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a population-based seroepidemiologic study of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and lyme borreliosis on the west coast of sweden.ehrlichioses are emerging infections in the united states. human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) and lyme borreliosis (lb) are acquired after ixodes ricinus-complex tick bites. an ongoing seroepidemiologic study of the 185 of the 356 permanent residents of the koster islands in sweden was expanded to include ehrlichioses. ehrlichial antibodies were measured by ifa using ehrlichia equi and ehrlichia chaffeensis. borrelia burgdorferi igg elisa-seropositive subjects were confirmed by western blot. ...19979041353
acquired resistance to borrelia burgdorferi infection in the rabbit. comparison between outer surface protein a vaccine- and infection-derived immunity.intradermal inoculation of the rabbit with borrelia burgdorferi, sensu lato, results in the consistent development of erythema migrans (em), dermal infection, and visceral dissemination of the spirochete. within 5 mo, em as well as dermal and visceral infection are cleared and the animals exhibit immunity to reinfection. this study compares infection-derived immunity with acquired resistance resulting from the administration of a lipidated recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) vaccine prese ...19979109448
heterogeneity in the complement-dependent bacteriolysis within the species of borrelia burgdorferi.sixteen borrelia burgdorferi strains, including all three species, were compared in a colorimetric bactericidal assay for their ability to escape the complement-dependent bacteriolysis on incubation in normal human serum free of specific antibodies (nhs). the species b. afzelii was found to be serum resistant (eb1, eb3, fem1, fem2, pko), whereas strains of the species b. garinii were found to be serum sensitive (1/b29, g1, g2, psth, pbr, ptrob). six strains, mainly b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, ...19979138298
lyme disease: a review of aspects of its immunology and immunopathogenesis.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi, causes a multisystem inflammatory ailment, although the precise means of tissue damage are not well understood. it is clear that the organism is present at the site of inflammation in many organs and that many of the features of the illness are relieved by antibiotic therapy. a complex interaction between spirochete and immune systems of a number of mammalian hosts, in human disease and animal models, has been described. it is clear that t cells and ...19979143682
simultaneous human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and lyme borreliosis. 19979203428
prevalence of the rickettsial agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in ticks from a hyperendemic focus of lyme disease. 19979213773
evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin m antibody in diagnosis of human leptospiral infection.the panbio leptospira immunoglobulin m (igm) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) is a commercially available screening test for the diagnosis of acute leptospiral infection. the ability of the test to diagnose early or recent leptospira interrogans infection was assessed by testing sera with known microagglutination test (mat) titers to serovars pomona, hardjo, copenhageni, and australis. the igm elisa detected all 41 cases of early or recent leptospiral infection (sensitivity, 100%), with ...19979230359
why is chronic lyme borreliosis chronic?chronic lyme borreliosis (clb) can present not only in different organs but also in different patterns. although many theories exist about the mechanisms leading to clb, it is known that viable borrelia burgdorferi can persist for decades and cause late skin manifestations of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca). thus, the immunopathogenetic findings in aca can serve as a model for studying the chronic course of lyme borreliosis. recent findings indicate that the most important cell for ant ...19979233667
expression, purification, and characterization of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase from borrelia burgdorferi.inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (impdh) is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. impdh converts imp to xanthosine 5'-monophosphate with concomitant conversion of nad+ to nadh. all impdhs characterized to date contain a 130-residue "subdomain" that extends from an n-terminal loop of the alpha/beta barrel domain. the role of this subdomain is unknown. an impdh homolog has been cloned from borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease (margolis, n., ...19979268334
[vasculitis course of neuroborreliosis with thalamic infarct].a-20-year-old man without vascular risk factors presented with paraesthesia of the left side of the body with acute onset. cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed an infarction in the right thalamus. intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography revealed stenosis of the right thalamic vessels. recent infection by borrelia burgdorferi was demonstrated by typical findings in the cerebrospinal fluid: lymphocytic pleocytosis and intrathecal synthesis of borrelial-specific antibodies. the diagnos ...19979273464
antibodies to ehrlichia equi in dogs from the northeastern united states.to determine whether dogs living in tickinfested areas of the northeastern united states had been exposed to ehrlichia equi, an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.19979364226
the proofreading domain of escherichia coli dna polymerase i and other dna and/or rna exonuclease domains.prior sequence analysis studies have suggested that bacterial ribonuclease (rnase) ds comprise a complete domain that is found also in homo sapiens polymyositis-scleroderma overlap syndrome 100 kda autoantigen and werner syndrome protein. this rnase d 3'-->5' exoribonuclease domain was predicted to have a structure and mechanism of action similar to the 3'-->5' exodeoxyibonuclease (proofreading) domain of dna polymerases. here, hidden markov model (hmm) and phylogenetic studies have been used to ...19979396823
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol inhibits the progression of arthritis in murine models of human arthritis.1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(oh)2d3] has been shown to inhibit the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eae). here we tested the possibility that 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol might be therapeutic for another autoimmune disease, arthritis. two different animal models of arthritis were tested, namely, murine lyme arthritis and collagen-induced arthritis. infection of mice with borrelia burgdorferi (the causative agent of human lyme arthritis) produced acute arthritic ...19989430604
