[survey on tick vectors of lyme disease spirochetes in china].since 1987 we have been studying on lyme disease in china. there were 71 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi recovered from six species of ticks including ixodes persulcatus, ixodes granulatus, ixodes rangtangensis, haemaphysalis concinna. haemaphysalis bispinosa and haemaphysalis longicornis, and 55 isolates from ixodes persulcatus collected from heilongjiang, jilin, liaoning, nei-monggol, hebei and xinjiang region (province). ixodes persulcarus is the dominant species accounted for more than 80% ...19921300244
[the modification of a medium for culturing and isolating the causative agent of lyme disease].possible use of three types of media (prepared on the basis of 199, rpmi and mem, the rest of receipt being recommended for bsk-ii) for cultivation of the agent of lyme's disease is reviewed. the most satisfactory borrelia burgdorferi growth has been noted on the medium with base 199. using the same medium 5 spirochaete isolates have been obtained from 10 passages of the material from 41 ticks, ixodes persulcatus sch. and i. ricinus l. the results seem promising for further studies on the elabor ...19911770889
epidemiological and aetiological evidence for transmission of lyme disease by adult ixodes persulcatus in an endemic area in china.involvement of adult ixodes persulcatus ticks in the transmission of lyme disease in hailin county, heilongjiang province, china, is reported. in 1986 from april through august adult i. persulcatus was the dominant tick in this endemic area with an infection rate of 43% for the lyme disease spirochaete, borrelia burgdorferi. the incidence of lyme disease cases presenting the symptom of erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) within this area was correlated with the seasonal abundance of adult i. persul ...19902083990
[the infectiousness of ixodes persulcatus ticks with the causative agents of lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis simultaneously].by means of individual bacteriological and virological investigations of adult ixodes persulcatus ticks and comparison of obtained results there has been established their simultaneous spontaneous infection with agents of lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. a possible frequency of such mixed infection in these vectors is being discussed.19902367143
[investigation of lyme disease in northeast of china].in 1987-1988, we conducted investigation of lyme disease in northeast of china. the disease was widespread in the forest areas of heilonjiang and jilin provinces where ixodes persulcatus population thrives. the disease occurred at daqing tree farm where 628 people were inquired and examined among them, 37 cases including 23 cases of ecm, 6 cases of neurological abnormalities, 7 cases of arthritis and 1 case of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans were confirmed being lyme disease. the sera of pat ...19892611866
clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of lyme disease in hailin county, heilongjiang province, china.clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of lyme disease in hailin county, heilongjiang province, china have been reported. the clinical picture of erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) is variable. ecm in the form of annular erythematous patch is uncommon. it is an extensive and indurated lesion. in some instances, a vesicle or necrosis appears in the center of the lesion. secondary erythema may present in some patients. the neurologic abnormalities consist of meningitis, facial p ...19883190101
preliminary observations on ultrastructure of borreliae in tissues of ixodes persulcatus.we observed lyme borrelia by electron microscopy in the tissues of the ticks, ixodes persulcatus, which were indicated positive for borreliae by bsk cultures of their internal organs. borreliae (0.25 micron in diameter) were found only in the lumen of the midgut. they were closely associated with the microvilli on the midgut epithelium but never penetrated into the epithelial cells. ultrastructural features common to lyme borreliae., i.e., the three-layered membranes surrounding the cytoplasm an ...19938295569
[ultrastructural characteristics of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) isolated from ixodes persulcatus in china].this paper analyzed morphological characteristics of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi), isolated from ixodes persulcatus from different areas of china, with scanning and transmissive electron microscopies. cells of 8 strains were 8.4-36.0 microns long and 0.12-0.35 micron wide. there were 1-9 left-handed spires with wavelength of 1.09-4.30 microns and amplitude of 0.38-2.10 microns. ends of the cells were pointed or spindle. 7, 8 or 9 flagella were inserted subterminally at each en ...19938236953
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi specific antibody among patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in korea.lyme disease, a multi-systemic infection occurring worldwide, has yet to be reported in korea, although the spirochete b. burgdorferi, known as the causative organism of the disease, has recently been isolated from the vector tick ixodes persulcatus in the region. to contribute to revealing whether lyme disease exists in korea or not, b. burgdorferi specific antibodies (igg, igm, and/or iga) were measured by three individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) utilizing different antigens ...19938179828
protective activity of antisera against isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from various geographical origins.antisera from rabbits immunized with two japanese strains of borrelia burgdorferi, hp3 an isolate from ixodes persulcatus and ho14 an isolate from i. ovatus, or the european strain p/bi isolated from human cerebrospinal fluid (csf) did not passively protect hamsters from challenge with the infectious strain 297, a north american isolate from patient csf. antisera to strains 297 and b31, a north american isolate from i. dammini, however, provided protective effect to challenge with strain 297. im ...19938474362
[the characteristics of the distribution of the causative agent of lyme disease and of the behavior of infected ticks of the genus ixodes].it is demonstrated that in the regions, where ixodes persulcatus and i. ricinus are sympatric, the incidence and prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi among the latter tick species is higher. in areas, where the ixodes persulcatus population infected with borrelia were met, the percent of infected i. ricinus was 3-4 times more and the number of detection of borrelia-infected specimens was 9 times higher than in the regions, where i. persulcatus was absent. the hypothesis is proposed, that the tick ...19938152845
prevalence of lyme borrelia in ticks, especially ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae), in central and western japan.prevalence of lyme borrelia in unfed ticks was surveyed in central and western japan during spring from 1991 to 1993. the tick fauna was diverse; ticks obtained consisted of four genera and more than 12 identified species, and both southern and northern species coexist with altitudinal separation. midguts of ticks were cultured in bsk medium for spirochetal isolation. borrelia-positive rates for adults of both a common species, ixodes ovatus neumann, and a northern species, ixodes persulcatus sc ...19948057323
