trypanosome infection rate of glossina morsitans submorsitans in bahr el arab, south darfur province, sudan.trypanosome infection rate of glossina morsitans submorsitans in bahr el arab fly belt, sudan was investigated in four areas using fly rounds with screen and bait animals together with traps during the dry season february to may 1985. the overall infection rate of tests flies captured in the four areas was 5.1%. the infection rate of vivax group trypanosomes comprised 64.7% of total infections, congolense group 31.2% and brucei group trypanosomes 3.9%: 27.3% of the vivax and 31.3% of the congole ...19892617680
a drug incubation glossina infectivity test (digit) to assess the susceptibility of trypanosoma congolense bloodstream forms to trypanocidal drugs (xenodiagnosis).blood was collected from two sahelian goats, experimentally infected with either a drug-sensitive cloned population of trypanosoma congolense (il 1180) or a multiple drug-resistant t. congolense stock (samorogouan/89/crta/267) and incubated at 37 degrees c for 30 min and 12 h, respectively, in the presence of different drug concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0 microg/ml blood) of diminazene aceturate or isometamidium chloride. after that, the trypanosome/blood/drug suspensions were offered t ...19999924966
development of an adaptive tsetse population management scheme for the luke community, ethiopia.since 1996, tsetse (glossina spp.) control operations, using odor-baited traps, have been carried out in the luke area of gurage zone, southwestern ethiopia. glossina morsitans submorsitans newstead was identified as the dominant species in the area, but the presence of glossina fuscipes newstead and glossina pallidipes austen also was recorded. here, we refer to the combined number of these three species and report the work undertaken from october 2002 to october 2004 to render the control syst ...200516465742
a cross-sectional study of trypanosomosis and its vectors in donkeys and mules in northwest ethiopia.a preliminary study was conducted in january 2009 in four peasant associations (pas) selected from two districts in benishangul gumuz regional state, northwest ethiopia to investigate the prevalence and species of trypanosomes infecting donkeys and mules and identify the fly vectors playing a role in the transmission of trypanosomosis. blood samples were collected from a total of 334 donkeys and 52 mules and examined by dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique and giemsa-stained blood sme ...201020143093
experimental evaluation of xenodiagnosis to detect trypanosomes at low parasitaemia levels in infected human african trypanosomosis (hat) endemic areas, there are a number of subjects that are positive to serological tests but in whom trypanosomes are difficult to detect with the available parasitological tests. in most cases and particularly in west africa, these subjects remain untreated, thus posing a fundamental problem both at the individual level (because of a possible lethal evolution of the disease) and at the epidemiological level (since they are potential reservoirs of trypanosomes). ...201122091459
molecular identification of different trypanosome species and subspecies in tsetse flies of northern nigeria.animal african trypanosomiasis (aat) is caused by several species of trypanosomes including trypanosoma congolense, t. vivax, t. godfreyi, t. simiae and t. brucei. two of the subspecies of t. brucei also cause human african trypanosomiasis. although some of them can be mechanically transmitted by biting flies; these trypanosomes are all transmitted by tsetse flies which are the cyclical vectors of trypanosoma congolense, t. godfreyi, t. simiae and t. brucei. we present here the first report asse ...201627216812
phenotypic characteristics and trypanosome prevalence of mursi cattle breed in the bodi and mursi districts of south omo zone, southwest ethiopia.the study was conducted to characterize the morphological features of mursi cattle breed and to identify the species of trypanosome infecting the cattle and its prevalence in these traditionally managed cattle in the bodi and mursi pastoral communities. cattle body description and measurements were made on 201 matured animals. blood samples were collected from 409 animals into heparin-treated capillary tubes and were centrifuged to 12,000 rpm for 5 min to identify trypanosome species from the we ...201525510298
bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of hawa-gelan district, western ethiopia.a cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from october 2009 to may 2010 in selected settlement areas of the hawa-gelan district in the western wollega zone of ethiopia. standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. three species of the genus glossina (glossina pallidipes, glossina morsitans submorsitans and glossi ...201425686018
estimation of trypanosomal status by the buffy coat technique and an antibody elisa for assessment of the impact of trypanosomosis on health and productivity of n'dama cattle in the gambia.the buffy coat/dark ground phase contrast technique (bct) and an indirect antibody enzyme immunoassay (elisa) were employed to assess the trypanosomal status of 32 n'dama cattle, aged 19-28 months, exposed to natural challenge of glossina morsitans submorsitans and g. palpalis gambiensis. prior to the start of the investigation animals experienced 9-16 months of tsetse challenge in the study area. blood and corresponding serum samples were examined monthly for a period of 8 months for patent par ...200111163695
tsetse challenge, trypanosome and helminth infection in relation to productivity of village ndama cattle in on tsetse fly, and on village ndama cattle collected over a 4-year period in southern senegal, were analysed. a total of 431 ndama cattle in four herds of three villages in the upper casamance area of southern senegal were monitored monthly. glossina morsitans submorsitans and glossina palpalis gambiensis are present in the study area. mean tsetse apparent density was 5.4 flies/trap/day. trypanosome (trypanosoma congonlense and trypanosoma vivax) infection rate in flies was 2.4 (s.e. 0.37)% ...199910190867
trypanosoma congolense: lack of correlation between the resistance of cattle subjected to experimental cyclic infection or to field challenge.twelve male cattle of the baoulé breed were exposed to natural trypanosome challenge in an area of high glossina density, to characterize them as trypanoresistant or trypanosensitive. weekly blood samples were taken for the determination of parasitemia and packed cell volume, as a measure of anemia. seven zebu cattle were also exposed to challenge at the same time. the zebu proved to be trypanosensitive with high parasitemia, pronounced anemia and died or were drug treated in extremis. five baou ...19873678447
use of dna probes to identify trypanosoma congolense and t. simiae in tsetse flies from the gambia.species- and strain-specific dna probes were used to identify patent midgut infections in glossina morsitans submorsitans and g. palpalis gambiensis captured at four sites in the gambia. 52% of mature nannomonas infections and 12% of immature infections were identified. trypanosoma (nannomonas) simiae accounted for the majority of identified infections in g.m. submorsitans, indicating the importance of distinguishing this species from the closely related t.(n) congolense when assessing the trypa ...19892566262
improved identification of nannomonas infections in tsetse flies from the gambia.trypanosomes from 36 midgut infections were isolated in procyclic culture from glossina morsitans submorsitans and g. palpalis gambiensis in the gambia. twenty-eight stocks (78%) were identified using dna probes specific for: (a) trypanosoma (nannomonas) congolense savannah type, (b) t. (n.) congolense riverine-forest type, (c) t. (n.) simiae and (d) trypanozoon, t. simiae and savannah type t. congolense were found only in g.m. submorsitans while the riverine-forest type t. congolense was restri ...19901980568
successful application of deltamethrin pour on to cattle in a campaign against tsetse flies (glossina spp.) in the pastoral zone of samorogouan, burkina faso.1,500-2,000 head of cattle were treated with deltamethrin 1% spot on in an area of high tsetse densities, notably of glossina morsitans submorsitans. after four treatments at monthly intervals, the time between two treatments was increased to two months. 11 months after the commencement of the campaign the fly population had decreased from initially 54.2 flies/trap/day to densities varying between 0.06-2.0 flies/trap/day, mostly g. palpalis gambiensis. blood-meal analysis showed that this specie ...19958533022
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