first isolation and cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from missouri.five borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from missouri are described. this represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. the isolates were obtained from either ixodes dentatus or amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in bollinger county, mo., where a human case of lyme disease had been reported. all isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclona ...19989431909
distribution of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. spirochaete dna in british ticks (argasidae and ixodidae) since the 19th century, assessed by pcr.the distribution of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the lyme borreliosis agent, was surveyed in british ticks in the collection of the natural history museum, london. alcohol-preserved specimens of eight species of ticks known to attack humans were studied: ixodes ricinus, i. hexagonus, i. uriae, i. trianguliceps, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus sanguineus and argas vespertilionis. the sample comprised all life stages and originated from a wide range of host speci ...19989513944
[seroprevalence of the infections caused by borrelia burgdorferi and rickettsia conorii in humans and dogs in primary health care of san andreas del rabanedo (leon, spain)].positive results in infections of borrelia burgdorferi and rickettsia conorii in human and canine population is studied in order to understand the situation of both in humans, and at the same time discover the importance of the dog as an indicator of these agents among those in the health area of san andrés del rabanedo, león.19979546860
identification of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in europe.characterisation at the species level of 142 borrelia isolates obtained from ticks, humans and rodents in western europe was carried out and their geographical distribution was described. borrelia garinii was the predominant species representing 44% of the isolates and b. afzelii and b. burgdorferi sensu stricto constituted 27% and 19% of isolates respectively. b. valaisiana, (formerly group vs116) constituted 10.5% of isolates. some differences in the borrelia species distribution were observed ...19989563195
seasonal variation in the role of grey squirrels as hosts of ixodes ricinus, the tick vector of the lyme disease spirochaete, in a british woodland.data are presented on the variable patterns of the seasonal dynamics of ixodes ricinus l. ticks seen questing on the vegetation and feeding on small rodents (mice and voles) and squirrels within a british woodland focus of lyme borreliosis. information on tick infestation levels on pheasants is also presented. the results show a prolonged, unimodal pattern of tick activity, with ticks feeding throughout the year in this sheltered habitat. if host density is taken into account, squirrels are quan ...19959599431
etiology of immune stromal (interstitial) keratitis.we compared the etiologies of immune stromal keratitis (isk), also known as interstitial keratitis (ik), in a recent group of patients with active and inactive isk.19989603383
superoxide release in human fibroblasts upon treatment with culture supernatants of the arthritogenic bacteria erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and mycoplasma arthritidis.culture supernatants of the arthritogenic bacteria mycoplasma pneumonia, mycoplasma arthritidis, borrelia burgdorferi and erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae stimulated primary cultures of human fibroblasts to release reactive oxygen species into the environment, whereas cell walls and membranes of these bacteria had no effects. lipopolysaccharides of various gram-negative bacteria and lipid a, the lipid moiety of endotoxines, also failed to stimulate the release of reactive oxygen species by fibroblas ...19989618939
tube phagocytosis, a novel way for neutrophils to phagocytize borrelia burgdorferi.interactions between human neutrophils and borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete, were studied by dark-field microscopy combined with video technology. a previously unrecognized mechanism for neutrophils to phagocytize the spirochete was discovered. during phagocytosis, the spirochete attaches to the neutrophil head-on, the neutrophil forms a thin tubelike protrusion around the bacterium, and the fully covered spirochete is drawn into the cell.19989632618
lyme disease.a record number of cases of lyme disease was reported in the united states in 1996. the steady increase in lyme disease cases coincides with a growth in deer populations in endemic regions. application of careful epidemiologic principles have led to the identification of two new pathogens that produce syndromes closely related to lyme disease. coinfection with borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis have been documented. coinfection with multiple organisms may alter ...19989725096
genospecies identification and characterization of lyme disease spirochetes of genospecies borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from rodents in taiwan.lyme disease spirochetes of the genospecies borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified and characterized for the first time in taiwan. seven isolates, designated twkm1 to twkm7, were purified from the ear tissues of three species of rodents captured from seven localities of taiwan. the immunological characteristics of these taiwan isolates were compared with those of other genospecies of lyme disease spirochetes by analyzing the protein profiles and reactivities with b. burgdorferi-specific ...19989774551
detection and typing of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus ticks attached to human skin by pcr.live ixodes ricinus ticks attached to humans residing in germany were examined for borreliae by dark-field microscopy and pcr. borrelia species were identified by 16s rrna sequence analysis, which showed the presence of several species, some not yet defined, and a high prevalence of multiply infected ticks.19989774593
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi strains in lyme arthritis.in the study presented, we investigated whether lyme arthritis is associated with a particular borrelia burgdorferi genospecies. using the pcr technique, in 7/11 samples of synovial fluid of patients with lyme arthritis a part of the ospa-gene was identified and the strains characterized by sequencing of the amplified dna. borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was found in 3 patients, b. garinii in 3, and b. afzelii in 1 patient. in conclusion, lyme arthritis is caused by all 3 human pathogenetic g ...19989790135
differential expression of borrelia burgdorferi genes during erythema migrans and lyme arthritis.borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, selectively expresses genes in the arthropod vector and mammalian host. specific b. burgdorferi gene expression during human infection was examined in tissue specimens, using rna-polymerase chain reaction, from 3 patients with lyme disease. ospa was investigated because ospa is down-regulated by b. burgdorferi in ticks during engorgement and is a vaccine candidate in phase iii clinical trials. p35 and p37 were also assessed because these genes are ...19989806060