susceptibility of ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus (acari: ixodidae) to lyme disease spirochetes isolated from humans in japan.susceptibility of ixodes persulcatus schulze and ixodes ovatus neumann to lyme disease spirochetes isolated from humans was studied under laboratory conditions. six isolates (jem3, jem4, jem5, jem6, jem7, and jem8) from patients in japan were used for the study. mongolian jirds were inoculated intraperitoneally with each of the isolates. larval ticks of either i. persulcatus or i. ovatus were allowed to feed on the jirds and reared for development into nymphs. in all human isolates examined, the ...19948057322
canine lyme disease: clinical and serological evaluations in 21 dogs in japan.of 21 dogs from sapporo, hokkaido that had been recognised as having been bitten by ticks, 16 were seropositive to borrelia burgdorferi by elisa. thirteen of the seropositive dogs showed signs such as fever, astasia, convulsions, anorexia, fatigue, abnormal gait, nervous signs, diarrhoea, corneal opacity and conjunctivitis. these signs subsided as a result of antibiotic treatment within five days. the plasma concentrations of creatinine in the 21 dogs were higher than in control dogs. seven tick ...19948009799
exchange of borrelia burgdorferi between ixodes persulcatus (ixodidae:acarina) sexual partners.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection rate in ixodes persulcatus schulze maintained at different relative humidity gradients in male and females pairs, separated by sex, and in ticks of both sexes having either normal or abnormal exoskeleton were compared. ticks were collected in the st. petersburg region of russia during 1992 and 1994. we observed that the infection rate among the ticks maintained as sexual pairs was 1.75-2.00 times higher than that among ticks maintained singles, indicatin ...19968667380
[the preliminary results of an ecological epidemiological study of lyme disease in western siberia].studies of ixodes persulcatus ticks in omsk, kurgan, and novosibirsk regions revealed natural foci of lyme's disease. vector infection rate varied from 21 to 23.5% in the omsk region, from 30 to 52.9% in the kurgan region, and from 15 to 58.3% in the novosibirsk region. serologic screening of inpatients hospitalized during the epidemic season of 1991 with suspected tick-borne encephalitis and lyme's disease confirmed the latter condition in 10.8% of the examinees in the omsk and in 10% in the ku ...19937968805
refeeding activity of immature ticks of ixodes persulcatus and transmission of lyme disease spirochete by partially fed larvae.the refeeding activity of immature ticks of ixodes persulcatus was studied under laboratory conditions. balb/c mice were used as blood sources. feeding larvae and nymphs spontaneously detached themselves from parasitized mice when the mice were killed 1 or 2 days after tick exposure. partially fed ticks were reexposed on other mice. both larvae and nymphs were able to refeed on mice. the resultant engorged ticks normally molted to the next developmental stages. we also examined the transmission ...19968691387
lyme disease spirochetes in japan: enzootic transmission cycles in birds, rodents, and ixodes persulcatus ticks.the ixodid tick, ixodes persulcatus, serves as a vector of borrelia species associated with lyme disease in hokkaido, japan. the migratory birds of genera emberiza and turdus and the woodland rodents of genera apodemus and clethrionomys are the wildlife reservoirs. to systemize the enzootic transmission cycles, borreliae isolates were classified by ribosomal rna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. most (> 60%) isolates from the bird-feeding i. persulcatus larvae belong ...19947930730
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in an endemic environment: wild sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) with infected ticks and antibodies.ticks and blood samples were collected from wild sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) during a hunting season (august to october) of 1991 at a selected location in hokkaido, japan. ixodes persulcatus (adult and nymph) and i. ovatus (adult) were the common ticks on sika deer. spirochetes were detected in the midgut of the ticks by the indirect peroxidase-conjugated antibody staining method and by dark-field microscopy after cultivation. by the reactive pattern of monoclonal antibodies, isolates we ...19968871523
polymerase chain reaction analysis of borrelia species isolated in japan.primer reactivities of 25 borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from the ticks, ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus, in japan and 10 isolates in europe and north america were investigated. the methods used in this study were the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) on the flagellin structural gene (fla), the outer surface protein a gene (osp a) and the outer surface protein b gene (osp b), and the restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of pcr products from osp a and osp b. the flage ...19947799831
identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in korea using outer surface protein a (ospa) serotyping system.two characteristic strains (935t, 934u) of b. burgdorferi isolated from ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (apodemus agrarius) in korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein a (ospa). the reactive pattern of strain 934u with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to b. afzelii and that of strain 935t was different from other isolates. monoclonal antibody (5tee3) ...19947723693
genetic and phenotypic analysis of borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov., isolated from the ixodid tick ixodes persulcatus, the vector for lyme disease in japan.the ixodid tick ixodes persulcatus is the most important vector of lyme disease in japan. most spirochete isolates obtained from i. persulcatus ticks have been classified as borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato because of their genetic, biological, and immunological characteristics. however, we found that a small number of isolates obtained from i. persulcatus contained a smaller 38-kda endoflagellar protein and single 23s-5s rrna gene unit. representative isolate ht31t (t = type strain) had the same ...19957547303
transmission of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia garinii, between infected and uninfected immature ixodes persulcatus during cofeeding on mice.the ixodid tick, ixodes persulcatus, serves as a vector for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia garinii, in japan. transmission of the spirochete from infected nymphs to uninfected larvae during their cofeeding on mice was studied under laboratory conditions. using feeding chambers, infected nymphs and uninfected larvae were allowed to cofeed on heads of normal balb/c mice. in another group of mice, we separately exposed nymphs to the head and larvae to the back. the resultant engorged larvae ...19979194849
[the tick ixodes persulcatus schulze--a new vector of borrelia burgdorferi]. 19873446473
[transmission of borrelia burgdorferi from nymphs to imago in the tick ixodes persulcatus schulze]. 19883229314
