[changes in carbohydrate metabolism in hens experimentally infected with pasteurella multocida kokoshki].studied were the concentration of blood sugar, the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase, and the level of glycogen in the liver of p. multocida infected chickens. an abrupt decrease of the liver glycogen was found as well as a negligible rise of the blood sugar. the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase remained unchanged, and that of glucose-6-dehydrogenase was twice as high. it is concluded that the intense exhaustion of liver glycogen is in connection with the ac ...1975174282
vaccination immunity to selected diseases in chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone.chickens fed the androgen analog mibolerone during the first 7 weeks of life regress their bursa of fabricius but can be properly immunized by vaccination against avian pathogens of major economic importance such as newcastle disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, fowl pox virus, marek's disease virus, and pasteurella multocida, the pathogen causing fowl cholera. these findings on immunocompetence to infectious agents are im ...1978209430
comparison of effects of dietary t-2 toxin on growth, immunogenic organs, antibody formation, and pathologic changes in turkeys and chickens.the effect of t-2 toxin (trichothecene mycotoxin) consumption on broad-breasted white turkey poults and white leghorn chicks was studied. groups of ten 8-day-old poults were fed rations containing t-2 at 10 ppm, 2ppm, or 0 ppm (controls) for a period of 4 weeks; a 4th group (inanition control) was fed control rations equal to the amount consumed by the group fed rations containing t-2 at 10 ppm during the previous 24 hours. a similar experimental design was used to study the effect of the toxin ...1978362995
response of young chickens and turkeys to virulent and avirulent pasteurella multocida administered by various routes.groups of 20 young chickens and turkeys obtained from commercial flocks and placed in pens with pine shavings over concrete floors or from the hatchery and grown on wire, were exposed to avirulent pasteurella multocida serotype 3,4 cross or virulent p. multocida serotype 3 by drinking water, ocular, subcutaneous, intracutaneous, or palatine cleft routes. a secondary exposure to virulent p. multocida serotype 1 by the palatine cleft route was given 14 days later, except that birds exposed by pala ...1978646754
effect of bursectomy and thymectomy on pasteurella multocida infection in chickens.the effects of various treatments on the immune response of chickens to vaccine prepared from pasteurella multocida strain p1059 were investigated. the treatments, given on or before the day of hatching, consisted of surgical bursectomy (sb), hormonal bursectomy (hb), surgical thymectomy (st) and x-irradiation (x). in chickens subjected to sb, sbx or hb before vaccination, the production of agglutinin and immunoglobulin was impaired, but the production of resistance against challenge was not. in ...1978682178
properties of free endotoxin from pasteurella endotoxin (fet) from virulent encapsulated pasteurella multocida or from an avirulent nonencapsulated mutant is capable of inducing active immunity, but the lipopolysaccharide (lps) moiety of the endotoxin is not. these results suggest that a protein of p multocida is involved in the stimulation of active immunity. the serologic specificity of the fet is associated with the lps moiety, which is related to a heat extracted antigen that is used for serotyping p multocida. the fet is capable o ...19751092224
diverse effects of bursectomy on humoral immune responses in the chicken.chickens bursectomized hormonally or surgically at various ages in embryonic to postembryonic lives were immunized with a mixture of antigens, and the antibodies produced titrated. immune responses to salmonella pullorum (sp), brucella abortus (ba). staphylococcus aureus (staph) and ovalbumin (oa) were more markedly suppressed by the bursal deprivation than those to heterogenous erythrocytes, viruses and such bacteria as pasteurella multocida (pm) and escherichia coli b. the immune response to b ...19751187514
a comparison of commercial mycoplasma gallisepticum antigens in the rapid serum agglutination test.twenty-three chickens, aged 9 weeks, were housed in contact with a similar group of chickens which were infected with m. gallisepticum. the onset and development of the serum agglutinin responses which were detected by 3 commercial antigens using rapid serum agglutination tests up to 20 weeks of age, differed greatly both between the infected and in-contact groups and, within the latter group, between the antigens. few reactions, which were weak and transient, were detected in 2 similar groups o ...19751222006
response of broiler chickens to fowl cholera vaccination at 1 to 6 weeks of age.broiler chickens, in groups of 10, received a single vaccination by the stick-wing route at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 11 weeks of age with live clemson university strain of pasteurella multocida. twenty non-vaccinates kept in isolation served as controls. cholera serum antibody titers in all chickens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at weekly intervals. chickens vaccinated once at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks, respectively, attained 25.2%, 28.7%, 34.7%, 46.2%, 51.8%, and 64.6% of th ...19911786010
characterization and comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities and outer membrane protein and plasmid dna profiles of pasteurella haemolytica and certain other members of the genus pasteurella.the outer membrane protein (omp), plasmid, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of pasteurella haemolytica serotypes 1 through 12, a bovine isolate of p multocida, a chicken isolate of p multocida, and an unidentified pasteurella species of bovine origin were examined. isolates of p haemolytica serotypes belonging to the same biotype possessed similar omp profiles. biotype a isolates contained 2 prominent omp of 43 kilodaltons (kd) and 29 kd, whereas biotype-t serotypes contained 3 major omp of ...19911789515
estimates of quantitative genetic parameters of immunological traits in the chicken.three in vivo assays were used to measure the immunocompetence of chickens in two generations of a selection experiment. the obtained data were used to estimate the variance components for sire and dam for antibody production to pasteurella multocida and mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines, for t-cell-mediated immunity evaluated by a phytohemagglutinin wing web assay, and for clearance of foreign particles from the circulatory system. heritabilities of and genetic correlations among these immunolo ...19911956847