a one-step solid phase immunoassay for simultaneous detection of serum igg and igm antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi.a one-step immunoassay for simultaneous detection of serum igg and igm antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi has been developed. the assay is based on c1q, which binds to immune complexes containing igg and/or igm antibodies. micro-beads pre-coated with antibodies to human c1q are mixed with human serum samples and fluorochrome-labelled b. burgdorferi flagellum antigen. in the presence of serum igg and/or igm antibodies to b. burgdorferi, fluorochrome-labelled antigen/antibody complexes are formed. ...19989819119
heterogeneity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato demonstrated by an ospa-type-specific pcr in synovial fluid from patients with lyme arthritis.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of lyme borreliosis, has been divided into three genospecies: b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ospa-type 1), b. afzelii (ospa-type 2) and b. garinii (ospa-type 3-7). whereas in europe b. afzelii (ospa-type 2) is predominant among human skin isolates and b. garinii (ospa-type 3-7) among human csf isolates, some previous serological studies suggested that lyme arthritis is also associated with b. burgdorferi sensu stricto in europe. in the presen ...19989832323
geographic risk for lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in southern new york state.ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), is prevalent in much of southern new york state. the distribution of this species has increased, as have reported cases of both lyme disease and hge. the unreliability of case reports, however, demonstrates the need for tick and pathogen surveillance in order to accurately define areas of high risk. in this study, a total of 89,550 m2 at 34 study sites was drag sampled in 1995 and a total of 51,540 m2 a ...19989835546
induction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins in monocytes is mediated by cd14.we previously showed that heat-killed borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and lipidated outer surface protein a (l-ospa) stimulated the in vitro production of interleukin-10 (il-10) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from uninfected humans and rhesus monkeys (g. giambartolomei et al., infect. immun. 66:2691-2697, 1998). here we demonstrate that uninfected human peripheral blood monocytes, but not b or t cells, are the cells that transcribe the il-10 cytokine gene in response to heat-kille ...19999864208
from the food and drug administration. 19999952188
human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in bulgaria.human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) is a recently described rickettsiosis in the united states transmitted by ixodes species ticks. in europe, only a few studies on hge exist. two hundred bulgarian patients with tick bites and 70 healthy blood donors were tested for hge using an immunofluorescence assay with the hge agent as an antigen. elevated antibody titers (> or = 1:80) were found in 14 (9.7 %) of 145 patients with erythema migrans, two (8%) of 25 tick-exposed patients with lymphadenopath ...19999988323
serologic evidences suggesting the presence of borrelia burgdorferi infection in mexico.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne human disease in europe and the united states. in mexico, clinical cases suggestive of lyme borreliosis have been reported; however, infection was not confirmed by serologic or microbiologic tests.199910071428
decorin-binding adhesins from borrelia burgdorferi.lyme disease is a tick-transmitted infection caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. ticks deposit b. burgdorferi into the dermis of the host, where they eventually become associated with collagen fibres. we demonstrated previously that b. burgdorferi is unable to bind collagen, but can bind the collagen-associated proteoglycan decorin and expresses decorin-binding proteins (dbps). we have now cloned and sequenced two genes encoding the proteins, dbpa and dbpb, which have a similar struct ...199810094620
serologically diagnosed lyme disease manifesting erythema migrans in korea.lyme disease is a vector-borne infection, primarily transmitted by ixodes ticks, and caused by borrelia burgdorferi. it has a wide distribution in the northern hemisphere. in korea, however, only one human case has been reported, although b. burgdorferi was isolated from the vector tick i. persulcatus in the region. a 60-year-old male and a 45-year-old female developed the clinical sign of erythema migrans. each patients were bitten by a tick four weeks and five weeks, respectively, before enter ...199910102530
asymptomatic borrelia-seropositive individuals display the same incidence of borrelia-specific interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma)-secreting cells in blood as patients with clinical borrelia infection.borrelia lyme disease is a complex disorder that sometimes becomes chronic. there are contradictory reports of experimental borrelia infections regarding which type of t cell cytokine responses, i.e. th1 or th2, are needed to eradicate the borrelia spirochaetes. in human borreliosis a predominance of borrelia-specific th1-like responses has been shown. in this study, spontaneous, as well as borrelia-specific, secretion of ifn-gamma (th1) and il-4 (th2) in borrelia-seropositive healthy asymptomat ...199910193424
[progressive sensorineural hearing loss from infectious agents].the progressive sensorineural hearing loss due to infectious causes can involve different etiological agents like bacteria, viruses, protozoons or mycetes. these infectious agents can act in various ways: directly through a labyrinthitis that may destroy the neuroepithelium; through an ischaemic process secondary to a septic embolus; or through a thrombus. in some cases the damage can occur in a meningitis context, because of the passage of the germ in the inner through the nerves, the vases or ...199810205933
infection of laboratory mice with the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent does not induce antibodies to diagnostically significant borrelia burgdorferi antigens.laboratory diagnosis of borrelia burgdorferi is routinely made by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with positive results confirmed by western blot analysis. concern has been raised that false-positive diagnoses may be made on the basis of serologic cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against other bacterial pathogens, in particular the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). the present study made use of a mouse model to ascertain the validity of these concerns. two different ...199910325386
