ...19921446183
borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes ricinus from habitats in denmark.a total of 2647 ticks of the genus ixodes was sampled by flagging the vegetation in thirty-one sites in eastern jutland, denmark. all ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus linnaeus. a total of 317 ticks (202 nymphs and 115 adults) from three different sites were examined for the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. by indirect fluorescent antibody staining; the frequency of infection varied from 7% to 22%. it is concluded that i. ricinus, known to be the most common tick in denmark, ...19921421487
[lyme disease: clinical and sero-epidemiological study of borrelia burgdorferi infections in belgium].lyme disease is a multi-systemic infection caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi: this bacterium, discovered in 1982 in the united states, is mainly transmitted by a tick bite, ixodes ricinus in europe. in belgium, a first seroepidemiological study of 3 years has revealed 190 patients and the whole spectrum of clinical pictures was observed, including the early stage of this infection in the skin (erythema chronicum migrans), neurological involvement and arthritis. the lyme borreliosis ...19902207461
demonstration of locally synthesized borrelia antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid.antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi develop slowly. low titers can be anamnestic. in order to prove the etiology of manifestations of erythema chronicum migrans disease of the nervous system like meningopolyneuritis garin-bujadoux-bannwarth or progressive borrelia encephalomyelitis we used the elisa to measure specific igg antibodies against ixodes ricinus borrelia per microgram igg in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. with the mentioned method we were able to demonstrate locally synthesized an ...19873591093
[meningoencephalomyelitis caused by borrelia burgdorferi: a case without epidemiologic history or chronic migratory erythema].a patient is reported with meningoencephalomyelitis with polyradiculitis caused by borrelia burgdorferi infection. neurological features developed without previously known tick bite nor the characteristic skin lesion, chronic migratory erythema (cme). the vector of the disease (the tick ixodes ricinus) exists in spain, but only one case of meningopolyradiculitis with cme has been reported in asturias. our case stresses that b. burgdorferi infection should be suspected in cases of meningoencephal ...19892601480
infectiousness for humans of ixodes ricinus containing borrelia burgdorferi.we studied the rate of transmission of borrelia burgdorferi from ticks (ixodes ricinus) to man under field conditions in a case control study. at a holiday camp in southern germany 384 ticks were removed from 272 persons. information on symptoms possibly related to borrelia infection were obtained by a questionnaire to be sent back six weeks after the tick bite. ticks were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy (ift) for borrelia and 49 (12.8%) were found positive. blood was obtained from 41 ...19873591103
[borrelia burgdorferi, clinical aspects, cultivation and identification of the pathogen in erythema migrans in berlin].among other manifestations, the following diseases caused by borrelia burgdorferi in europe are transmitted by ticks of the species ixodes ricinus: erythema migrans (em), lymphadenosis benigna cutis (lbc), lymphocytic meningo-radiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome), and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca). we report on a female patient, who developed em 10 days after a-tick bite in berlin. borrelia burgdorferi could be cultivated from a skin biopsy specimen taken from the periphery of the em. t ...19892678789
lyme borreliosis: ten years after discovery of the etiologic agent, borrelia burgdorferi.since the recovery of its causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, in 1981, lyme borreliosis has become the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the united states as well as in europe. its steadily increasing clinical spectrum now includes erythema migrans, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, lymphadenosis beniga cutis, arthritis, myocarditis, progressive meningoencephalitis, myositis, and various ocular and skin disorders. the true incidence of lyme borreliosis in the world is unknown. in the un ...19911917043
vector/host relationships of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.lyme borreliosis is now occurring on several continents where its causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained and transmitted by ticks of the "ixodes ricinus complex" namely i. dammini, i. pacificus, and possibly i. scapularis in north america, i. ricinus in europe, and i. persulcatus in asia. because all developmental stages of these ticks feed on a large variety of hosts including humans, the vector/host relationships of this spirochete is highly complex as indicated by the voluminous ...19892685930
seroepidemiological studies of borrelia burgdorferi infection in sheep in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in sheep was established. the assay was used in a seroepidemiological survey in which serum samples from 327 norwegian rams were screened for antibodies to b. burgdorferi. these rams were randomly chosen, clinically healthy animals from all parts of norway. they came both from areas where ixodes ricinus is common and from areas where the tick has not been found. the age of the animals varied from 0.5 to 7.5 years. sera f ...19921583130