[identification of borrelia isolated in the ussr from ixodes persulcatus schulze ticks].the data on the identification of 7 spirochetal isolates from ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in leningrad province and the khabarovsk territory are presented. these isolates, studied with the use of monoclonal antibodies, have been shown to belong to borrelia burgdorferi.19883072807
epizootiology of borrelia in ixodes tick vectors and reservoir hosts.four north american and two european species of ixodes ticks harbor borreliae. three of the north american species--ixodes dammini, ixodes scapularis, and ixodes pacificus--and two old world species--ixodes ricinus and ixodes persulcatus--feed on a wide range of hosts, including humans; the north american ixodes dentatus has a predilection for cottontail rabbits and rarely parasitizes humans. in lyme disease foci in north america where i. dammini is common, borrelia burgdorferi or similar types ...19892682957
detection of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in patients with uveitis.we determined the antibody response against borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from japanese ixodes ovatus and ixodes persulcatus ticks by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay of serum specimens from 127 patients with uveitis. we examined samples of serum from japanese patients with unclassified uveitis, iridocyclitis caused by herpes zoster virus, behçet's disease, vogt-koyanagi-harada syndrome, sarcoidosis, or other conditions (sympathetic ophthalmia, posn ...19911882917
[isolation and characteristics of borrelia burgdorferi from ixodes persulcatus].we reported the detailed characteristics of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi), strain h7, isolated from ixodes persulcatus in heilongjiang. cells of strain h7 were 9.8--26.5 microns long and 0.13--0.35 microns wide. there were 1--11 waves with a wavelength of 1.2--3.0 microns and an amplitude of 0.59--1.13 microns. direction of spires was left. seven flagella were inserted subterminally at each end of the cell and ends were pointed. 31 degrees c was the optimum cultural temperature ...19911866942
[geographic distribution of lyme disease in mudanjiang].four forestry plant in mudanjiang with different geographic characteristics were investigated in 1989. 2178 people were inquired and examined. 74 cases including 54 of ecm, 12 of nervous system disorder and 8 of arthritis were confirmed as lyme disease. there were some patients at other places of forest areas of mudanjiang. the prevalence rate of lyme disease ranged from 1% to 4.5% at four plants with higher rate in mountainous area than in hilly land. it is first report that one strain of lyme ...19911863948
lyme disease spirochetes in ticks from northeastern china.during may 1996, field surveys on lyme disease spirochetes were conducted in beijing, shenyang, fushun, and inner mongolia in northeastern china. the ticks collected consisted of 3 genera and 12 species. of these, ixodes persulcatus was dominant in sun-exposed vegetation in forests in inner mongolia; 57 borrelia strains (55/123 unfed adults and 2/5 immature stages fed on a rodent) were obtained from this tick by bsk culture. additionally, 2/2 apodemus peninsulae were positive. ixodes nipponensis ...19989645846
antigenic properties of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes ovatus and ixodes persulcatus in hokkaido, japan.spirochete strains hp3 and ho14, isolated from ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus in hokkaido in 1989, were the first isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, to be recognized in japan. antigenic properties of the japanese strains were compared with those of the strains isolated in the united states (b31 and 297) and europe (irs, p/gau, p/bi, 2/b45, and 3/b56) by western blotting (immunoblotting), by using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against strains b31 and p/bi. t ...19911761676
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in russia and neighbouring countries: high incidence of mixed isolates.a total of 365 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from 12 major administrative territories of russia (from st. petersburg in the west to south sakhalin in the east) and from the czech republic, estonia, lithuania, byelorussia, moldavia, ukraine and kirghizia were identified by analysis of restriction polymorphism of ribosomal rrf-rrl spacer amplicons. the isolates were obtained mainly from ixodes persulcatus and i. ricinus ticks. other sources included small mammals, human patients and ...19979765854
[studies on epidemiology and etiology of lyme disease in china].from 1987 to 1996, an investigation and study on lyme disease was conducted in sixty counties and districts of twenty-two provinces (autonomous region, municipality). seroepidemiological findings indicated that some residents from forest areas of twenty-two provinces had a high antibody titer for borrelia burgdorferi with positive rate 5.06% (1724/34104). endemic foci of lyme disease were discovered in seventeen provinces by etiological evidence. typical cases of lyme disease were diagnosed in e ...19979812472
dna analysis of borrelia burgdorferi nch-1, the first northcentral u.s. human lyme disease isolate.the dna of the first northcentral united states human lyme disease isolate, borrellia burgdorferi nch-1, was characterized and compared with the dnas of nine other b. burgdorferi isolates. strain nch-1 was isolated in august 1989 from a human skin biopsy specimen. dna was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. contour-clamped homogeneous electric field pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed cells was performed to compare the plasmid profile ...19921551988
prevalence of lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ixodid ticks of japan, with special reference to a new potential vector, ixodes ovatus (acari: ixodidae).to determine the vectors of lyme borreliosis in japan, the ixodid ticks taken in hokkaido, fukushima, nagano, ehime, and kochi prefectures were examined individually for spirochetal infections by culturing their midgut tissues in bsk medium. the cultivable spirochetes identified as borrelia burgdorferi were detected in ixodes persulcatus schulze adults (15.5% of 634), nymph (6.7% of 15) and ixodes ovatus neumann adult (9.6% of 188) from hokkaido, i. ovatus adults (25.5% of 47) from fukushima, an ...19921495032
comparison of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from humans and ixodid ticks in hokkaido, japan.four spirochetal isolates (jem1 to jem4) were obtained from cutaneous lesions of patients manifesting erythema chronicum migrans in hokkaido, japan. in the protein profiles by sds-page and the reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (h5332 and h9724) by immunoblotting, all the human isolates were identical with the tick isolates from ixodes persulcatus. these data indicate that i. persulcatus is an important vector of lyme disease for humans in japan.19921283437
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes persulcatus and ixodes ovatus ticks in japan.the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the adult stage of the ixodid ticks ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus collected in various localities in japan. the total prevalence values were 16.6% of 777 i. persulcatus and 23.6% of 687 i. ovatus. sixty-two (63.9%) of 97 isolates from i. persulcatus contained the 30-34-kd heterogeneous outer surface protein a (ospa) that reacted with monoclonal antibody h5332. in contrast, all 128 isolates from i. ovatus were homogeneous with re ...19921279996