molecular characterization of a chemotaxis operon in the oral spirochete, treponema denticola.a chemotaxis gene cluster from treponema denticola (td), a pathogenic spirochete associated with human periodontal diseases, was cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. the gene cluster contained three chemotaxis (che) genes (chea, chew, and chey) and an open reading frame (chex) that is homologous with treponema pallidum (tp) and borrelia burgdorferi (bb) chex. the td che genes have the same transcriptional orientation with a sigma 70-like promoter located upstream of chea and a stem-loop structure ch ...199910333522
glycosaminoglycan-binding microbial proteins in tissue adhesion and invasion: key events in microbial pathogenicity.glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate, are distributed widely in the human body. several glycosaminoglycans form part of the extracellular matrix and heparan sulphate is expressed on all eukaryotic surfaces. the identification of specific binding to different glycosaminoglycan molecules by bacteria (e.g., helicobacter pylori, bordetella pertussis and chlamydia trachomatis), viruses (e.g., herpes simplex and dengue virus), and protozoa (e.g., plasmodium and le ...199910334589
four clones of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cause invasive infection in humans.lyme disease begins at the site of a tick bite, producing a primary infection with spread of the organism to secondary sites occurring early in the course of infection. a major outer surface protein expressed by the spirochete early in infection is outer surface protein c (ospc). in borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, ospc is highly variable. based on sequence divergence, alleles of ospc can be divided into 21 major groups. to assess whether strain differences defined by ospc group are linked to ...199910377134
[diagnosis and therapy of lyme borreliosis in children. practice guideline of the german society for pediatric infectious diseases].lyme borreliosis is the most frequent tickborne++ disease of man in the northern hemisphere. a variety of systems may be involved. the most frequent manifestations in childhood include erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsy and arthritis. erythema migrans usually is easily recognised and determination of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi should not be performed. childhood neuroborreliosis is characterised mostly by aseptic meningitis with or without cranial nerve palsy, in most cases ...199910407814
proteomics in human disease: cancer, heart and infectious diseases.in recent years, genomics has increased the understanding of many diseases. proteomics is a rapidly growing research area that encompasses both genetic and environmental factors. the protein composition represents the functional status of a biological compartment. the five approaches presented here resulted in the detection of disease-associated proteins. calgranulin b was upregulated in colorectal cancer, and hepatoma-derived aldose reductase-like protein was reexpressed in a rat model during h ...199910451122
identification of two transcripts of canine, feline, and porcine interleukin-1 alpha.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with interleukin-1alpha (il-1alpha)-specific primers using total rna from lipopolysaccharide (lps)-stimulated lung macrophages resulted in the amplification of two distinct cdna fragments. cloning and sequencing of the canine and feline fragments revealed that, except for the absence of a specific 174 nucleotide sequence, the short and the long transcripts were identical. the in-frame 174 nucleotide deletion corresponds to exon 5 of the hu ...199910452947
toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products.toll-like receptors (tlrs) 2 and 4 are signal transducers for lipopolysaccharide, the major proinflammatory constituent in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. we observed that membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides from borrelia burgdorferi, treponema pallidum, and mycoplasma fermentans activated cells heterologously expressing tlr2 but not those expressing tlr1 or tlr4. these tlr2-expressing cells were also stimulated by living motile b. burgdorferi, suggesting that tlr2 recognition of li ...199910559223
human antibody responses to vlse antigenic variation protein of borrelia burgdorferi.vlse is a 35-kda surface-exposed lipoprotein of borrelia burgdorferi that was shown previously to undergo antigenic variation through segmental recombination of silent vls cassettes with vlse during experimental mouse infections. previous data had indicated that sera from north american lyme disease patients and experimentally infected animals contained antibodies reactive with vlse. in this study, sera from patients with lyme disease, syphilis, and autoimmune conditions as well as from healthy ...199910565921
evidence of dbps (decorin binding proteins) among european strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and in the immune response of lb patient sera.decorin binding proteins dbpa and dbpb act as borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) adhesins to decorin, and are able to elicit a persistent antibody response in the mouse; accordingly dbpa protein would seem to be promising in immunoprofilaxis of lyme borreliosis (lb). this study examines the distribution of dbp epitopes in european strains of b. burgdorferi, of different genospecies and the presence of antibodies to dbps in human sera from patients suffering from early and late lb, as revealed ...200010650211
the lipid component of lipoproteins from borrelia burgdorferi: structural analysis, antigenicity, and presentation via human dendritic cells.the spirochaetal bacteria borrelia burgdorferi (bb) is the tick-borne causative agent of lyme disease. the major membrane immunogens of bb are outer surface proteins. the lipid component of these lipoproteins is relevant for the immunogenicity of bb-lipoproteins. to characterize the antigenic properties, the native lipid component of lipoproteins was isolated and the detailed molecular structure was analyzed. the molecular structure of the lipoprotein-lipid component turned out to be s(propane-2 ...200010673388
[lyme borreliosis].the epidemiology of lyme borreliosis is described with stress laid on the relations between ticks as vectors and the animals which are the reservoir of borrelia infecting man. other discussed problems include the possibility of infection of man, the seasonal character of new cases, the worldwide presence of ixodes ticks and their species in various continents, the incidence of lyme borreliosis in various countries.199910800570
epidemiological characteristics of dogs with lyme borreliosis in the province of soria (spain).from the point of view of the human disease, dogs are the most important animal reservoir of lyme borreliosis; therefore, they are used as 'sentinel animals'. in order to know the epidemiological characteristics of dogs with antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi, 146 canine sera samples collected during 1993-94 have been studied. the antibody detection was made by an indirect immunofluorescence method and confirmed by a haemagglutination test. seventeen dogs (11.6%) were seropositive, of which ...200010845256