evaluation of the specificity of pasteurella multocida somatic antigen-typing antisera prepared in chickens, using ribosome-lipopolysaccharide complexes as inocula.purified lipopolysaccharides (lps) from 16 serotypes of pasteurella multocida were complexed with aspergillus fumigatus ribosomes. the complexes were used as inocula to prepare antisera, in chickens, for somatic antigen typing by the gel diffusion precipitin test (gdpt). antisera made against 15 of 16 lps reacted with their respective specific heat-stable antigens in the gdpt and homologous lps in the passive hemagglutination test. antisera could not be made against serotype 15 lps. correlation ...19892521991
in vivo studies with dimethyldithiocarbamate, a possible new antimicrobial for use against aspergillus fumigatus in poultry.dimethyldithiocarbamate (dmdtc), the carbamate analogue, was tested for therapeutic efficacy in a series of in vivo challenge trials using 5- and 10-week-old white leghorn chickens. challenge organisms were pasteurella multocida x-73, escherichia coli o1:k1, and aspergillus fumigatus. birds were evaluated for survival rates, lesion scores, and the rate at which the bacteria or mold could be reisolated following challenge. results showed dmdtc to be ineffective against p. multocida and e. coli at ...19892549938
fowl cholera immunity induced by various vaccines in broiler minibreeder chickens determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.broiler minibreeder hens were vaccinated for protection against fowl cholera at 12 and 21 weeks of age using several vaccination schemes, which included a live pasteurella multocida (cu strain) vaccine, two commercial polyvalent fowl cholera oil-based bacterins, and two experimentally prepared polyvalent oil-based bacterins. some treatment groups received only live or killed vaccines, whereas others received a live vaccine at 12 weeks followed by a killed product at 21 weeks. at 42 weeks of age, ...19892930408
evaluation of the specificity and sensitivity of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, the serum plate agglutination test, and the hemagglutination-inhibition test for antibodies formed in response to mycoplasma gallisepticum.two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kits, seven serum plate agglutination (spa) antigens, and the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test for antibodies to mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared for sensitivity and specificity using known mg-positive and mg-negative sera from leghorn chickens. all spa antigens proved to be highly sensitive when testing mg-positive sera. laboratory-prepared spa antigens yielded fewer positive reactions when testing mg-negative sera than co ...19883041957
cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: protection against escherichia coli airsacculitis by pasteurella multocida-activated respiratory phagocytes.the concept of nonspecific cellular defense of the respiratory system of poultry against respiratory pathogens by "preventive activation" of avian respiratory phagocytes (arps) was tested in an in vivo protection trial. chickens were stimulated intratracheally by pasteurella multocida choloral vaccine strain. seven hours later, these and mock-inoculated control chickens were challenged with pathogenic escherichia coli via the air-sac route. stimulated chickens had a 25-fold-elevated number of ar ...19883060087
immunity to pasteurella multocida in protein-deficient chickens.studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein restriction on the humoral immunity (hi) and cell-mediated immunity (cmi) of chickens. new hampshire chickens were separated into two dietary treatment groups: basal, containing 3,200 kcal/kg and 21% protein; or protein restricted (pr), containing 3,200 kcal/kg and 7% protein. in studies involving hi, half of the birds in each dietary treatment were vaccinated against fowl cholera at 4 and 8 wk of age. blood samples were collecte ...19902084673
genetic analysis of immunocompetence measures in a white leghorn chicken line.immunocompetence of the iowa state university s1 white leghorn chicken line was studied. this line was divided into eight sublines based upon erythrocyte antigen b (ea-b) allele (b1b1 or b19b19), antibody response to glutamic acid60-alanine30-tyrosine10 (gat) (high or low), and response to rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors (progression or regression). antibody responses to pasteurella multocida (pm), mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), and infectious bursal disease virus vaccines were evaluated by en ...19883265514
[pasteurella multocida as the cause of disease outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks].six cases of fowl cholera in growing turkeys and 3 in adult breeder chickens of the broiler type as well as one case each of a pasteurella (p.) multocida-associated disease in ducklings and goslings were described in consideration of own laboratory findings and available informations of the case history. furthermore a report is given on a treatment strategy successfully used in turkeys with highly acute fowl cholera. all the p. multocida strains isolated culturally could be assigned to the subsp ...19911953629
interaction of naturally occurring aflatoxins in poultry feed and immunization against fowl cholera.a total of 1,175 poultry feed samples originating from different farms were analyzed for aflatoxin. poor growth rate and reduced egg production were the main complaints. the rate of contamination with aflatoxin ranged from 10 to 54% of all samples. of samples examined 30.7% proved positive for aflatoxin with a concentration ranging from 1 to 2,000 ppb. outbreaks of fowl cholera were diagnosed on two farms where aflatoxin was detected in the rations used. the impact of aflatoxin in the feed on th ...19911784563
studies on pasteurella multocida of birds. third communication: serological typing of pasteurella multocida strains isolated from chickens and turkeys. 19873606315
the first outbreak of fowl cholera in muscovy ducks (cairina moschata) in japan.the first outbreak of fowl cholera occurred in a flock of muscovy ducks (cairina moschata) in okinawa prefecture of japan in november 1990. fifty (25%) of 200 birds in a farm died of an acute disease. remaining birds recovered after treatment with oxytetracycline. pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida was isolated in pure culture from all tissues tested from two dead birds. serovars of the isolates were identified as carter's capsular type a. heddleston's type 3.4.12, and namioka's type 5:a whi ...19921477178
[enzootic dermonecrosis in chickens].an enzootic of necrotic dermatosis in hen layers was described. the changes consisted in that they had constant localization and demarkated sites on the skin between the back and the neck. the disease was observed on a farm for 5000 layers in the course of two consecutive years. all birds contracted the disease and in the first year they recovered the 10 months; in second year they recovered for three months. each bird showed symptoms for 3 weeks. the skin lesions resulted in cicatrization. the ...1976951928