[transovarial and transphasic transmissions of borrelia by the taiga tick ixodes persulcatus (ixodidae)].three generations of the taiga tick ixodes persulcatus, the descendants from naturally infected females, have been examined by means of dark field and phase contrast microscopies and indirect immunofluorescent reactions with monoclonal antibodies. location of borreliae in oocytes was examined by means of electron microscopy. the examined ticks derived from 9 females collected in the novgorod province, from 6 females of 1st laboratory generation and 5 females of the 2nd generation. in total, 250 ...199810188171
[investigation on primary vectors of borrelia burgdorferi in china].from 1987 to 1997, primary vectors of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (b.b.s.l.) were investigated in china. a total number of 17,000 ticks collected from 20 provinces, city and autonomous region were classified, including 2 families 8 genus 23 species. there were 108 isolates of b.b.s.l. discovered from 8 species of ticks, including ixodes persulcatus, i. granulatus, i. acutitarsus, haemaphysalis concinna, h. longicornis, h. bispinosis, h. cornigera taiwana and dermacentor silvarum. ixodes pers ...199810322682
mixed infection by tick-borne encephalitis virus and borrelia in investigate the relationships between tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus and the bacterial spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in vectors with mixed infections, unfed adult ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected by flagging from vegetation in southern-taiga forests of the pre-urals region of russia where both infections circulate sympatrically. prevalences of tbe and borrelia infections in a total of 4234 ticks were compared over 5 years. no significant differences were revealed bet ...199910484167
investigation of lyme disease in xinjiang.from april through july 1988, an epidemiological investigation on lyme disease was carried out in nalati xanyuan, xinjiang uygur autonomous region, china. of 150 ixodes persulcatus ticks examined by darkfield microscopy, 42 (28%) were found to have spirochetes. two strains of spirochetes were isolated from i. persulcatus with bsk medium. rabbits inoculated with the spirochetes showed erythema chronicum migrans at the sites of inoculation and the spirochetes were found in the cerebrospinal fluid ...19912065539
[detection of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks using solid-phase immunoenzyme analysis (elisa)].138 ixodes persulcatus and 140 i. ricinus ticks were collected by flagging in the moscow region of russia in april-september 1995. borrelia burgdorferi infection rates of 171 (73 i. persulcatus and 98 i. ricinus) flat ticks were ascertained by both a dark-field microscopy and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the elisa is based on the use of "capture" monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to osp a l12-9b4 (2d8) in combination with rabbit antisera to osp a and b. this mab reacts with b. burgdo ...19979541935
neurologic abnormalities in two dogs suspected lyme disease.a 2-year-old mongrel dog developed neurological signs following tick bite. these included astasia, persistent tonic convulsions and hyper-reflexia. both serum igg and igm antibody titers against borrelia burgdorferi were positive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the neurological signs subsided after high-dose penicillin and streptomycin treatment. a strain of spirochetes (p427a) was isolated from the midgut of ixodes persulcatus feeding on the dog. morphological characteristic, immu ...19938350773
advances in investigations of lyme borreliosis in the territory of the former ussr.whereas late manifestations of lyme borreliosis were described in russia more than 100 years ago, early manifestations were described as different disease entities such as tick-borne erythema, etc. in 1985 lyme borreliosis was first verified serologically and the agent was first identified in 1986. by the beginning of 1992 lyme borreliosis was serologically confirmed in patients from the baltics to the far east. their geographical patterns in russia are closely related to areas of the hard ticks ...19938472805
the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes persulcatus and i. ricinus ticks in the zone of their sympatry.a total of 7210 unfed adult ixodes persulcatus schulze, 1930 and i. ricinus (l., 1758) ticks were collected from the vegetation by flagging in 35 study sites located in the zone of their sympatry (mainly in leningrad region, russia). borrelia infection in ticks was estimated by the dark-field microscopic analysis of gut contents in standard vital preparations at a magnification of x600. no correlation was revealed between the series of parameters characterising the abundance of each tick species ...200111266136
antigenic and genetic characterization of borrelia species isolated from ixodes persulcatus in hokkaido, japan.ten characteristic strains of spirochetes (ht2, ht7, ht10, ht15, ht17, ht19, ht20, ht22, ht32, and ht59) isolated from ixodes persulcatus adult ticks in hokkaido, japan, were selected and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. the protein profiles of the borrelial isolates were variable and markedly different from that of the type strain borrelia burgdorferi b31. the 41-kda flagellin protein was present ...19938501250
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in female cement plug of ixodes persulcatus ticks (acari, ixodidae).borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was detected in one out of five cement plugs of female ixodes persulcatus ticks. the spirochetes were found by dark field microscopy as early as 18 h after attachment of the ticks to the skin of a white mouse. the relevance of this finding is discussed in relation to the epidemiology of lyme borreliosis.19958575271
analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.blood samples were collected from cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus), raccoons (procyon lotor), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) between 1977 and 1991 in southern connecticut and new york state (usa) and were tested for antibodies against eight strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. among these spirochetes were six strains of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, one strain of b. garinii (=ip90) and ...19958583632
in vitro and in vivo antibiotic susceptibility of lyme disease borrelia isolated from the ixodid tick in japan.antimicrobial susceptibility of the lyme disease borrelia, strain hp1 vi, isolated from the tick ixodes persulcatus in hokkaido, japan, was determined in vitro and in vivo. a broth dilution technique was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) and minimum borreliacidal concentrations (mbcs) of five antimicrobial agents. strain hp1 vi was most susceptible to minocycline (mbc, 0.2 micrograms/ml). the other antimicrobial agents tested, aspoxicillin, cefmetazole sodium, imipen ...19958648001