modulation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by a canine lyme disease vaccine of recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa).the modulation of human lymphocyte proliferative responses was demonstrated with a recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) vaccine preparation for the prevention of borrelia burgdorferi infection. after exposure to either the unaltered vaccine preparation or ospa prepared in saline, normal lymphocyte responses to the mitogens concanavalin a, phytohemagglutinin-m or pokeweed mitogen, or the antigen bcg were consistently reduced. whole cell extracts of b. burgdorferi also modulated immune respo ...200010865170
lyme disease.lyme disease (ld) is the most common tick-borne disease in the us. the overall trend has been an average annual increase in cases since surveillance was initiated by the centers for disease control and prevention in 1982. to date, 10 different borrelia species have been described within the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, although only borrelia burgdorferi sensu strico, borrelia garinii, and borrelia afzelii have been associated with human disease. ixodes ticks often carry more than one ...200010910185
borrelia-like spirochetes recovered from ticks and small mammals collected in the atlantic forest reserve, cotia county, state of são paulo, brazil.forty-four marsupials, 77 rodents and 161 ticks were captured in an atlantic forest reserve in cotia county, state of são paulo, where human cases of lyme disease (ld) simile were reported. twenty-one borrelia-like spirochete isolates were recovered from the mammals' blood and rodent livers or spleens, and triturated ticks inoculated into bsk ii medium. our results suggest that the reservoirs and ticks collected may harbor borrelia-like spirochetes, some of which have an antigenic similarity wit ...200010998210
molecular and pathogenic characterization of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from spain.fifteen borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from questing ticks and skin biopsy specimens from erythema migrans patients in three different areas of spain were characterized. four different genospecies were found (nine borrelia garinii, including the two human isolates, three b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, two b. valaisiana, and one b. lusitaniae), showing a diverse spectrum of b. burgdorferi sensu lato species. b. garinii isolates were highly variable in terms of pulsed-field gel electropho ...200011060064
isolation of a circular plasmid region sufficient for autonomous replication and transformation of infectious borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi contains abundant circular and linear plasmids, but the mechanism of replication of these extrachromosomal elements is unknown. a b. burgdorferi 9 kb circular plasmid (cp9) was amplified in its entirety by the polymerase chain reaction and used to construct a shuttle vector that replicates in escherichia coli and b. burgdorferi. a 3.3 kb region of cp9 containing three open reading frames was used to construct a smaller shuttle vector, designated pbsv2. this vector was stably ...200111169111
dogs as sentinels for human lyme borreliosis in the netherlands.serum samples from hunters (n = 440), their hunting dogs (n = 448), and hunters without dog ownership (n = 53) were collected in the netherlands at hunting dog trials and were tested for antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi by a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. additionally, 75 healthy pet dogs were tested. the results of this study indicate that the seroprevalence among hunting dogs (18%) was of the same order as the seroprevalence among pet dogs (17%) and hunters (15%). the ser ...200111230393
ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat.ticks are currently considered to be second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human infectious diseases in the world. each tick species has preferred environmental conditions and biotopes that determine the geographic distribution of the ticks and, consequently, the risk areas for tickborne diseases. this is particularly the case when ticks are vectors and reservoirs of the pathogens. since the identification of borrelia burgdorferi as the agent of lyme disease in 1982, 15 ixodid-borne bacterial ...200111247714
molecular mimicry in lyme arthritis demonstrated at the single cell level: lfa-1 alpha l is a partial agonist for outer surface protein a-reactive t cells.antibiotic treatment-resistant lyme arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease that follows infection with borrelia burgdorferi (bb:). a marked ab and t cell response to bb: outer surface protein a (ospa) often develops during prolonged episodes of arthritis. furthermore, cross-reaction between the bacterial ospa and human lfa-1alpha(l) at the t cell level and the inability to detect bb: in the joint implicate an autoimmune mechanism. to analyze the nature of response to ospa and lfa-1alp ...200111290815
[hepatic disorders related to lyme disease. study of two cases and a review of the literature].we report two cases of lyme disease, revealed by hepatic damage in a 71- and a 59-year old man. in the first case, the disease was revealed by febrile jaundice whereas, in the second case, results of liver tests showed cytolytic and cholestatic abnormalities with fever. lyme disease is a zoonosis due to infection by borrelia burdorferi transmitted by ticks. the multiple phases of the disease explain the polymorphism of the clinical manifestations. usually, extrahepatic symptoms are first observe ...200111319444
first long-term study of the seroresponse to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis among residents of a tick-endemic area of sweden.the seroprevalence of granulocytic ehrlichiosis has been documented in several studies, but little data exists on incidence rates. using sera stored from an earlier study on lyme borreliosis, 290 residents of aspö island could be followed prospectively during two tick seasons (1992-1994). immunoglobulin g antibodies to granulocytic ehrlichiosis were detected by an immunofluorescence assay using ehrli- chia equi as antigen. seroprevalence rates increased significantly over time, and at the 1994 f ...200111347666
gamma interferon is not required for arthritis resistance in the murine lyme disease model.lyme arthritis is the most common complication following infection of human individuals with borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. in mice, b. burgdorferi infection leads to arthritis of the tibiotarsal joints. arthritis severity in mice is under host genetic control, as balb/c mice developed mild arthritis but c3h/he mice developed severe disease following b. burgdorferi infection. to study the role of gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) in arthritogenesis, targeted mutant mice lacking the ifn-gamma rec ...200111349038
borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an amblyomma americanum tick.erythematous rashes that are suggestive of early lyme disease have been associated with the bite of amblyomma americanum ticks, particularly in the southern united states. however, borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, has not been cultured from skin biopsy specimens from these patients, and diagnostic serum antibodies usually have not been found. borrelia lonestari sp nov, an uncultured spirochete, has been detected in a. americanum ticks by dna amplification techniques, bu ...200111372036
screening of patients with complex regional pain syndrome for antecedent infections.this study was designed to investigate whether complex regional pain syndrome type i (crps i) could be linked to any previous infection.200111444711
coinfection with borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. 200111450674
aortic valve endocarditis in a dog due to bartonella clarridgeiae.we report the first documented case of endocarditis associated with bartonella clarridgeiae in any species. b. clarridgeiae was identified as a possible etiological agent of human cat scratch disease. infective vegetative valvular aortic endocarditis was diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old male neutered boxer. historically, the dog had been diagnosed with a systolic murmur at 16 months of age and underwent balloon valvuloplasty for severe valvular aortic stenosis. six months later, the dog was brought t ...200111574571
risk of lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a lone star tick-infested community.lone star ticks (amblyomma americanum) have been suggested as a vector of the agent of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in the usa, based on associations with an infection manifesting mainly as erythema migrans. in laboratory experiments, however, they failed to transmit b. burgdorferi sensu stricto.200111693973
bacterial plasminogen activators and receptors.invasive bacterial pathogens intervene at various stages and by various mechanisms with the mammalian plasminogen/plasmin system. a vast number of pathogens express plasmin(ogen) receptors that immobilize plasmin(ogen) on the bacterial surface, an event that enhances activation of plasminogen by mammalian plasminogen activators. bacteria also influence secretion of plasminogen activators and their inhibitors from mammalian cells. the prokaryotic plasminogen activators streptokinase and staphylok ...200111742690
the rhesus model of lyme neuroborreliosis.similarity of pathology and disease progression make the non-human primate (nhp) model of lyme neuroborreliosis appropriate and valuable. in the nhp model of lyme neuroborreliosis, spirochetal density in the nervous system and other tissues has been measured by polymerase chain reaction and correlated to anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid and to inflammation in tissues. despite the demonstrable presence of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme bor ...200111782257
[lyme disease presenting as infarction pain. a case report].lyme's disease is a multi-system condition due to infection with a spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), transmitted by a tick. cardiac involvement, which is not systematic, usually presents with transient atrioventricular block of varying degree. the authors describe an unusual presentation of the cardiac involvement of lyme's disease with chest pain resembling an acute coronary syndrome in a 32 year old man. the characteristic skin lesion (erythema migrans), the positivity of igm serology, the my ...200111828929
recent advances in the diagnosis of lyme disease.diagnosis of human lyme borreliosis is usually based on serology, which has a number of pitfalls. in the early phase of the disease serology can still be negative, whereas false-positive results are also common. the interpretation of confirmatory western blot tests is not always easy. furthermore, routine serology cannot discriminate between active and past infection. in addition, recombinant antigens are being introduced to improve serologic tests. new developments in the diagnosis of lyme dise ...200111901856
seroprevalence of babesia infections in humans exposed to ticks in midwestern germany.babesiosis is considered to be an emerging tick-borne disease in humans worldwide. however, most studies on the epidemiology of human babesiosis to date have been carried out in north america, and there is little knowledge on the prevalence of infection and frequency of disease in other areas. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of babesia infections in a human population in germany. a total of 467 sera collected between may and october 1999 from individuals living in the rhe ...200212089258
lateral gene transfer of foreign dna: the missing link between cannabis psychosis and schizophrenia. 200212116185
evidence that the variable regions of the central domain of vlse are antigenic during infection with lyme disease spirochetes.it has been postulated that the vls system of the lyme disease spirochetes contributes to immune evasion through antigenic variation. while it is clear that vlse undergoes sequence change within its variable regions at a high frequency during the early stages of infection, a definitive role in immune evasion has not been demonstrated. in this report we assessed the murine and human humoral immune response to recombinant (r)-vlse variants that originally arose during infection in mice. immunoblot ...200212117928
immune evasion of borrelia burgdorferi: insufficient killing of the pathogens by complement and antibody.the innate immune system and, in particular, the complement system play a key role in the elimination of micro-organisms after entrance in the human host. like other pathogens, borreliae must develop strategies to inactivate host defence mechanisms. by investigating serum (nhs)-susceptibility of borreliae, we found that mainly b. afzelii isolates are serum-resistant, whereas the majority of b. burgdorferi s. s. isolates display an intermediate serum-sensitive phenotype. in contrast, b. garinii i ...200212141738
the use of chosen serological diagnostic methods in lyme disease in horses. part i. indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).the investigations aimed to establish the reliability of the chosen serological tests designed for the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis in horses. the investigations were carried out in five horse breeding centres (ohk). statistical analysis methods were used to determine sample size for particular centres: krasne (kr)--49, łack (ł)--21, walewice (w)--111, bogusławice (b)--17, kozienice (k)--61. the experimental material comprised the chosen horses from which blood samples were collected in order t ...200212189952
[new aspects of the pathogenesis of lyme disease].morphological changes of b. burgdorferi as well as changes in expression of surface proteins caused by environmental determinants are essential in pathogenesis of lyme disease. cysts, spherical form (spheroplasts, l-form) and "blebs" (gemmae) can be responsible for long lasting antigenic stimulation, signs of chronic borreliosis, and even probably connected with ms and alzheimer disease. mechanisms to avoid elimination and persistence in the host include: expression of low heterogenic osp a, b r ...200212194230