fowl cholera: induction of cross-protection in turkeys with bacterins prepared from host-passaged pasteurella multocida.modified fowl cholera bacterins prepared by inoculating agar medium with infected liver tissue from birds which died of acute fowl cholera induced 70% cross-protection in turkeys, i.e., protection against a different immunologic type of pasteurella multocida. standard bacterins prepared from cultures which had been lyophilized and stored showed variable cross-protection (0--40%). repeated subculturing of the standard inoculum on agar reduced cross-protection. the protection with either the modif ...1977843303
immunogenic activity of a ribosomal fraction obtained from pasteurella multocida.the cells of p. multocida strain p-1059 were destroyed with the french pressure cell; the ribosomal fraction proven to be homogeneous by analytical ultracentrifugation was obtained from the product by centrifugal fractionation, zonal electrophoresis, and sephadex g-200 gel filtration. the ribosomal fraction exhibited intense protective antigenicity in mice and chickens, but the lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) and the other bacterial cell fraction obtained in this experiment did not. sodium deoxyc ...1977832895
mechanisms of acquired resistance to pasteurella multocida infection: a review.pasteurella multocida is an animal parasite of considerable economic and veterinary importance. the organism produces both capsular polysaccharide and somatic (lipopolysaccharide) antigens used to serotype the organisms. correlations exist between antigenic structure, host susceptibility and strain virulence. the host response seems to be predominantly polymorphonuclear in nature, with little evidence of a mononuclear component in the host response to infection. in the absence of specific opsoni ...1977832473
immunogenic and toxic properties of a purified lipopolysaccharide-protein complex from pasteurella immunogenic fraction from pasteurella multocida was found to consist chiefly of a high-molecular-weight protein-polysaccharide complex containing 25 to 27% protein and 10.7% carbohydrate. the starting material was obtained by differential centrifugation at 105,000 x g of saline extract of p. multocida cells and further purified by gel filtration on sepharose 2b. three peaks were usually obtained after gel filtraion.pharose 2b. three peaks were usually obtained after gel filtration. the compon ...1976825472
subcutaneous vaccination of chickens with a live, avirulent pasteurella multocida, vaccine.the immunogenic responses to various routes of vaccination of broiler-type chickens to the clemson university strain of pasteurella multocida were evaluated. broilers were vaccinated at 9 or 10 weeks of age using the oral (drinking water), palatine cleft, ocular, or subcutaneous injection routes. all birds were challenged at 11 or 12 weeks of age with virulent x-73 strain of p. multocida by the palatine cleft method. the degree of efficacy of the various vaccination routes differed among three e ...1978751031
observations on avian pasteurellosis in investigation into the extent and significance of pasteurella multocida infections of birds and poultry in britain during a three year period (1974--1977) was undertaken. this was achieved by means of postal questionnaires, coupled with the biochemical and serological examination of bacterial isolates from 91 outbreaks in poultry and from nine cases in other avian species.1979473564
fowl cholera: active immunity induced in chickens and turkeys by oral administration of killed pasteurella multocida. 19684966901
vaccination of chickens through the drinking water with a live, pasteurella multocida, vaccine.broiler-type chickens were vaccinated orally at several ages with various dilutions of the clemson university (cu) strain of pasteurella multocida vaccine and then challenged orally with virulent strain p-1059 or strain x-73 of p. multocida to determine the degree of protection produced by vaccination. when vaccinated at 8 and 12 weeks of age for 2 consecutive days with a 1:133 dilution of the vaccine and then challenged at 17 and 19 weeks of age with strain x-73 and p-1059 p. multocida, respect ...1979471883
serotyping of pasteurella multocida isolants from poultry.a total of 607 pasteurella multocida strains were isolated in israel from turkeys, geese, and chickens. serotyping was carried out by the gel-diffusion precipitin test. the antigens were heat-stable saline extracts of the organisms, and the diagnostic sera were produced in chickens using formalinized bacterins. among 31 serotypes containing one to five antigenic factors, serotypes 1 and 3 accounted for 58.1%, 80.8%, and 88.9% isolants from turkeys, geese, and chickens, respectively. on the basis ...1979118742
cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.the respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. intratracheal inoculation with pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (p less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of white rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. we found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cel ...19883239844
synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 20-deoxo-20-(3,5-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)desmycosin (tilmicosin, el-870) and related cyclic amino derivatives.a series of 20-deoxo-20-cyclic (alkylamino) derivatives of tylosin, desmycosin, macrocin and lactenocin was prepared by reductive amination of the c-20 aldehyde group. the majority of the compounds were prepared using metal hydrides (sodium cyanoborohydride or sodium borohydride) as the reducing agents and a suitable cyclic alkylamine. subsequently, a more convenient procedure was developed using formic acid as a reducing agent. the c-20 amino derivatives prepared from desmycosin exhibited good ...19892668243
protection of chickens by ribosomal vaccines from pasteurella multocida: dependence on homologous lipopolysaccharide.chickens were protected against fowl cholera by ribosomal vaccines prepared from noncapsulated pasteurella multocida. passive hemagglutination (pha) titers to lipopolysaccharide (lps) and the degree of protection conferred by ribosomal vaccines were diminished or abolished when ribosomes were chromatographed on an immunoadsorbent column. addition of subimmunogenic amounts of serotype 1 (homologous) lps to highly purified ribosomes resulted in vaccines that protected against challenge exposure an ...19846208828
the response of broiler breeder chickens to parenteral administration of avirulent pasteurella multocida.broiler breeder chickens were exposed to avirulent pasteurella multocida at 14, 22, and 34 weeks of age either by stick wing 1 to 3 times or subcutaneously 3 times. fowl pox vaccine was mixed with the first p. multocida exposure in some groups. exposure did not impair egg production or hatch of fertile eggs. challenge with pathogenic p. multocida serotype 1 at 68 weeks indicated that exposure to avirulent p. multocida 2 or 3 times provided better protection than 1 exposure. mixing fowl pox vacci ...19806255928