[diagnosis of lyme borreliosis].lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease, caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by ticks, in our regions by the tick ixodes ricinus. the disease mainly affects skin, nervous system, joints and heart. lyme borreliosis develops in three stages, and the various clinical manifestations may assigned to the respective stages. as far as skin is concerned, in stage i typically appears erythema chronicum migrans, very often accompanied by flu-like symptoms; in stage iii, months ...19957610528
[diagnostic possibilities and limitations in lyme borreliosis].in switzerland 5-35% of ixodes ricinus ticks are infested with borrelia burgdorferi (b.b.). there is a high risk of transmission of this infectious agent from any tick bite and 4-5% of affected subjects subsequently contract evident lyme borreliosis. however, both tick bite and erythema chronicum migrans are unreliable diagnostic pointers as they are not usually found in the history of lyme borreliosis patients. similarly, an increased titer of antibodies against b.b. is not evidence of lyme bor ...19892692151
acquisition of borrelia burgdorferi by ixodes ricinus ticks fed on the european hedgehog, erinaceus europaeus l.a hedgehog, erinaceus europaeus, was found to be heavily infested with larval and nymphal ixodes ricinus in a forest park in co. galway, ireland. a large proportion of the ticks that engorged and detached were infected with the spirochaete, borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of human lyme borreliosis. the identity of these spirochaetes was confirmed by immunofluorescent assay with b. burgdorferi-specific monoclonal antibody and by polymerase chain reaction test and they were transmitted f ...19947628256
[the characterization of a spanish strain of borrelia burgdorferi].the characteristics of a spanish strain of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete which causes lyme's disease, and which, up to the present, has not been isolated in spain, are described.19921552756
borrelia transfer by ticks during their life cycle. studies on laboratory animals.ticks of the species ixodes ricinus were cultured in the laboratory. yellow silver rabbits, gerbils and white mice served as blood hosts. borrelia burgdorferi could be detected by means of an ifa test in homogenates of female ticks, their eggs as well as the respective larval and nymphal ticks. blood infection of splenectomized gerbils and ordinary white mice or of ordinary white mice alone has been demonstrated after feeding of larval or nymphal ticks on them, respectively. spirochetemia starte ...19863577489
prevalence of ticks in relation to their role as vector of borrelia burgdorferi under autochthone conditions.a total of 59 (78.7%) of 75 areas were found to be inhabitated by ticks; all the 4335 collected ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus. both nymphs and adults were found to be more active during the late spring and early summer months. ticks of 29 recreation areas were found to be carrying spirochaetes. considering the total number of 75 recreation areas examined and the total number of 59 areas inhabitated by ticks the percentage was 38.7 and 49.2 respectively. the positivity rate by dark fiel ...19957550446
characterization of finnish borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and with monoclonal antibodies.thirty-seven borrelia burgdorferi strains, isolated in 1992 from ixodes ricinus in finland, were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) with five to nine monoclonal antibodies (mabs). by sds-page results and reactivities to mabs h3ts, j 8.3, i 17.3, and d6, the 37 isolates were assigned to the species b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 7), borrelia afzelii (n = 17), or borrelia garinii ...19957559935
hosts on which nymphal ixodes ricinus most abundantly identify hosts that may serve as european reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, we determined whether nymphal ixodes ricinus feed mainly on particular mice (apodemus flavicollis or a. agrarius), voles (clethrionomys glareolus) or on sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the seasonal activity of the subadult stages of the vector tick. in all sites, the mice appeared most heavily infested by larvae; at least seven parasit ...19911996733
[lymphadenosis benigna cutis of the mammary areola: lyme borreliosis?].this lesion began two months after a tick bite on the left breast, occurring during a trip in karst (highland behind the city of trieste). this area represents an ecological shell for ixodes ricinus, hard tick often infested with borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiological agent of lyme disease. some days after tick-bite, the patient developed a typical ecm of the left breast; this lesion resolved in two months. shortly after, an erythematous, infiltrated nodule appeared on the left areola; ist size ...19892620924
[enlarged spectrum of tick transmitted spirochaetoses].after the successful identification of borrelia burgdorferi as the cause of lyme disease, a new tick-borne infection occurring in the united states, almost identical spirochaetes have been isolated from the tick ixodes ricinus in europe. as a result, the spirochaetal aetiology of skin diseases, which had long been recognized as tick-borne infections, namely erythema chronicum migrans with its neurological complications of the tick-borne meningopolyneuritis of garin-bujadoux-bannwarth, acrodermat ...19863804731