determination of novel borrelia genospecies in swedish ixodes ricinus ticks.a total of 301 adult questing ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at 15 different locations along the south and east coasts of sweden to determine the borrelia genospecies diversity. thirty-two ticks (11%) were found to be positive by nested pcr with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific primers. species determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16s rrna gene and the flagellin gene. five different borrelia species were found. the nucleotide sequence of the borrelia dna found in two ...200212202571
detection of four borrelia burgdorferi genospecies and first report of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in ixodes ricinus ticks collected in central italy.the presence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and of ehrlichia phagocytophila group was sought by pcr in ixodes ricinus collected in a protected area of central italy. nymphs (n = 1475, gathered in 295 pools of 5 nymphs each) and adult ticks (n = 28) were examined. b. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 13.8% of the nymph pools; of these, 63.4% were infected by b. valaisiana, 26.8% by b. afzelii, 7.3% by b. garinii, and 2.5% by b. burgdorferi s.s. only a single adult male tick proved to host b. afzelii ...200212211602
treatment of tick-borne diseases.to review the data regarding the pharmacotherapy of lyme disease, rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), and the human ehrlichioses.200212243610
pcr detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in ixodes persulcatus ticks from western siberia, russia.pcr assays were used to test adult ixodes persulcatus ticks from western siberia, russia, for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent. of the 150 ticks that were studied, 38% were infected with b. burgdorferi, 46% were infected with tbev, and 8% were infected with the hge agent. these three pathogens were distributed in the ticks independently of one another.200212354885
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from human material in slovenia.the aim of the study was to assess genotypic and phenotypic diversity among a large number of clinical isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato obtained from patients in slovenia. plasmid profiles and species identification were determined by pfge, protein profiles by sds-page. of 706 b. burgdorferi sensu lato human isolates 599 (85%) were found to be b. afzelii, 101 (14%) b. garinii and six (1%) b. burgdorferi sensu stricto. the vast majority of strains (605; 86%) were isolated from skin, 58 ...200212422599
molecular diversity of the ospc gene in borrelia. impact on phylogeny, epidemiology and pathology.lyme borreliosis is a 2 steps disease: i) localized erythema migrans ii) occasionally a disseminated disease. three out of the 10 up to now described borrelia species are pathogenic for man and each of them exhibits its own organotropism: joints for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (b.b. ss), nervous system for b. garinii, skin for b. afzelii, ospc gene is subject to lateral transfer leading to a huge diversity among corresponding encoded proteins. this allows the spirochete to develop a reper ...200212422602
sublethal concentrations of complement can effectively opsonize borrelia burgdorferi.the fate of borreliae invading a human may depend on the early innate response they induce. the interactions of human complement system and neutrophils with two strains of the lyme borreliosis spirochete borrelia burgdorferi were studied. borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto b31 (resistant to a 28% concentration of normal human serum (nhs)) and borrelia garinii bg a218/98 (sensitive to 7% nhs) were examined. both strains induced neutrophil oxidative burst in a complement-dependent manner. b31 requ ...200212472666
seroprevalence of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in sheep and goats from mountainous areas of slovakia.in the present study, domestic animals such as sheep and goats from eastern slovakia were screened for the presence of anti-borrelia antibodies. seroprevalence in 181 sheep and 65 goats were carried out in 1999 and 2000. modified elisa method was used for detection of anti-borrelia igg antibodies. seroprevalence obtained was 15.8% and 17.5% in 1999 and 2000 respectively in sheep, whereas in goats it was 17.2% and 19.4% respectively. the results suggest that these domestic species have potential ...200212498582
simultaneous infection with borrelia burgdorferi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.a 5-year-old child with simultaneous early lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) is described. because of the shared vector, hge and lyme disease are increasingly identified as coinfections in tick-exposed patients. early recognition of concurrent lyme disease and hge is important because amoxicillin, an antibiotic of choice for young children with early lyme disease, is ineffective for hge.200312553302
serum-resistant strains of borrelia burgdorferi evade complement-mediated killing by expressing a cd59-like complement inhibitory molecule.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, comprises three genospecies, borrelia garinii, afzelii, and burgdorferi sensu strictu, that exhibit different pathogenicity and differ in the susceptibility to c-mediated killing. we examined c-sensitive and c-resistant strains of b. burgdorferi for deposition of c3 and late c components by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. despite comparable deposition of c3 on the two strains, the resistant strain exhibited reduced staining ...200312626580
interaction of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with epstein-barr virus in lymphoblastoid cells.since the possibility of interruption of latent ebv infection has been suggested by the induction of the lytic virus cycle with chemical substances, other viruses, and by immunosuppression, we hypothesized that the same effect might happen in b. burgdorferi sensu lato infection as happens in lyme disease patients with positive serology for both agents. we have observed ebv replication in lymphoblastoid cells after superinfection with b. garinii and b. afzelii strains after 1 and 4 h of their int ...200312630667
antibody detection in human serum using a versatile protein chip platform constructed by applying nanoscale self-assembled architectures on gold.we report a novel high-throughput (htp) protein chip platform, constructed on gold using self-assembly techniques, for conducting high quality antigen-antibody interactions. biotinylated monolayers were used to immobilize a streptavidin surface with high packing density. this biocompatible platform was then used for detection of serum igm antibodies. serum samples of patients suspected to suffer from lyme borreliosis were used to validate the protein chip platform using biotinylated peptide aaos ...200212645899