virulence and toxigenicity of capsular serogroup d pasteurella multocida strains isolated from avian hosts.five capsular serogroup d strains of pasteurella multocida isolated from avian hosts were examined for virulence and toxigenicity. virulence was based on development of lethal infections or lesions following intramuscular exposure of turkey poults. the four strains isolated from turkeys varied from slightly to moderately virulent; the strain isolated from a chicken was avirulent. poults exposed by intra-airsac inoculation with relatively few organisms of the more virulent of the strains had a hi ...19902369378
a survey of potential virulence markers from avian strains of pasteurella multocida.twenty-four isolates of pasteurella multocida from clinical cases of fowl cholera and the clemson university vaccine strain were surveyed for the presence of potential virulence markers. membrane proteins, enzymatic activity of the membrane proteins, and carbohydrate fermentation patterns were also determined to demonstrate phenotypic relationships within the groups. few differences were found in these phenotypic characteristics among the isolates. almost all the organisms produced siderophore a ...19912024443
[biochemical tests for identifying pasteurella multocida].studied was the biochemical activity of a total of 168 strains of pasteurella--73 isolated from birds (48 from cases of acute fowl cholera, and 25--of chronic cholera), and 95 isolated from mammals (3 from lambs, 24 from pigs, 36 from cattle, and 32 from rabbits) with regard to the tests determining the hemolytic activity, production of indol, reduction of nitrates, breakdown of urea, beta galactosidase activity, production of hydrogen sulfide, ornitin-, arginine-, lysine-decarboxylase-, and pho ...19846528479
proteins and antigens of pasteurella multocida serotype 1 from fowl cholera.the protein profiles of pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolates and the response of chickens to serotype 1 antigens were investigated using sds-page. patterns obtained with coomassie blue staining of soluble protein extracts were similar. the major difference between isolates was the position of one of the major proteins in the 34-38 kda region. when chickens were experimentally infected with a clinical isolate of p. multocida serotype 1 various proteins were recognised by immunoblotting, incl ...19911829560
occupational exposure to animals and antibodies against pasteurella multocida.the relation between occupational exposure to cattle and prevalence of antibodies against pasteurella multocida was evaluated in 680 workers. three groups of exposed workers in abattoirs and slaughterhouses (s), in industrial breeding (i), and in traditional breeding (t) were compared with control workers not exposed to cattle or chicken (c). the prevalence of antibodies against capsular antigen a determined by indirect haemagglutination was significantly higher in the exposed groups (s: 26.2%; ...19873689719
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies to pasteurella multocida in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect the humoral antibody response in chickens receiving subcutaneous injections of the cu vaccine strain of pasteurella multocida. serum samples were collected twice weekly for 3 weeks, and chicken antibody responses were monitored using elisa. the positive/negative ratio method of analysis was used to determine the antibody titer of vaccinated chickens. after a loge transformation of the elisa titer, a linear relationship was conf ...19846721793
fowl cholera; cross-protective turkey antisera and igg antibodies induced with pasteurella multocida-infected tissue bacterins.turkey antisera induced with formolized pasteurella multocida-infected tissues (t antisera) passively cross-immunized 48 of 55 chickens against a challenge dose of p. multocida organisms, from which 0 of 15 controls survived. however, turkey antisera induced with formalin-killed, agar-cultured p. multocida cells (a antisera) passively cross-immunized only 4 of 30 chickens. cross-immunity refers to protection against a different immunologic type of p. multocida. quantitative precipitin reactions ...1975804994
pasteurella multocida infection of broiler chickens. 1978716191
attenutated live fowl cholera vaccine. iii. laboratory and field vaccination trials in turkeys and chickens.administered via the drinking water, m-3-g, an attenuated strain of pasteurella multocida of serotype 1, was found to immunize turkeys and chickens against fowl cholera. immunity was tested by challenging birds intramuscularly, by palatine cleft swab, or orally after 3 vaccinations. no reactions to vaccination were noted in 390 turkeys in 12 laboratory trials, nor in 20,245 vaccinated in field trials. chickens showed no vaccination reactions, and immunity was elicited by challenge in a laborator ...1979546411
observations on the differences concerning the immunizing ability of pasteurella multocida of avian origin. 1979546373
pasteurella multocida as a cause of arthrosynovitis and tenosynovitis in broiler chickens. 1979475684
probability of survival based on elisa titer following challenge of vaccinated chickens with the x-73 strain of pasteurella multocida.the probability of survival of chickens following a challenge dose of the x-73 strain of pasteurella multocida was calculated based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) titer. chickens were vaccinated subcutaneously with the clemson university strain of p. multocida. on days 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 21, and 28 post-vaccination, 10 vaccinated chickens and 5 unvaccinated controls were selected at random, bled, and then challenged with 2000 colony-forming units of x-73. the elisa titers to p. m ...19853833233
fowl cholera bacterins: host-specific cross-immunity induced in turkeys with pasteurella multocida propagated in embryonating turkey eggs. 19744133381
serotype results of pasteurella multocida isolated from poultry in south carolina. 19744828583
replacement of sodium chloride with dextran or polyethylene glycol for immunoprecipitation of lipopolysaccharide with antibodies in chicken or turkey sera.dextran or polyethylene glycol could replace sodium chloride in agarose gels for inducing immunoprecipitation of pasteurella multocida lipopolysaccharides with antibodies in chicken or turkey sera. resolution of immunoprecipitates was best when 3% concentrations of either dextran or polyethylene glycol were used. higher concentrations increased opacity of the gels. nonspecific precipitation of serum or gamma-globulin fractions in gels was caused by the electrophoresis buffer, dextran, and polyet ...19836191433