erythema chronicum migrans afzelius and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. early and late manifestations of ixodes ricinus-borne borrelia the present thesis consecutive patients, 231 with ecma, 41 with aca and 20 with facial palsy (bell's palsy), have been studied. it has been shown that spirochetes, transmitted by the tick ixodes ricinus, are involved in the etiology of ecma and aca. this has been shown through the isolation and cultivation of spirochetes from ticks and from the skin of patients with ecma and aca. the spirochetes have morphological characteristics similar to those of the genus borrelia. no antigenic difference ...19853901647
characterization of the first tick isolate of borrelia burgdorferi from italy.we report on the first isolation of a spirochetal organism from ixodes ricinus ticks of the trieste area (northern italy) which was identified as borrelia burgdorferi by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies directed against the ospa and flagella proteins.19892719854
[lyme disease in belgium: presence of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ricinus ticks recovered from the meuse river region]. 19892799146
emerging pattern of lyme disease in the united kingdom and irish the past year there have been 68 cases of lyme disease in the united kingdom and republic of ireland. 41 patients had erythema chronicum migrans, and 8 of them had associated neurological disease. 13 further patients presented with neurological disease without a preceding skin lesion. myocarditis was present in 1 patient. ixodes ricinus was confirmed as the vector for lyme disease. in two areas deer were found to be infected by borrelia burgdorferi, the causative organism of lyme disease. 86% ...19872880076
occurrence of borrelia spirochaetes in ticks (acari, ixodidae) collected in the forest areas in olsztyn province (north central poland).in 1993, 2178 out of 3816 ixodes ricinus and 45 out of 82 dermacentor reticulatus collected from vegetation at 35 sites and removed from hunter-killed deer in olsztyn province (n. c. poland) were examined individually for the presence of borrelia spirochaetes. detection of spirochaetes was carried out by the routine indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using polyclonal antibody anti-b. burgdorferi, strain 1 b 29. borreliae, presumably b. burgdorferi, were evident in 192 (11.5%) i. ricinus (ny ...19937580351
the first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from ixodes ricinus (acari, ixodidae) ticks in poland.among ticks ixodes ricinus collected in april 1994 in the forest near fraknowo (olsztyn province, n. c. poland), 17 ticks were evaluated for borrelia infection by cultivating in the bsk-h medium (sigma). the ticks were examined in five pools--four of 3 females and one pool of 5 nymphs. spirochaetes were cultured successfully only from one pool of females and identified as borrelia burgdorferi with monoclonal antibodies: h 9724, h 5332, h 3ts and 11 g 1 by indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). ...19937580352
[lyme borreliosis in south germany. epidemiologic data on the incidence of cases and on the epidemiology of ticks (ixodes ricinus) carrying borrelia burgdorferi].among 2403 ticks (ixodes ricinus) tested in 1985 for borrelia 328 (13.6%) were carriers (adults about 20%, nymphs about 10%, larvae about 1%). the highest prevalence of infected ticks was among adult ticks in the isar region north of munich (33.8%). among 9383 persons whose serum had been examined by fluorescence serology in 1985 and 1986, 1035 (11%) had raised borrelia-specific igg and/or igm antibodies greater than or equal to 1:64. in 18.7% only igm antibodies were demonstrated. among 375 pro ...19873678074
[borrelia burgdorferi infection of ticks in some regions of poland].ixodes ricinus and dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by flagging from the vegetation at five different locations in poland in may 1994. i. ricinus (n191) and d. reticulatus (n48), as well as 24 argas reflexus collected from katowice, kornie, szcyglice, urwitaƂt and zwierzyniec, were examined for the presence of borrelia spirochetes by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifa). borrelia were found in adult i. ricinus ticks at all 5 collection sites. nine out of 39 i. ricinus m ...19947597184
endotoxicity associated with the lyme disease borrelia: recent findings.the endotoxicity of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, a tick-borne spirochetosis, was studied using limulus assay and pyrogen test in rabbit. some suspensions of ixodes ricinus and ixodes dammini associated borrelia were able to gelify limulus lysate and demonstrated a febrile response in rabbit. these findings and other recent data demonstrating an endotoxin-like activity of the lyme disease agent are discussed in the context of the pathogenic mechanisms of the illness.19863713546
[disease (lyme disease) in pediatric patients in switzerland caused by spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) of ixodes ricinus].lyme disease in children is studied in the light of questionnaires sent out twice to departments and divisions of pediatrics in switzerland. thirty-six serologically proven cases were collected. the 48 clinical signs attributed to lyme disease involved the skin in 40%, the nervous system in 40%, and the joints in 20%. they were erythema chronicum migrans (13), lymphocytoma (4), acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (2), peripheral facial palsy (14), sensomotor radiculoneuritis (2), meningoencephal ...19863787225