characterization of spirochetes isolated from ticks (ixodes tanuki, ixodes turdus, and ixodes columnae) and comparison of the sequences with those of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.ixodes persulcatus serves as a tick vector for borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii in japan; however, unidentified spirochetes have been isolated from other species of ticks. in this study, 13 isolates from ticks (6 from ixodes tanuki, 6 from ixodes turdus, and 1 from ixodes columnae) and 3 isolates from voles (clethrionomys rufocanus) were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism, partial sequencing of the o ...19968779571
pcr detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in ixodes persulcatus ticks from western siberia, russia.pcr assays were used to test adult ixodes persulcatus ticks from western siberia, russia, for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent. of the 150 ticks that were studied, 38% were infected with b. burgdorferi, 46% were infected with tbev, and 8% were infected with the hge agent. these three pathogens were distributed in the ticks independently of one another.200212354885
a phylogenetic analysis of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates associated with lyme disease in japan by flagellin gene sequence determination.we determined nearly complete flagellin gene sequences for borrelia burdgdorferi sensu lato isolates (11 isolates obtained from ixodes persulcatus ticks and patients in hokkaido, japan, and 1 european isolate) representing six different restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) ribotype groups following cloning of the pcr-amplified genes. these sequences were aligned with those of representatives of the three borrelia species associated with lyme disease, and a phylogenetic tree was constr ...19968934900
preliminary studies on virus and spirochete accumulation in the cement plug of ixodid ticks.we provide evidence that tick-borne encephalitis virus and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are accumulated in the cement plug in the host skin within the first few hours after tick attachment. extirpation of the tick without the cement plug, even very soon after the attachment, did not prevent the transmission by ixodes ricinus, ixodes persulcatus or dermacentor reticulatus to mice. this was within 1 hour in the case of the tbe virus and after 20-22 h of attachment, in the case of borrelia and i. pers ...19969004495
prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophila and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes persulcatus ticks from northeastern china.a total of 1,345 ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from northeastern china were investigated for the presence of anaplasma phagocytophila and borrelia burgdorferi by a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). sixty-two (4.6%) ticks were positive for a. phagocytophila and 454 (33.8%) were positive for b. burgdorferi. seven (0.5%) were coinfected with both agents. sequence analysis of 919-basepair pcr amplicons revealed three types of a. phagocytophila. type 1 was identical to the published sequen ...200312812342
[indication of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the taiga tick larvae obtained from spontaneously infected females].hungry larvae from 17 clutches by spontaneously infected ixodes persulcatus females were examined by inoculation of the bsk ii medium, by microscopy of fixed smears, and by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with the primers specific toward the conserved sequences of borrelia burgdorferi 16s ribosomal rna gene. a study of 781 larvae individually or as pools could not reveal borrelia dna by pcr. inoculations of the bsk ii medium with 600 larvae yielded no positive results either; immobile spiral for ...200314564837
[the clinical manifestations of lyme borreliosis in the middle urals and their association with borrelia burgdorferi genospecies].a parallel study was made of the clinical spectrum of lyme borreliosis in the middle urals and genetic species of the causative agent (borrelia burgdorferi) in the ticks collected at the same territory. clinical picture of lyme borreliosis in the middle urals is different from that in america but had similar features with european borreliosis: nervous disorders were more frequent than arthritis, high incidence of the symptoms in segments close to the place of the agent inoculation, low occurrenc ...19979235672
evidence of babesia microti infection in multi-infected ixodes persulcatus ticks in detect babesia-infected ixodes persulcatus shulze in a suburb of st. petersburg, russia, 738 adult ticks were studied using babesia specific primers and pcr techniques. the entire sample (more than 1,200 individuals) was screened for the presence of borrelia spp., ehrlichia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev). all 7 ticks infected with babesia microti, were also infected with other pathogens (all 7 among 417 infected ticks, zero amongst the remaining 321 naive ones (chi2 = 5.25, p<0 ...200314635819
ability of ixodes persulcatus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor silvarum ticks to acquire and transstadially transmit borrelia china, the ability of ixodes persulcatus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor silvarum to transmit borrelia spirochetes was determined under laboratory conditions. results showed that all three tick species can acquire spirochetes by feeding on infected mice. however, the capability of the three species to maintain spirochetes was different. only i. persulcatus is able to maintain spirochetes alive during molting, and subsequent tick stages transmitted the infection to naive mice. in h. co ...200314756409
[present status of lyme borreliosis and characterization of lyme disease borrelia isolated in japan].lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato which is carried by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the agent was discovered in 1982 in north america and the disease is recognized as an emerging infectious diseases in north america and europe. japanese borrelia isolates were characterized by genetic and immunologic analysis. isolates from ixodes ovatus were found to be unique by dna/dna hybridization analysis, restriction fragment length pol ...19979248350
[the localization of borrelia in the body of the ixodes persulcatus tick at different developmental stages].borrelia burgdorferi s. lato have been recovered by means of an observations in a dark screen, phase and anoptrail contrasts in 87.47% imago and 100% nymphs and larvae of the ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in the leningrad, novgorod and pskov regions. four morphological types of borreliae have been recognized, which were present in all stages of ticks examined. the location of the agent in ticks was examined in the material coloured after levaditi. in the hungry stages and the most abundance ...19979304104
genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in far eastern and fifty-seven borrelia isolated from adult ticks, ixodes persulcatus, and wild rodents, clethrionomys rufocanus and apodemus peninsulae, in the far eastern part of russia were characterized and identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of the 5s-23s rrna intergenic spacer. some isolates showed unique rflp patterns and were determined as borrelia garinii on the basis of a sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer amplicon and reactivity with species-specific mon ...19979310938