fowl cholera: immunization of chickens with potassium thiocyanate (kscn) extract of pasteurella multocida serotype 3.potassium thiocyanate (kscn) extract of pasteurella multocida, serotype 3, was found to be immunogenic against a challenge infection of homologous as well as one heterologous strain tested (serotype 1). ouchterlony's gel-diffusion analysis revealed the presence of two components in the kscn-extracts of both serotypes 3 and 1, which were antigenically identical.1977606217
serotyping of isolates of pasteurella multocida from chickens. 19892499301
cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: influx and nonopsonic phagocytosis by respiratory phagocytes activated by pasteurella multocida.poultry have a very limited number of resident macrophages in the normal steady-state respiratory tract. thus, poultry must rely heavily on active migration of phagocytic cells to the lungs and air sacs in defending against respiratory pathogens. intratracheal administration of a live, apathogenic pasteurella multocida vaccine (choloral; clemson university strain) increased the number of avian respiratory phagocytes (arp; obtained by lavage of lungs and air sacs) within 24 h by 3 orders of magni ...19883356464
[determination of the nucleotide composition of pasteurella multocida strains].studied was spectrophotometrically the nucleotide composition of dna of pasteurella multocida strains along with studies on the nucleotide base ratio, the molar relations between nucleotide bases, the guanine/cytosine ratio in percent, and the specificity index adenine-tinin/guanine cytosine. the strains used were isolated from birds with various forms of fowl cholera (acute, atypic, and swelling of the wattles), and from calves with bronchopneumonia. used were also mutants that were streptomyci ...19817340107
comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemagglutination test for quantitating antibody responses in chickens against pasteurella indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to measure humoral antibody responses of chickens against pasteurella multocida. a standard indirect hemagglutination (iha) test was used to compare serologic results with those of elisa. the elisa was also used following challenge with p. multocida to compare the efficacy of three commercial fowl cholera vaccination regimens. although antibody titers measured by elisa and iha were highly correlated, elisa was at least twice as ...19836651697
genetic resistance to fowl cholera is linked to the major histocompatibility complex.chickens of the iowa state s1 line have been selected for ability to regress rous sarcoma virus-induced (rsv) tumors, humoral immune response to gat (ir-gat), and erythrocyte antigen b. sublines homozygous at the major histocompatibility complex (mhc), as well as f1 heterozygotes and f2 segregants, were tested for resistance to fowl cholera by challenge with pasteurella multocida strain x73. control of the response at high doses was associated in a preliminary study with ir-gat and response to r ...19873570380
cell-mediated immune protection in chickens against pasteurella multocida.immune protection by cellular immunity in chickens against pasteurella multocida was investigated by in vivo and in vitro experiments using spleen cells and culture supernatants of immunised chickens. intraperitoneal or intravenous transfer of immune splenic cells into normal chickens induced transmission of an as effective protection as that exhibited in immunised chickens. immune protection was also obtained by intravenous treatment of chickens with culture supernatant fluid from immune spleni ...19846718821
response of broiler-type chickens to live pasteurella multocida--duration of immunity and minimum dose.broiler-type chickens were exposed to avirulent pasteurella multocida by stick-wing once or twice, and groups were challenged with pathogenic p. multocida at 20, 50, or 80 weeks postexposure. immunity was not lower when chickens were challenged at 80 weeks rather than at 20 and 50 weeks postexposure. various doses of avirulent p. multocida were administered by stick-wing or subcutaneously in the back of the neck. results of challenge at 20 weeks postexposure indicated that protection was reduced ...19846721802
chemotaxis of fowl monocytes to pasteurella multocida and associated antigens.the interaction of monocytes and serum from pasteurella multocida-immunized and non-immunized turkeys and chickens was studied for their chemotactic activity to lipopolysaccharide, free endotoxin, and p. multocida whole cells. chemotactic factors were released from the interaction between either normal sera or antisera and the bacterial antigens. heating of the sera affected their ability to interact and release chemotaxins. heated normal sera were ineffective and heated antisera were less effec ...19807447836
fowl cholera: protection against pasteurella multocida by ribosome-lipopolysaccharide vaccine.ribosomal protein from aspergillus fumigatus substituted for intact ribosomes in potentiating the immunogenicity of pasteurella multocida lipopolysaccharide. ribosomal protein behaved as a carrier for the lipopolysaccharide. the basic protein methylated albumin, but not protamine sulfate, substituted for ribosomal protein as a carrier for lipopolysaccharide. synthetic single- and double-stranded polynucleotides did not function as an adjuvant to potentiate the immunogenicity of lipopolysaccharid ...19863729887
a serotypic survey of pasteurella multocida isolated from hundred forty-eight pasteurella multocida isolates from four southeastern states and california were serotyped by a gel diffusion precipitin test. the isolates were predominantly from turkeys and chickens. sixty-eight percent of the isolates had antigenic characteristics of serotypes 3 and 4 (3 x 4). in turkeys, 76% of the isolates were 3 x 4, and serotype 3 was second (17%) in frequency. in chickens, 54% of the isolates were 3 x 4 and 19% were serotype 1.19863767823
diseases and management of backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, gather information on backyard chicken flocks in chitungwiza, an urban center in zimbabwe, 85 flock owners were interviewed. the mean flock size was 53 birds (range 1-650), and most birds were kept for meat, for either domestic consumption or local sale. mean age at slaughter was 12.4 weeks (range 8-24). none of the owners vaccinated their birds, and reported mortality rates were high (mean 25%), most commonly being associated with diseases causing eye and respiratory problems. most owners co ...19947832719
fowl cholera immunity in broiler breeder chickens determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect antibodies in broiler breeders vaccinated (wing web) with the cu fowl cholera vaccine. birds were bled weekly from 9 to 26 weeks, every other week from 26 to 40 weeks, and every 4 weeks from 40 to 56 weeks of age. overall mean elisa antibody titers (9 to 56 weeks) reported as log10 values and survivability of the vaccinates after virulent challenge were as follows: unvaccinated--5.75, 48%; birds vaccinated once at 8 weeks--5.91 ...19854074239