genetic and phenotypic characterization of borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks in the province of bolzano, italy.lyme disease is caused by three borrelial species, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, b. garinii and borrelia group vs461. in a restricted biotope of the bolzano province, in the caldaro community, five clones of two borrelial variants were isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks. a preliminary serological study showed that the two variants cross-reacted with b. burgdorferi b31 and b. garinii n34 strains, respectively. the isolates were genomically related with strains b31 and n34, respectively, sharing a ...19957603344
amplifying role of edible dormice in lyme disease transmission in central determine whether the presence of edible dormice (glis glis) amplifies the risk of human infection by the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), the capacity of dormice as reservoir hosts was compared with that of other potential reservoirs in a central european site where risk of human infection is intense. dormice appeared to be more heavily infested by subadult vector wood ticks (ixodes ricinus) than were other reservoir hosts. although their spirochete competence was similar to o ...19948014486
[borrelia burgdorferi from ixodes ricinus ticks on ameland].ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the north sea island of ameland, the netherlands, were screened for the presence of borrelia spirochaetes. the present authors used ifat on tick gut preparations and identified borrelia in 31 per cent of the adult ticks and 16 per cent of the nymphs collected from the dunes and 45 per cent of the nymphs collected from the forests. in vitro cultivation of borrelia sp. isolated from the adult ticks and its subsequent recognition by b. burgdorferi-specific monocl ...19892688191
tick-borne borrelia infection in sweden.spirochetes were cultivated from 17% of 114 ixodes ricinus ticks in the stockholm area. three strains of these spirochetes were selected for studies by electron microscopy. these three strains had definite morphological similarities to spirochetes of the genus borrelia, as judged by the number of flagella, absence of cytoplasmic tubules, and dimensions. the three strains were not identical, but seemed to consist of two different kinds of cells, one with eight and one with eleven flagella. the th ...19853903977
[erythema migrans borreliosis in the federal republic of germany. epidemiology and clinical aspects].a positive antibody titre against ixodes-ricinus-borrelia (burgdorferi), using indirect immunofluorescence or elisa, could be detected in serum and (or) liquor of 935 (32%) out of a total of 2955 patients between january 1984 and july 1985. in 289 of these cases the typical clinical manifestations were lacking whereas a characteristic disease picture enabled a diagnosis to be made in 171 patients with negative or borderline antibody titres. the 1106 cases of infection observed covered all region ...19853905325
first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme borreliosis, from ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) in berlin (west).in 1984, two human cases of tick-borne lyme borreliosis with considerable neurologic involvement were reported in berlin (west). the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis was serologically confirmed. the ticks which had transmitted the borrelia were from berlin (west). in the autumn of 1985, 156 ticks were collected in forests of berlin (west) for the cultural detection of spirochetes by using bsk ii medium. three strains of spirochetes were isolated (from a pooled sample of two nymphs, and samples of o ...19883213319
[natural epidemiology of lyme borreliosis with reference to clustered incidence of illnesses in the suburbs of a north baden community].human infection with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, is unusually common in the "scheelkopf" area of the town bruchsal in north baden (germany), a situation which has led to considerable publicity and public concern. this study was carried out in order to clarify this situation by determining the prevalence of b. burgdorferi in both the free-living tick populations (ixodes ricinus) and the rodent population from the "scheelkopf" as well as from surrounding control area ...19957549249
the spatial distribution of borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes ricinus in the connemara region of county galway, ireland.studies were carried out in the connemara area of county galway in the west of ireland in order to determine the abundance and distribution of the tick, ixodes ricinus and the prevalence of its infection with borrelia burgdorferi. the tick was very abundant locally, in particular when associated with cattle, sheep and enclosed red deer. large numbers of ticks not only occurred on the pastures, but also on adjacent roadside verges. no infections with b. burgdorferi could be demonstrated when nymp ...19957634971