detection of borrelia burgdorferi from ticks (acari) in hebei province, china.from may 1992 to august 1993, 1,196 ticks were collected by flagging vegetation and from domestic animals in chengde, zhangjiakou, shijiazhuang, and handan districts of hebei province. of those ticks collected, 954 were haemaphysalis japonicum warburton and h. longicornis neumann, 205 were ixodes persulcatus schulze, and 37 were dermacentor silvarum olenev. four strains of borrelia burgdorferi were isolated from 135 i. persulcatus collected in weichang and zhuolu counties. three of 574 haemaphys ...19989538567
[prevention of lyme borreliosis infection after tick bites].lyme borreliosis is one of the zoonotic and vectorial diseases in the world. female of taiga tick, ixodes persulcatus play an important role being the main vector of the agents, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, of the disease in the far east including japan. the number of patients who contacted lyme borreliosis have been estimated to be around 100 cases in all of japan. we also detected the spirochetes from the skin tissues of 27 cases involving erythema and 3 cases without erythema after tick b ...19989642941
clinical features of lyme borreliosis in the middle urals and distribution of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in local ixodes persulcatus ticks.from 1991 to 1993, we investigated the clinical features of lyme borreliosis (lb) in 864 patients from the sverdlovsk region (population 4.5 million) in the middle urals. ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected in the vicinity of yekaterinburg to determine the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. from 1991 to 1993, the number of patients with lb increased from 91 to 320 and 453, respectively. nearly all lb patients (97%) recalled a tick bite and the first signs of lb developed be ...19989728411
[transovarial transmission of borrelia burgdorferi s.l, to taiga tick ixodes persulcatus (ixodidae)]. 19989891215
[possible types of tick-borne diseases and the predictive role of history data in their diagnosis (parasitological aspects of the problem)].the paper discusses the proven and probable role of different tick-borne pathogens and their combinations in the occurrence of zoonotic diseases. the variants of coexistence of various combinations of 7 proved disease agents (3 species of borrelia, 2 species of ehrlichia, babesia, and tbe virus) with different, if might to be, disease agents, such as rickettsiae of two groups, which do not belong to the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group spirochetes, are analyzed. the difference of their deve ...200415689134
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in moscow province--a sympatric region for ixodes ricinus and ixodes persulcatus.the relationships between borrelia species and the vector ticks, ixodes persulcatus and ixodes ricinus were examined in a molecular epidemiological study. we conducted a survey in the moscow region which is a sympatric region for both species of tick. we examined 630 unfed i. ricinus and i. persulcatus, ticks collected from four different regions around moscow within an area of 250 km2. eighty-four ticks were culture positive (13.3%) and the prevalence rate varied in each region from 5.7% to 42. ...200515715174
diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in russian far east.thirty strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato have been isolated from ixodes persulcatus ticks and from skin lesions of lyme disease patients in the russian far east from 1997 to 2003. we amplified full-length outer surface protein a (ospa) gene of all strains. blast search and following phylogenetic analysis showed that strains form four well-defined groups. four strains belong to borrelia afzelii species. other strains distributed into tree major groups, identified as borrelia garinii. ind ...200515781992
[study on the coinfection of three tick-borne infectious diseases in china using polymerase chain reaction method].to study the existence of ehrluichiosis, lyme disease and tick-borne spotted fever coinfection in some areas in china.200515921584
[borrelia burgdorferi, taxonomy, pathogenicity and spread].borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a bacterial complex of at least 10 species, most of which are non pathogenic for humans. non pathogenic species seem to be more vector-specific, their distribution being restricted to that of this vector. in opposition, the three species pathogenic for humans, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (b.b.s.s.), borrelia garinii (b.g.), and borrelia afzelii (b.a.), are transmitted by several species of ticks more diversified in their host choice. each of these three ...19989921400
consensus sequence on the genes encoding the major outer surface proteins (ospa and ospb) of borrelia garinii isolate.japanese lyme borrelias classified as ribotype iv is predominant among isolates derived from clinical specimens, reservoir rodents and ixodes persulcatus ticks, and has been characterized as borrelia garinii. these b. garinii isolates have antigenic and genetic features apparently different from north american, european and other asian isolates, especially in major outer surface proteins a (ospa) and b (ospb). in this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes encoding ospa and ospb from b. garini ...19979087950
[the exploratory activity of the borrelia-infected taiga tick ixodes persulcatus].the infection with borrelia burgdorferi s. l. increases the questing activity of adults and nymphs of the taiga tick ixodes persulcatus. high temperature inhibits the moving and questing activities of the infected ticks in a greater extent than that in the non-infected ones. than more borreliae per a specimen of tick are present, the more tick's activity is affected.199910771773
[an electron microscopic study of borrelia in the body of the female ixodid tick ixodes persulcatus].borrelia burgdorferi s. lato in naturally infected females of tick ixodes persulcatus were examined by transmission electron microscopy. the borreliae were found in midgut and ovary. location and ultrastructure of bacteria indicate extracellular migration through the midgut epithelium as a preferential way. in gonad, the borreliae intracellular situate in ovarian epithelium and oocytes before and at the beginning of vitellogenesis. the demonstration of numerous spirochetes in the oocytes provide ...200010920844
[study on the coinfection status of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsia in ticks from hunchun, jilin province].to understand the coinfection status of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (b.b.s.l) and spotted fever group rickettsia (sfgr) in hunchun of jilin province, china.200616981329
[propagation of the pathogen of lyme disease borrelia burgdorferi in the ticks ixodes persulcatus].an increase of the number of borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in nymphs was observed 3-4 months later the moulting and during the following 4-5 months. the percent of infected ticks remained unchanged. the reproduction of spirochete was going not only at a room temperature, but also at a lower temperature, 3-5 degrees (imitation of hibernation conditions). an increase of the spirochete density was especially well marked, when the ticks were maintained under fluctuated daily conditions. we have found o ...19989859126