serological and biochemical characteristics of pasteurella multocida from free-flying birds and poultry. 19724628015
evaluation of the microagglutination test in the diagnosis of mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in chickens.the sensitivity and specificity of the microagglutination (ma), serum-plate-agglutination (sp), and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test for mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) were compared in groups of chickens infected with mg, m. synoviae, or pasteurella multocida or inoculated with bacterins prepared from staphylococcus aureus or erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. of the three tests evaluated, the hi test had the highest specificity, but it was the least sensitive. both the ma and sp tests were more ...19846721803
use of a 35.5 kda cell membrane composition of pasteurella multocida and an anti-idiotype antibody to induce protective immunity in leghorn chickens.using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis, a 35.5 kda cell membrane composition of pasteurella multocida atcc 11039 was identified as a dominant epitope of the bacterium. mice inoculated with inactivated whole bacteria produce antisera primary reactive with the 35.5 kda component (pm35.5) in western blot analysis. the outer membrane component was composed primarily of protein but did have lipopolysaccharide present at 133 micrograms mg-1 protein. in challenge trials (tri ...19948066998
immunogens of pasteurella.the family pasteurellaceae pohl contains gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic and fermentative bacteria of the genera pasteurella, haemophilus, and actinobacillus. approximately 20 different species of the genus pasteurella have been identified using phenotypic and genetic analyses. of these species, p. multocida and p. haemolytica are the most prominent pathogens in domestic animals causing severe diseases and major economic losses in the cattle, swine, sheep, and poultry industries. mechanis ...19938116191
comparison of various antigens and their ability to detect protective antibodies against pasteurella multocida using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.various antigenic extracts of the cu strain of pasteurella multocida were prepared to determine their suitability as plate antigens for use in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of fowl cholera antibodies. antisera from two separate broiler breeder flocks with known fowl-cholera-vaccination histories were collected just before the birds were challenged with virulent strain x-73 p. multocida. a potassium thiocyanate (kscn)-extracted antigen, a capsular (cap) antigen, ...19863767814
observations on the prevalence of avian pasteurella multocida serotypes. 19705456432
serological types of pasteurella multocida isolated from turkeys and chickens in canada.outbreaks of fowl cholera continue to plague the canadian poultry industry despite widespread immunization against the causative agent, pasteurella multocida. fowl cholera bacterins currently employed by domestic poultry growers contain three serological types, namely, serotypes 1, 3, and 4. in this study a total of 84 strains of p. multocida were isolated in canada from outbreaks of fowl cholera in turkeys and chickens. serotyping was accomplished using the gel diffusion precipitin test. based ...19826182966
the effect of formalin-killing of pasteurella multocida on the antigenicity and extractability of its lipopolysaccharide.the extraction of lipopolysaccharides (lps) from formalin-killed (fk) pasteurella multocida strain x-73 and from cells not exposed to formalin (nf) were compared by the westphal and phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether (pcp) extraction procedures. the lps was determined by: (1) serologic analyses with antiserum specific for lps; (2) analyses for toxicity; and (3) chemical analyses for components expected to be in lps (such as hexoses, heptoses, amino sugars, 3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, and fatty acids ...19846209011
comparisons of serologic responses of white leghorn and new hampshire red chickens to purified lipopolysaccharides of pasteurella multocida.white leghorn and new hampshire red chickens were inoculated with purified lipopolysaccharides of 14 serotypes of pasteurella multocida to determine their ability to produce serotype-specific antisera for somatic antigen typing. specific antisera were made by both breeds of chicken to lipopolysaccharides of serotypes 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 16. no specific antisera were made against lipopolysaccharides of serotypes 2, 5, 7, 12, and 14. lipopolysaccharides of serotypes 10 and 11 failed to stimulate an ...19846441558
isolation of a spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor from chicken seminal plasma with antibacterial property.a 78-kda spermatozoa motility inhibiting factor (smif) was purified from chicken (gallus domesticus) seminal plasma by anion exchange (de-53) followed by affinity chromatography on concanavalin a-sepharose. the factor is thermostable and inhibited the spermatozoa motility in a dose dependent manner. in addition, smif inhibited the growth of gram negative bacteria, pasteurella multocida but not gram positive streptococcus equi. the factor lost its spermatozoa immobilizing property after treatment ...19958541320
investigation to determine whether healthy chickens and turkeys are oral carriers of pasteurella investigate to what extent healthy chickens and turkeys may be carriers of pasteurella multocida, oral swabs were examined from birds in flocks with or without a history of avian pasteurellosis. in all 841 specimens were examined by cultural methods but 142 were also tested by mouse inoculation. p multocida was not found in specimens from normal healthy flocks but was recovered from some live chickens in known infected flocks and from dead turkeys on an infected farm. the implications of thes ...19817222434
immunoelectrophoresis employing avian antisera for the detection and quantitation of pasteurella multocida antigens.immunoelectrophoresis with various buffer systems at high and low ph was examined for suitability to detect and quantitate pasteurella multocida antigens with turkey or chicken anti-p. multocida sera. counterimmunoelectrophoresis was used to develop a buffer system for one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and rocket immunoelectrophoresis. the effects of ph, buffer, and molarity on resolution of immunoprecipitates were determined; 0.05 m sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer at ph 5.6 was the most suita ...19817264316