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from two different foci in spain.the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in several tick species was studied over a 2 year period in two ecologically different areas in spain. one area was an endemic area for lyme disease, with a number of autochthonous human cases and supported large populations of ixodes ricinus on cattle and birds; the second area was characterized by the absence of i. ricinus together with the presence of foxes and their associated tick species. while i. ricinus was the main vector of b. burgdorer ...19957634972
[temporal distribution of ticks (acarina: ixodidae) in "macchia grande" park in manziana in the province of rome].temporal distribution of tick species was studied in the woodland "macchia grande" of manziana in the province of rome, italy. a total of 2,494 ticks was collected by means of drag sampling during one year of survey (1993). among the species identified, ixodes ricinus (linnaeus, 1758) (95.9%) was the most abundant, followed by haemaphysalis inermis (birula, 1895) (2.2%), rhipicephalus bursa (canestrini e fanzago, 1877) (1.8%), dermacentor marginatus sulzer, 1776) (0.1%). i. ricinus was present d ...19947638000
strain variation of lyme disease spirochetes isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents collected in two endemic areas in switzerland.the relationship among lyme borreliosis, borrelia genospecies, rodent reservoirs, and ixodes ricinus l. ticks was studied in two endemic areas in switzerland. ear punch biopsies and sampling of internal organs were used to isolate borrelia burgdorferi (johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt and brenner) from small mammals, apodemus sylvaticus l., a. flavicollis melchoir, clethrionomys glareolus schreber. spirochetes were isolated from ear tissue and spleen of the rodents. isolates were homogeneous a ...19957650703
expression of outer surface proteins a and c of borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ricinus.a total of 472 field-collected ixodes ricinus ticks from southern germany were investigated by immunofluorescence for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi with a polyvalent rabbit immune serum and with monoclonal antibodies specific for outer surface proteins a and c (ospa and ospc, respectively). borreliae were detected in 90 ticks with the polyvalent immunofluorescence assay. infection rates in adults (females, 20.2%; males, 25.2%) were significantly higher than in nymphs (12.1%). ospa was det ...19957665661
[incidence of lyme borreliosis in mecklenburg-vorpommern].in 1992/93 6202 ticks (ixodes ricinus) were tested in mecklenburg-vorpommern for borrelia burgdorferi via dark-field microscopy. the prevalence of infected ticks was 7.8%. the sera of 1182 forest workers in mecklenburg-vorpommern were tested for antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi. in 31.4% antibodies to b. burgdorferi were found in the sera of forest workers.19957888719
genotypic and phenotypic analysis of borrelia burgdorferi isolates from the netherlands.sixty-three borrelia burgdorferi isolates recovered from ixodes ricinus ticks collected in 17 locations in the netherlands and three dutch human skin isolates were characterized by rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and western blotting (immunoblotting). all three human isolates belonged to b. burgdorferi group vs461. of the tick isolates, 29 (46%) were b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, 2 (3%) were group vs461, 19 (30%) were ...19957699027
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in selected tick populations in finland.the purpose of the studies was to determine the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in selected populations of ixodes ricinus in finland and to secure strains of the spirochete for further characterization. 1,210 ixodes ricinus ticks (399 females, 419 males and 392 nymphs) were collected during june to august 1992 by flagging from 8 sites in 3 regions. the frequency of b. burgdorferi infection was determined by isolation in bsk ii medium. the species identity of most of the isolates wa ...19947939436
borreliae in larval ixodes ricinus ticks. 19957787231
evaluation of host-targeted applications of permethrin for control of borrelia-infected ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae). 19957787232
clethrionomys glareolus, but not apodemus flavicollis, acquires resistance to ixodes ricinus l., the main european vector of borrelia burgdorferi.the european rodents clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) and apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked-mouse) are important hosts of the tick species ixodes ricinus, the main european vector of borrelia burgdorferi. we have addressed the question whether or not these tick hosts develop resistance to i. ricinus larvae. c. glareolus and a. flavicollis were exposed to 40 i. ricinus larvae for five consecutive times at two week intervals. resistance was tested by the following parameters: percentage of ti ...19957624158
infection rates of borrelia burgdorferi in different instars of ixodes ricinus ticks from the dutch north sea island of ameland.between 1988 and 1993, a total of 7173 i. ricinus ticks, predominantly, were collected from the vegetation on the dutch north sea island of ameland. a proportion of the ticks (n = 547) was screened for the presence of borrelia by immunofluorescence. infection rates of borrelia varied, in nymphs (n = 347) from 13% to 46% and in adults, (n = 122) from 20% to 43%. the infection rate in larvae (n = 84) collected in 1993 was 21%, showing that transovarial transmission of b. burgdorferi occurs in the ...19947628258