clinical diagnosis and treatment of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis.tick-borne rickettsiae in the genera ehrlichia and anaplasma are intracellular bacteria that infect wild and domestic mammals and, more recently, man. the increased desire of humans for recreational activities outdoors has increased the exposure to potential human pathogens that previously cycled almost exclusively within natural, nonhuman enzootic hosts. anaplasma phagocytophilum causes an acute, nonspecific febrile illness of humans previously known as human granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis (hge ...200617114714
prevalence of bacterial agents in ixodes persulcatus ticks from the vologda province of russia.the prevalence of rickettsiae, ehrlichiae, and the rickettsia-like endosymbiont called montezuma relative to that of borrelia was determined in questing ixodes persulcatus (i. persulcatus) ticks collected in 2002-2003 from vologda province, russia. ehrlichia muris, anaplasma phagocytophilum, montezuma, and new spotted fever group rickettsiae were detected by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the first time in this area. the rickettsiae were all candidatus rickettsia tarasevichiae, the furthest ...200617114724
[investigation on borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks and rodents collected in da xing-an mountains forest areas of china].to detect and study the types of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks and rodents from da xing-an mountains forest areas of china.200617172108
[detection of dna of borrelia circulating in novosibirsk region].detection of dna of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was performed by pcr in taiga ticks ixodes persulcatus, in blood samples and skin bioptates of small forest mammals, and in blood and urine samples of humans after attaching of ticks events. in novosibirsk region both in natural reservoir and in patients with ixodes ticks-borne borreliosis dna of borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii are detected. dna of these borrelia were detected in 8 from 72 of taiga ticks, in 36 from 298 of blood and skin ...200617297875
[investigation on the vectors of borrella burgdorferi and on the identification of the isolates along china-russia border in eastern heilongjiang province, china].to explore the fact that the east border of heilongjiang had been a lyme disease natural focus,we investigated the species and distribution of ticks and isolated bacteria from ticks and identified genomic species of borrelia burdorferi sensu lato. this study provided evidence for prevention and control of lyme disease.200717575937
detection and identification of bacterial agents in ixodes persulcatus schulze ticks from the north western region of russia.ixodes persulcatus schultze ticks are traditionally associated with transmission of lyme disease, babesiosis, and tick-borne encephalitis. here we compared the prevalence of infection with borrelia burgdorferi, and rickettsial and ehrlichial agents in i. persulcatus ticks collected in different locations of the north western administrative region of russia. altogether, 27.7% of ticks were infected with at least one organism, while the dna of two or more bacteria was found in 11.8% of ticks teste ...200717767409
ultrastructural evidence of the ehrlichial developmental cycle in naturally infected ixodes persulcatus ticks in the course of coinfection with rickettsia, borrelia, and a flavivirus.ehrlichiae are small gram-negative obligately intracellular bacteria that multiply within vacuoles of their host cells and are associated for a part of their life cycle with ticks, which serve as vectors for vertebrate hosts. two morphologically and physiologically different ehrlichial cell types, reticulate cells (rc) and dense-cored cells (dc), are observed during experimental infection of cell cultures, mice, and ticks. dense-cored cells and reticulate cells in vertebrate cell lines alternate ...200718171109
prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum and its coinfection with borrelia afzelii in ixodes ricinus and ixodes persulcatus ticks inhabiting tver province (russia) - a sympatric region for both tick species.human granulocytic anaplasmosis (hga) and lyme borreliosis (lb) are tick-borne infectious diseases caused by anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species, respectively. in this study, p44/msp2 paralogues specific to a. phagocytophilum and 5s-23s rrna gene-intergenic spacers specific to b. burgdorferi sensu lato species were detected by pcr in ticks collected in two regions, tver (kalinin) and konakovo, of the tver (kalinin) province located 150 km north-west of moscow. t ...200818628500
[features of the parasitic system of ixodid ticks--borrelia--small mammals in the russian northwest].mammals and ticks was collected in 1995-1997 years in novgorod region from may to september. traps were exposed during 5 consecutive days every month in 4 different biotopes. 928 hosts were captured during three years. 357 larvae and 59 nymphs of ixodes persulcatus, 356 larvae and 71 nymphs of i. trianguliceps were collected. the clethrionomys glareolus and sorex araneus are main hosts of larvae of i. persulcatus and i. trianguliceps. c. glareolus feed 76.2% of i. persulcatus larvae and 25% of i ...19989859127
molecular identification of salp15, a key salivary gland protein in the transmission of lyme disease spirochetes, from ixodes persulcatus and ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae).salp15 is a multifunctional protein, vital to the tick in its need to obtain vertebrate host blood without stimulating a host inflammatory and immune response. the salpl5 protein from both ixodes scapularis say and ixodes ricinus (l.), the principal vectors of the lyme disease spirochete in eastern north america and europe, respectively, have been well characterized and found to bind the murine cd4 receptor, dc-sign, and the ospc protein of borrelia burgdorferi. in the current study, we characte ...200919960697
two novel salp15-like immunosuppressant genes from salivary glands of ixodes persulcatus schulze tick.salp15, a 15-kda tick salivary gland protein, is known for several suppressive activities against host immunity and critical functions for the transmission of lyme borrelia in ixodes scapularis and ixodes ricinus, the major vectors found in north america and western europe. salp15 inhibits the activation of cluster of differentiation (cd)4(+)t-cells through the repression of t-cell receptor (tcr)-triggered calcium fluxes and interleukin (il)-2 production. furthermore, salp15 adheres to the spiro ...201020201978
genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from northeastern china.thirty-two strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were isolated from ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from northeastern china from may to june in 2004 and 2005. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis and sequence analysis of 5s-23s rrna intergenic spacer revealed that 29 (90.6%) belonged to borrelia garinii, demonstrating b, c, and a unique pattern. the remaining three isolates (9.4%) were borrelia afzelii with pattern d. the phylogenetic analysis based on 5s-23s rrna int ...201021142958