analysis of the ospe determinants involved in binding of factor h and ospe-targeting antibodies elicited during borrelia burgdorferi infection in mice.immune evasion by lyme spirochetes is a multifactorial process involving numerous mechanisms. the ospe protein family undergoes antigenic variation during infection and binds factor h (fh) and possibly fhl-1/reconectin. in borrelia burgdorferi b31mi, the ospe family consists of three paralogs: bbl39 (erpa), bbp38, and bbn38 (erpp). bbl39 and bbp38 are identical and therefore are referred to here as bbl39. the goals of this study were to assess the specificity of the antibody (ab) response to the ...200312761144
decorin-binding sites in the adhesin dbpa from borrelia burgdorferi: a synthetic peptide approach.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi following transmission from infected ixodes ticks to human hosts. following colonization of the skin, spirochetes can disseminate throughout the body, resulting in complications that can include ocular, cardiac, neural, and skeletal disease. we have previously shown that b. burgdorferi expresses two closely related decorin-binding adhesins (dbpa and dbpb) of the mscramm (microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecule ...200312761224
toll-like receptor 2 plays a pivotal role in host defense and inflammatory response to borrelia burgdorferi. 200212804169
prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophila and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes persulcatus ticks from northeastern china.a total of 1,345 ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from northeastern china were investigated for the presence of anaplasma phagocytophila and borrelia burgdorferi by a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). sixty-two (4.6%) ticks were positive for a. phagocytophila and 454 (33.8%) were positive for b. burgdorferi. seven (0.5%) were coinfected with both agents. sequence analysis of 919-basepair pcr amplicons revealed three types of a. phagocytophila. type 1 was identical to the published sequen ...200312812342
[comparative analysis of use of two strains of various genotypes of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato as antigens for antibody identification in ixodes tick borreliosis by indirect immunofluorescence].the results of the indirect reaction of immune-fluorescence (irif) was studied in testing 49 sera of 19 patients with lyme-borreliosis with antigens of genotypes borrelia afzeli (strain jp-21) and borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (strain no. 17); rabbit fluorescini-sothiocyanate-marked conjugates to human immunoglobulins m and g as well as polyvalent conjugate were used of. no reliable differences were found between all positive and all negative results. the biggest portion of positive results ...200312822309
transverse myelitis secondary to coexistent lyme disease and babesiosis.to describe transverse myelitis secondary to coexistent lyme disease and babesiosis.200312828297
cellular recognition of tri-/di-palmitoylated peptides is independent from a domain encompassing the n-terminal seven leucine-rich repeat (lrr)/lrr-like motifs of tlr2.toll-like receptors (tlrs) mediate microbial pattern recognition in vertebrates. a broad variety of agonists has been attributed to tlr2 and three tlrs, tlr4, tlr2, and tlr5, have been demonstrated to bind microbial products. distinct agonists might interact with different subdomains of the tlr2 extracellular domain. the tlr2 extracellular domain sequence includes 10 canonical leucine-rich repeat (lrr) motifs and 8-10 additional and potentially functionally relevant lrr-like motifs. thus, the tr ...200312860988
increasing health burden of human babesiosis in endemic sites.human infection due to babesia microti has been regarded as infrequent and a condition primarily affecting the elderly or immunocompromised. to determine whether risk in endemic sites may be increasing relative to that of borrelia burgdorferi and to define its age-related clinical spectrum, we carried out a 10-year community-based serosurvey and case finding study on block island, rhode island. less intensive observations were conducted in nearby sites. incidence of babesial infection on block i ...200312875292
[seroepidemiological studies of zoonotic infections in hunters in southeastern austria--prevalences, risk factors, and preventive methods].the aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences to zoonotic pathogens in hunters, to propose preventive measures and to obtain more information about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in local wild animal populations. from 146 male and 3 female hunters originating from the south-eastern austrian federal states of styria and burgenland blood samples were taken and anamnestic data were obtained using a questionnaire. the serological investigations included the following viral, bact ...200312894685
coevolution of markers of innate and adaptive immunity in skin and peripheral blood of patients with erythema migrans.we used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes and cytokines in skin and peripheral blood of patients with erythema migrans (em). dermal leukocytes and cytokines were assessed in fluids aspirated from epidermal suction blisters raised over em lesions and skin of uninfected controls. compared with corresponding peripheral blood, em infiltrates were enriched for t cells, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells (dcs), contained lower proportions of neutrophils, ...200312928420
2 minute non-invasive screening for cardio-vascular diseases: relative limitation of c-reactive protein compared with more sensitive l-homocystine as cardio-vascular risk factors; safe and effective treatment using the selective drug uptake enhancement method.contrary to the present practice of measurement of cardio-vascular risk factors or inflammatory risk factors such as c-reactive protein (crp) from a blood sample from the vein of one arm, by using the bi-digital o-ring test resonance phenomena between 2 identical substances, one can non-invasively detect the approximate location on the body of abnormally increased risk factors in just 2 minutes, by detecting the resonance with l-homocystine, even when blood crp failed to detect any abnormality. ...200312934959
serological evidence for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in western austria.in order to evaluate the seroprevalence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in western austria, sera from 357 tyrolean blood donors were tested by an immunofluorescence assay. to assess the concomitant seroreactivity against borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, sera were further investigated by enzyme-linked immunoassay and western blot. thirty-two sera (9.0%) showed antibodies to anaplasma phagocytophilum at a titre of 1:128 or higher, and 30 (8.4%) were seroreactive against borrelia burgdorferi sen ...200312938008
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