transmission of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of lyme borreliosis, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), in sweden.factors regulating prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in ixodes ricinus (l.) were examined during 1991-1992 at bogesund, near stockholm in south-central sweden. nine species of small and medium-sized mammals (sorex araneus l., s. minutus l., neomys fodiens pennant, clethrionomys glareolus [schreber], microtus agrestis [l.], apodemus sylvaticus [l.], a. flavicollis [melchior], lepus europaeus pallas, l. timidus l.) were found to infect feeding tic ...19947815401
first isolations of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents collected in northern europe.spirochetes were found in 13% of ixodes ricinus collected from an island, near stockholm where human borreliosis is endemic. borrelia burgdorferi was cultivated from the kidney and/or spleen of wild rodents (clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis) from the same island. spirochetes were identified as borrelia burgdorferi by indirect immunofluorescence assays using species and genus specific monoclonal antibodies. in these tests the spirochetes could not be differentiated from strains pr ...19883190915
comparison of dark-field microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for detection of borrelia burgdorferi in field-collected ixodes ricinus a study based on 100 field-collected female ixodes (i.) ricinus ticks from the surroundings of giessen, dark-field microscopy (dfm), culture, and pcr were compared as procedures for detecting lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ticks. by dfm, 16 ticks were found to be infected with spirochetes. from the midgut of 18 ticks (including 14 microscopically positive specimens), spirochetes were cultured in bsk ii medium and in bsk ii medium supplemented with either co-trimoxazole (500 micrograms/ml) or ...19947858345
[risk of contamination by borrelia burgdorferi s. lato in a forest environment. survey during 13 months of abundance of the tick ixodes ricinus and its level of infestation by the lyme borreliosis agent in brittany].the authors, in a forest in brittany previously studied for several years, caught by flagging, each month from april 1992 to may 1993, nymphs of i. ricinus tick, and looked by indirect immunofluorescence, for b. burgdorferi infestation. an amount of 1,506 ticks was thus studied. infestation frequency was varying from 0 per cent in january and february to 14.4 per cent in august. standarding of tick collecting method allowed to establish, for each month, a tick, "availability" index, and, accordi ...19957787457
discovery of the lyme disease spirochete and its relation to tick vectors.the various hypotheses concerning the etiologic agent of erythema chronicum migrans of europe and of lyme disease in the united states are reviewed, and an account of events that led to the discovery of the causative spirochetal agent in ixodes dammini is presented. spirochetes morphologically and antigenically similar, if not identical to, the organism detected in i. dammini were also found for the first time in ixodes pacificus and ixodes ricinus, the vectors hitherto incriminated, respectivel ...19846516454
[incidence of borrelia burgdorferi in scale ticks ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) in the brandenburg district]. 19948147027
[faunistic-ecological studies of ixodes ricinus in the urban area of leipzig].the urban-ecological rule of decrease of the population size from the environs to the town centre is established also for ixodes ricinus. the manifold impairments are shown which urban influences have on the cycle of the parasite, especially in the transitional zone between the forest area and the totally sealed ground. the presentation of an urban gradient is tried for the first time. there is potential danger of infection with borrelia burgdorferi deep into the conurbation.19938220577
borrelia burgdorferi in rodents (apodemus flavicollis and a. sylvaticus): duration and enhancement of infectivity for ixodes ricinus ticks.ixodes ricinus is an important vector of borrelia burgdorferi in europe, and small rodents (apodemus flavicollis, a. sylvaticus and clethrionomys glareolus) are important sources for infecting ticks. in this study, we examined their reservoir role by studying the duration of their infectivity for ticks. a. flavicollis and a. sylvaticus mice captured in nature were exposed to uninfected i. ricinus larvae at different times after their capture: 10 days, and 2, 7, 11, 14 and 40 months. ticks were e ...19947957795
differential immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi in european wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus l. (acari: ixodidae).immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi and their influence on spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus were analyzed in the natural european reservoir hosts; i.e., the mouse species apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked mouse) and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse) and the vole species clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole), and, in addition, in the laboratory mouse strain nmri. naive and preimmunized rodents were infected either by artificially infected i. ricinus larvae or by intradermal injection ...19947960113