[isolation and identification of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ticks in six provinces in china.]objective: to understand the carrying status of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks from the mountain areas from six representative provinces, including jilin, shanxi, gansu, qinghai, guizhou and hunan in china. methods: flagging and trapping methods were used to collect ticks in forest area and culture medium was used to isolate the pathogen. nested-pcr was used to detect the germ-carrying rate of ticks. results: more than 2200 ticks from six representative provinces were collected and 1000 ticks wer ...201021223661
genetic diversity and the absence of regional differences of borrelia garinii as demonstrated by ospa and ospb gene sequence analysis.unfed adult ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected from four locations of nagano and hokkaido in japan. infected borrelia garinii were investigated by pcr-rflp of the ospa and ospb gene sequences. the primer set amplified an approximately 1.6-kb dna fragment (0.7-kb in some strains), and bsri, bstyi, or nlaiii digestion of the product resulted in six distinctively different pcr-rflp groups and two independent borrelial strains. the representatives in each pcr-rflp group and individuals from the ...199910656177
peculiarities of behaviour of taiga (ixodes persulcatus) and sheep (ixodes ricinus) ticks (acarina: ixodidae) determined by different methods.a comparison of the behavioural peculiarities of ixodes persulcatus schulze, 1930 (north-western population, russia) and ixodes ricinus (l., 1758) from western russia and denmark was determined by using two methods. method 1 involved a sojourn of ticks on vertical plastic sticks and showed that the questing behaviour of i. ricinus nymphs was dependent on temperature and relative humidity (rh). a significantly greater number of nymphs quested at 22 degrees c and 100% rh than at 18 degrees c. when ...200010945740
identification of ehrlichia spp. and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ticks in the baltic regions of russia.the presence and distribution of ehrlichia spp. and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was demonstrated among ixodid ticks collected in the baltic regions of russia, where lyme borreliosis is endemic. a total of 3,426 ixodes ricinus and 1,267 ixodes persulcatus specimens were collected, and dark-field microscopy showed that 265 (11.5%) i. ricinus and 333 (26.3%) i. persulcatus ticks were positive. from these samples, 472 dark-field-positive and 159 dark-field-negative ticks were subjected to pcr an ...200111376063
lyme disease borrelia spp. in ticks and rodents from northwestern may 1999, field surveys of lyme disease spirochetes were conducted around the tianshan mountains in xinjiang uygur autonomous region in northwestern people's republic of china. ixodes persulcatus ticks were obtained in a tianchi lake valley with primary forest, while the tick fauna was poor in the semidesert or at higher altitudes in this region. species identities were confirmed by molecular analysis in which an internal transcribed spacer sequence was used. of 55 adult ticks, 22 (40%) were ...200111679340
in-vitro and in-vivo antibiotic susceptibilities of lyme disease borrelia isolated in china.the antibiotic susceptibilities of seven borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from ixodes persulcatus in china were examined by in-vitro microdilution minimum inhibition concentration (mic) and macrodilution minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc) methods. all isolates tested were susceptible to amoxicillin, erythromycin, and minocycline. the mics of these drugs for the chinese isolates were 0.025-0.1 microg/ml, <0.012-0.05 microg/ml, and <0.012-0.05 microg/ml, respectively. the mbcs were 0 ...200011810535
[risk of human infection with ixodes tick-borne relapsing fever in different regional subzones of the perm region].serological and epidemiological surveys covered 2407 persons in 20 populated localities situated in all large geographical and regional subdivisions (subzones) in the perm region. indirect immunofluorescence tests revealed serum immunoglobulins to borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. antibodies in 1:40 or higher dilution were found in nearly 5 to 11% of the dwellers of localities in the subzones of south taiga, coniferous broad-leaved forests, and forest steppe; about 3-7% and 1-6% of them were pres ...200212224266
[a laboratory model of the parasitic system of lyme disease].a laboratory model of the parasitic system of lyme borreliosis (lb) with ixodes persulcatus and borrelia burgdorferi s.s. underwent 5 epizootic cycles (cycle i transition of borreliae by the scheme a tick-->a mouse-->a tick corresponds to the seasonal cycle). a group of 5-6 mice was inoculated with the suspension of infected nymphs by the intracutaneously route and 35-45 days later intact tick larvae or nymphs were fed on them. in the first three cycles, 40-100% of mice in a group (a total of 33 ...200212224267
venereal and cannibalistic ways of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato exchange between males and females of ixodes persulcatus (ixodidae, acarina).borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) infection rate in ixodes persulcatus shulze maintained in different relative humidity gradient in male and female pairs and separately by sex were compared. ticks collected in the st. petersburg region of russia during 1992-1994 temperate and 1995 hot seasons. we observed that the infection rate among specimens maintained as sexual pairs were 1.2-2.5 times higher than among ticks maintained separately. rate of borrelia infection in tick couples was a bit h ...19968673793
[exploratory study on natural focus and its causative agent of genotype of lyme disease by polymerase chain reaction in the forest areas of beijing].to learn the existence of natural focus of lyme disease and its distribution.200212411092
a relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by ixodes scapularis ticks.a species of borrelia spirochetes previously unknown from north america has been found to be transmitted by ixodes scapularis ticks. infected ticks are positive for borrelia spp. by dfa test but negative for borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using species-specific primers for 16s rdna, outer surface protein a, outer surface protein c, and flagellin genes. a 1,347-bp portion of 16s rdna was amplified from a pool of infected nymphs, sequenced, and compared with the homologous ...200112653133
detection and typing of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in ixodes persulcatus ticks in west siberia, russia.the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies in west siberia as well as in many other regions of russia remains insufficiently investigated. in the present study a total of 151 adult female ticks ixodes persulcatus schulze, collected at three localities in eastern regions of west siberia, where lyme disease is endemic, were examined for the presence of the spirochete b. burgdorferi s.l. by polymerase chain reaction targeting the 23s-5s rrna intergenic spacer regions. spir ...200314592703
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