lipopolysaccharides of the heddleston serotypes of pasteurella multocida.lipopolysaccharides (lps) were extracted from 13 of the 16 heddleston serotypes of pasteurella multocida by phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether (pcp). serotypes 3, 9, and 13 were extracted only by phenol-water (pw). after extraction of lps of serotype 9 by pw, an additional lps was isolated by pcp. all lps contained glucose, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, and heptose. two isomers of heptose, d-glycero-d-mannoheptose and l-glycero-d-mannoheptose, were found in serotypes 2 and 5. antisera made against puri ...19846731991
immunogenicity of potassium thiocyanate extracted and electrofocused pasteurella multocida x-73i antigens in chickens and mice.the immunogenicity of antigenic fractions obtained by the extraction of pasteurella multocida strain x-73 (serotype 1) with potassium thiocyanate (kscn) was determined in chickens and mice. the initial kscn extract was centrifuged at 105 000 x g, and the antigens were separated into a particulate fraction (40p) and a soluble supernatant fraction (40s). the ultracentrifuged fractions were further resolved by preparative electrofocusing. the 40p fraction was resolved into two subgroups having isoe ...19826817905
comparisons of the serologic response of chickens to pasteurella multocida and its lipopolysaccharide.chickens were inoculated with serotype 3 pasteurella multocida cells or purified lipopolysaccharide (lps), and their serologic responses to lps and heat-stable antigens of 16 serotypes were compared. chickens inoculated with cells or lps had antibodies against lps as determined by indirect hemagglutination tests; titers were highest 2-4 weeks after the initial inoculation. sera from chickens inoculated with cells reacted with unheated and heated cell antigen in a tube-agglutination test. sera fr ...19826818939
influence of chondroitinase on indirect hemagglutination titers and phagocytosis of pasteurella multocida serogroups a, d and f.capsules of pasteurella multocida serogroups a, d and f contain mucopolysaccharides which block antigenic determinants and prevent phagocytosis. in this study, capsules of serogroup a, d and f strains of p. multocida were depolymerized by enzyme treatment. capsule depolymerization of serogroup d and f strains with chondroitinase increased indirect hemagglutination (iha) test titers and enhanced phagocytosis by swine neutrophils. capsule depolymerization of serogroup a strains with hyaluronidase ...19958748544
antimicrobial activity of chicken and turkey heterophil peptides chp1, chp2, thp1, and thp3.four avian heterophil antimicrobial cationic peptides (chicken heterophil peptides 1 and 2, and turkey heterophil peptides 1 and 3) were evaluated for in vitro microbicidal activity against selected avian pathogens and human pathogens which are harbored by birds. at concentrations of 16-2 micrograms/ml, all four avian peptides effected a greater than 90% reduction in the survival of candida albicans, salmonella enteriditis, and campylobacter jejuni. none of the peptides, including the known anti ...19958748545
[torticollis in chickens caused by pasteurella multocida (author's transl)]. 19827042284
[amino acid metabolism in pasteurella multocida studied using thin-layer chromatography].amino asid metabolism was studied by thin layer chromatography in 25 pasteurella multocida strains isolated from various manifestations of the disease chicken septicemia. six amino acids were used: dl-ornithin, l-cystein, l-asparagin, dl-serin, l-arginin and acidum glutaminicum. the pasteurella strains studied include in their metabolism the amino acid asparagin, but serin and cystein are excluded. the strains isolated from birds suffering from acute and atypical septicemia do not metabolize orn ...19807414930
virulence and morphology of pasteurella multocida of avian origin.the virulence of 100, 54 and nine avian isolates of pasteurella multocida for mice, chickens and turkey poults respectively was assessed and rated on a scale from 0 to 5. cellular and colonial morphology of the bacteria was examined after mouse passage. there was evidence of a considerable range in the virulence of the isolates for the test species, but no correlation between cellular or colonial morphology and virulence was detected. the results obtained are discussed in relation to general epi ...19807445378
serum and egg yolk igg antibody titers from laying chickens vaccinated with pasteurella multocida.through determining the serum and egg yolk antibody titers in immunized laying hens to pasteurella multocida regularly, the growth-decline trend of the egg yolk antibody levels was found to be similar to that of the serum antibody levels (r = 0.94), but the growth and decline of the egg yolk antibody seemed to be delayed 3-6 days compared with that of the serum antibody, and the egg yolk antibody titers were generally lower than those of the serum antibody (p < 0.01). serum and egg yolk antibody ...19989533099
northern bobwhites as disease indicators for the endangered attwater's prairie chicken.because of limited access to the endangered attwater's prairie chicken (tympanuchus cupido attwateri), we used a related species, the northern bobwhite (colinus virginianus), as a surrogate for disease evaluation. free-living northern bobwhites (n = 62) on the attwater prairie chicken national wildlife refuge (near eagle lake, texas, usa) were examined during spring and fall 1993 for helminthic endoparasites and specific antibodies against the infectious agents responsible for nine infectious di ...19989577783
colorimetric assay using xtt for assessing virulence of avian pasteurella multocida strains.a colorimetric assay using sodium 3,3'-[1[(phenylamino)carbonyl]3,4- tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulfonic acid hydrate (xtt) was adapted to quantitate bactericidal activity of chicken macrophage hd 11 cell line against five pasteurella multocida strains and an avirulent transposon insertion mutant. the strains used were virulent p1059, and d92, and four avirulent strains including a streptomycin resistant mutant of p1059 (p1059 smr), two live vaccine strains namely, the clemson u ...19957571370
lysates of turkey-grown pasteurella multocida: protection against homologous and heterologous serotype challenge exposures.pastereulla multocida organisms were separated from the blood of experimentally infected turkeys by differential centrifugation. an average of 92% of the residual host-cell contamination was removed from the pasteurellas by density gradient centrifugation in sucrose. sucrose suspensions of the turkey-grown pasteurellas partially lysed after freezing and thawing. treatment of freeze-thawed suspensions with dnase, hyaluronidase, lysozyme, edta, and triton x-100 did not influence their ability to i ...19816803619