problems of isolating borrelia burgdorferi from ticks collected in united kingdom foci of lyme disease.many isolates of borrelia burgdorferi have been obtained from ticks and vertebrate tissues collected in north america and continental europe but only one established culture of united kingdom borrelia burgdorferi has been recorded. in this paper we report the isolation of b. burgdorferi from one of 108 tick pools representing 733 ticks and eight-four tissue samples from twenty-six rodents collected in the u.k, and the subsequent failure to establish the isolate (from ticks collected in fordingbr ...19948025327
immunization of mice by recombinant ospa preparations and protection against borrelia burgdorferi infection induced by ixodes ricinus tick bites.the wide distribution of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete causing lyme borreliosis, represents a human health hazard in many areas of the world. vaccination has been proposed as an effective prevention strategy. vaccination experiments were conducted with preparations of recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) derived from borrelia burgdorferi strain zs7. mice received three doses (1 microgram each) of the antigens adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. a strong immune response to the vaccine an ...19948034340
advances in investigations of lyme borreliosis in the territory of the former ussr.whereas late manifestations of lyme borreliosis were described in russia more than 100 years ago, early manifestations were described as different disease entities such as tick-borne erythema, etc. in 1985 lyme borreliosis was first verified serologically and the agent was first identified in 1986. by the beginning of 1992 lyme borreliosis was serologically confirmed in patients from the baltics to the far east. their geographical patterns in russia are closely related to areas of the hard ticks ...19938472805
diversionary role of hoofed game in the transmission of lyme disease determine whether the presence of ungulates may inhibit transmission of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) while promoting the abundance of its european vector tick (ixodes ricinus), we compared the feeding density of subadult ticks on roe deer (capreolus capreolus), red deer (cervus elaphus), fallow deer (dama dama), and wild sheep (ovis ammon) near berlin and in brandenburg state, germany. the prevalence of spirochetal infection in these ticks was compared with that in ticks s ...19938517488
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from different organs of ixodes ricinus ticks collected in nature.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from 22 out of 133 adult ixodes ricinus ticks collected from vegetation at two sites in switzerland. from 17 ticks, spirochetes could be isolated from more than one organ. when the different isolates obtained from one tick were compared by sds-page analysis, differences in the protein profiles were observed in 8 cases. the isolates were further compared by immunological methods using mono- and polyclonal antibodies. differences were observed in the proteins of 3 ...19948061407
occurrence of different genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodid ticks of valais, switzerland.a total of 825 adult ticks (727 ixodes ricinus, 72 dermacentor marginatus and 26 haemaphysalis punctata) was collected from vegetation in valais (switzerland) in 1987 to 1992. they were examined for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis. b. burgdorferi sensu lato was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay, dark field microscopy and/or culture in 221 out of 727 i. ricinus (30.4%) and none in the other two species. from these 221 infected t ...19958549716
[the ecology index, an epidemiologic marker of foci of lyme borreliosis].the ecological index (ei) as defined by schulze et al. was determined in three localities of western slovakia (malacky, podunajské biskupice, olichov) using the following criteria: suitability of the habitats for the occurrence of ixodes ricinus ticks and their number, accessibility of habitat for men (i. phase); furthermore the abundance and infection rate of ticks (ii. phase). a scoring procedure (point values of 1-5 for each parameter) was used to evaluate the ei of three localities studied. ...19938306400
ixodes ricinus immatures on birds in a focus of lyme borreliosis.the infestation of birds by immature ixodes ricinus was studied during 6 months in a swiss woodland, where lyme borreliosis is endemic. thirteen passerine species were found to be parasitized by i. ricinus subadults and specially turdus merula, t. philomelos and erithacus rubecula. overall, 300 larvae and 162 nymphs were collected on 95 avian hosts. prevalence of infestation of nymphs on birds was higher in spring; larvae peaked in summer. the infection of birds by borrelia burgdorferi was also ...19938314179
[variations in the occurrence of borrelia in the tick, ixodes ricinus (l.) in the olomouc district].examinations of 1,998 ticks ixodes ricinus in the district of olomouc revealed 182 cases of borrelia, i.e. in 9.1% ticks. prevalence in males is 10.7%, in females 12.8% and in nymphs 7.0%. a certain coincidence was observed between mosquito incidence, in particular during the first half of the year, and borrelia prevalence in ticks in the course of the following year, with prevalence variations manifested in tick imagos only. a hypothesis is formulated that mosquitos feeding on larger animals, w ...19948168165
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