fowl cholera found in imported myna birds (eulabes intermedia).of 480 myna birds imported from thailand in 1976, 54 birds died shortly after arrival in japan. bacteriological and pathological examination were carried out on seven of them. pasteurella multocida was almost purely isolated from all the liver, heart, spleen and trachea examined. somatic antigen of the isolants was o-5 of namioka and murata. dissection revealed hyperemia of the trachea, edema of the lungs, increase of pleural fluid, and petechial or ecchymotic hemorrhages in the liver, heart and ...19817335123
intracellular accumulation, subcellular distribution, and efflux of tilmicosin in chicken phagocytes.tilmicosin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic, currently approved for veterinary use in cattle and swine respiratory disease, and is in development for use in poultry mycoplasma air sacculitis. in order to provide an understanding of clinical efficacy, the in vitro interaction of tilmicosin with three types of chicken phagocytes (mq-ncsu macrophages, monocyte-macrophages, and heterophils) was evaluated. after incubation with radiolabeled tilmicosin, uptake was determined and expressed as t ...19989776059
molecular studies on avian strains of pasteurella multocida in australia.a collection of 45 strains of pasteurella multocida was assembled. the strains had been isolated from cases of fowl cholera in eastern australia over 8 years, and included mainly type a strains. all the strains were examined for plasmids and resistance to 10 antimicrobial agents and most of the strains were examined for restriction fragment length polymorphism. nine strains were assayed for pathogenicity for mice. twenty strains yielded no plasmid. seven contained a single plasmid of 1.3 kbp and ...19958545974
identification of pasteurella multocida tryptophan synthase beta-subunit by antisera against strain p1059.pasteurella multocida strain p1059 is a highly virulent bacterium which causes fowl cholera in turkeys and chickens. a genomic library of p. multocida p1059 dna was constructed using puc19, expressed in escherichia coli dh5 alpha, and screened with chicken antisera generated against p. multocida p1059. twelve out of the 4100 clones screened were immunoreactive. plasmids isolated from these twelve clones were transformed into e. coli csr603 for maxicell analysis. five proteins, with molecular mas ...19968581158
failure of ribosomes from nonencapsulated pasteurella multocida to protect cf-1 mice.monomeric ribosomes (70s) were isolated from nonencapsulated pasteurella multocida strain x-73 by mechanical disruption and by chemical lysis. contamination of the initial preparations by lipopolysaccharide (lps) was evident by gel immunodiffusion. gel filtration chromatography of the 70s ribosomes resulted in ribosomes with lps contamination below the concentration that was detected by gel immunodiffusion, but chickens vaccinated with these preparations responded serologically to lps by produci ...19817325439
serologic and parasitologic survey of the endangered attwater's prairie chicken.because conservation biologists have postulated that infectious diseases may have potentiated the endangerment of the attwater's prairie chicken (tympanuchus cupido attwateri), free-living prairie chickens were surveyed from all remaining populations for helminthic endoparasites and antibody against the etiological agents of nine infectious diseases. samples from 4 of 27 adult males were positive for anti-pasteurella multocida antibody. all other serologic tests were negative (n = 19). we identi ...19989476235
cyclophosphamide-induced induced immunosuppression demonstrated in pasteurella multocida-vaccinated chickens. 19817271659
effects of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex and crude capsular antigens of pasteurella multocida serotype a on antibody responses and delayed type hypersensitivity responses in the chicken.the effects of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (lps) and crude capsular antigen (cca) prepared from pasteurella multocida serotype a isolated from a duck in the philippines, on antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (srbc) and brucella abortus (ba) and delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) responses to bovine serum albumin (bsa) in the chickens were studied. chickens injected subcutaneously with lps and cca at 1 and 2 weeks of age and immunized intravenously with the mixed antigens of ...199910379953
identification of common antigens of serotype 1 and serotype 3 pasteurella multocida in poultry expressed in vivo.eight groups of chicken immune sera and one group of turkey immune sera were used to identify unique in vivo-expressed antigens of pasteurella multocida by western immunoblotting. when antisera were prepared against the detergent-insoluble fraction of in vivo-grown p-1059, live x-73, live p-1059, live 86-1913, live p-1662, and live p-1702, they recognized four major antigens on immunoblots of the detergent-insoluble fraction of in vivo-grown serotype 1 and in vivo-grown serotype 3. these four an ...19947980285
restriction endonuclease analysis using hhal and hpall to discriminate among group b pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia.the purpose of this study was to improve and standardise restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) for discriminating isolates of serogroup b pasteurella multocida associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia in wild and domestic animals and to create a reference database that can be used for epidemiological studies. two techniques for extraction and isolation of chromosomal dna were compared, a dnazol method and an enzymic lysis followed by a two-phase partition method. no differences were observed b ...200010628829
effect of three commercially available adjuvants on the production of antibodies to pasteurella multocida in broilers.three commercially available adjuvants--incomplete freund's, ribi adjuvant system, and hunter's titermax--were used to compare antibody responses of broilers to pasteurella multocida antigen. differences among treatments over the 9-week study were determined by measuring antibody responses of twice-vaccinated birds using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. the antibody level induced by the vaccine with incomplete freund's adjuvant was the highest, followed by the vaccines with titermax and ribi.19947980287
stimulation of avian respiratory phagocytes by pasteurella multocida: effects of the route of exposure, bacterial dosage and strain, and the age of chickens.the effects of the route of exposure (intratracheal [it], drinking water [dw] and aerosolization [as]), the age of chickens, and the dose of two vaccine strains of pasteurella multocida (cu and m-9) on the number, phagocytic proportion and capacity of macrophages, granulocytes and lymphocytes (collectively avian respiratory phagocytes [arps]) were analyzed. administration of p. multocida via the dw even at very high dose failed to stimulate arps. in contrast, administration of both strains of p. ...19958560737
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