anticoccidial activity of narasin in battery raised broiler chickens.the anticoccidial activity of the ionophorus antibiotic narasin was tested against six species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina, eimeria mivati, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, eimeria brunetti, and eimeria tenella) in battery-raised broilers. feeding ration medicated with 60, 80, or 100 ppm narasin significantly improved weight gains during the periods of d 0 to d7 and d 0 to d 14 (d 0 = day of inoculation with sporulated oocysts), compared with the weight gains in corresponding inoculated gro ...1979530901
bacterial flora in the alimentary tract of chickens infected with eimeria brunetti and in chickens immunized with eimeria maxima and cross-infected with eimeria brunetti. 19724335852
interaction of escherichia coli and eimeria brunetti in chickens. 19724562578
further studies on the life cycle of eimeria brunetti levine 1942. 19724565217
some physio-pathological changes associated with experimental eimeria brunetti infection in the chicken. 19734727895
eimeria brunetti: cross infections in chickens immunized to e. maxima. 19715168239
effect of dietary raw soybeans on coccidiosis in chickens.six battery experiments determined the effect of feeding raw soybeans (rsb) in corn-soybean diets on coccidiosis in broiler chickens. the experimental design represents a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three dietary levels of incorporation of rsb (0, 50, and 100%), and chickens either infected or uninfected. the coccidial species tested singularly were eimeria acervulina, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, eimeria brunetti, and eimeria tenella. with all species of eimeria a signif ...19957603956
anticoccidial efficacy of semduramicin. 1. evaluation against field isolates by dose titration in battery tests.semduramicin (aviax), a novel polyether ionophore, was titrated in a series of five battery tests at 20, 25, and 30 ppm in feed to determine the optimum level for use. twelve-day-old broiler chicks were medicated for 48 h prior to inoculation in each 9-day test. the inocula included monospecific field isolates of eimeria tenella, eimeria brunetti, eimeria necatrix, and eimeria maxima, and a mixture of these species with eimeria acervulina and eimeria mitis. the numbers of oocysts inoculated were ...19938265494
epidemiological aspects of the use of live anticoccidial vaccines for chickens.this review address the epidemiology (epizootiology) of coccidiosis in commercial chickens with emphasis on the effects on the use of live vaccines. surveys suggest that all seven valid species of chicken coccidia (eimeria acervulina, eimeria brunetti, eimeria maxima, eimeria mitis, eimeria necatrix, eimeria praecox and eimeria tenella) are ubiquitous. all species are pathogenic to various extents. new results are presented on the pathogeneicities of e. acervulina, e. mitis and e. praecox. unles ...19989724880
eimeria brunetti and eimeria necatrix in chickens of argentina and confirmation of seven species of eimeria.ten poultry farms (broiler breeder pullets, layer pullets, and broilers) in the provinces of entre rios and buenos aires in argentina were examined for presence of eimeria spp. litter samples obtained from flocks 7-11 wk old were taken to the laboratory for oocyst counting and sporulation, then concentrated for inoculation into coccidia-free chickens. species were identified by prepatent period, oocyst size, location and appearance of lesions in the intestine, microscopic examination of mucosal ...200011007025
quantification of the crowding effect during infections with the seven eimeria species of the domesticated fowl: its importance for experimental designs and the production of oocyst stocks.the 'crowding effect' in avian coccidia, following administration of graded numbers of sporulated oocysts to naïve hosts, is recognisable by two characteristics. first, increasing doses of oocysts give rise to progressively higher oocyst yields, until a level of infection is reached (the 'maximally producing dose') above which further dose increases result in progressive decreases in oocyst yields. second, the number of oocysts produced per oocyst administered (the 'reproductive potential') tend ...200111429169
anticoccidial vaccination: the absence or reduction of numbers of endogenous parasites from gross lesions in immune chickens after virulent coccidial challenge.male and female floor-reared chickens were immunized with a live, attenuated anticoccidial vaccine (paracox) and then, 28 days after vaccination, were challenged with virulent strains of eimeria acervulina, eimeria brunetti, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix or eimeria tenella. the relationship between the post-challenge growth rate and specific gross lesion grades, matched in individual birds, was examined. the numbers of endogenous parasites associated with graded lesions of each species were c ...200314522710
application of polymerase chain reaction based on its1 rdna to speciate eimeria.a method was developed to recover eimeria spp. oocysts directly from poultry litter and determine which species of eimeria were present using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based on the its1 rdna sequence. the species composition of eimeria oocysts was also compared before and after propagation in susceptible chickens to determine if the relative proportion of each species changed after expansion. in samples from two broiler operations, its1-pcr was able to detect eimeria spp. oocysts recovered ...200616617992
molecular prevalence and preponderance of eimeria spp. among chickens in tamil nadu, india.coccidosis is one of the most commonly prevalent and economically important parasitic diseases of poultry worldwide. chicken coccidia are protozoan parasites of the genus eimeria. this study aimed at analysing the molecular prevalence of seven species of eimeria infecting chickens in tamil nadu, india. tissue samples (caecum, rectum and upper and mid intestines) collected from chickens exhibiting symptoms of coccidiosis were used for dna extraction, followed by amplification of the internal tran ...201020607286
molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of eimeria from turkeys and gamebirds: implications for evolutionary relationships in galliform order to determine the evolutionary relationships among eimeria species that parasitize birds of the galliformes, the 18s rdna gene and a portion of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) were amplified from eimeria species isolated from turkeys, chukars, and pheasants. the phylogenetic analysis of these sequences suggests that species infecting chickens are polyphyletic and, therefore, do not all share a direct common ancestor. both the 18s rdna and the cox-1 sequences indicate that eimeri ...201020950106
additional field outbreaks of coccidiosis in chickens due to eimeria brunetti. 194321022131
coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens: long-term storage in aqueous potassium dichromate solution preserves dna.preservation of the exogenous oöcyst stage of coccidian parasites (phylum apicomplexa n.d. levine, 1970) as type-specimens of newly described species has long been problematical. conventional fixatives have proved unsatisfactory, and compromises such as embedding oöcysts in resin or photographing them are not entirely appropriate for various reasons. as an alternative, chilled potassium dichromate solution (normally used in the laboratory to prevent putrefaction of temporary preparations of live ...201020401580
study on coccidiosis in kombolcha poultry farm, ethiopia.a study on the occurrence of coccidiosis and distribution of eimeria species in dead chickens 1-60 days of age, at kombolcha poultry multiplication and research center (kpmrc), ethiopia was conducted from november 2002 to april 2003. out of the 965 dead birds, 370 (38.34%) were found to have clinical coccidiosis. the eimeria species identified in this study were eimeria brunetti, e. tenella, e. acervulina and e. necatrix with prevalence rates of 45.3%, 40.8%, 9.7%, and 4.1%, respectively. in the ...200515747861
immunohistochemical study of s100-like protein in eimeria brunetti and eimeria acervulina.we have investigated the expression of a calcium-binding protein, the s100 protein, in eimeria brunetti and eimeria acervulina stages. for this purpose, paraffin sections of distal ileum and bursa of fabricius or duodenum from experimentally infected chickens were treated with anti-alpha-s100 (anti-alpha subunit of s100 protein) and anti-beta-s100 (anti-beta subunit of s100 protein) monoclonal antibodies and anti-s100 whole molecule polyclonal antibody. the avidin-biotin peroxidase method was us ...200010681017
[incidence and significance of coccidioses in chickens. i. rectal coccidiosis (eimeria brunetti) of chickens in the schwerin district]. 19655893516
pathogenicity of eimeria brunetti in bacteria-free and conventional chickens. 19695778818
roxarsone: efficacy against eimeria brunetti infections in chickens. 19724645728
eimeria brunetti: pathogenic effects in young chickens. 19744430334
ultrastructural studies on the endogenous development of eimeria brunetti.the schizonts of eimeria brunetti were studied in the epithelial cells of the small intestine of infected chickens. the morphology of the host/parasite relationship was typical of that reported for other eimeria spp. the initial dedifferentiation of the infecting organism generally occurred within the parasite cytoplasm but it was also observed that cytoplasm containing organelles could be budded off into the parasitophorous vacuole. development into the schizont was accompanied by cytoplasmic g ...1976998258
irradiated eimeria brunetti, e. necatrix and e. tenella in the simultaneous immunization of chickens. 1976963514
ultrastructural studies on the endogenous development of eimeria brunetti. iv. formation and structure of the oocyst wall.the ultrastructural changes occurring during wall formation in the oocysts of e. brunetti were studied in tissue from the small intestine of young domestic fowls. the process of oocyst wall formation was initiated by a separation of the limiting membranes of the cytoplasmic mass of the macrogamete, to form a loose veil, consisting of 2-3 membranes, around the organism. concomitant with the appearance of the veil, changes were observed in the wall forming bodies of type i (wfb i) and type ii (wfb ...1977888702
comparison of the intestinal surface damage caused by eimeria mivati, e. necatrix, e. maxima, e. brunetti, and e. acervulina by scanning electron microscopy.eimeria brunetti, an intestinal coccidial parasite of poultry, caused the most severe mucosal damage when compared to e. mivati, e. necatrix, and e. maxima. the damage caused by e. brunetti was observed in the ileum and large intestine and consisted of complete villar destruction in these areas. oocysts of e. brunetti were observed in tissue debris. e. necatrix (jejunum) enlarged isolated villi causing the lamina propria core to extrude through the villus tip. damage to the mucosal surface is no ...1977859075
observations on the ultrastructure of the late sporoblasts and the initiation of sporozoite formation in eimeria brunetti.the ultrastructure of the late sporoblast and the initiation of sporozite formation in e. brunetti was examined in oocysts which had been allowed to sporulate for 24 hours at 27 degrees c. the late sporoblast was ellipsoidal in shape and possessed two nuclei, and with associated golgi bodies, situated at either end of the organism. its cytoplasm contained numerous polysaccharide granules, electron translucentral region of the plaques. sporozoite formation was similar to the initiation of merozoi ...1977842350
eimeria brunetti in epithelial cells of the bursa of fabricius in gnotobiotic chickens.germ-free and conventional chickens were infected with lactobacillus acidophilus and/or eimeria brunetti. germ-free chickens acquiring single infections of e. brunetti were found to have lifecycle stages of the coccidial organism in the bursa of fabricius.1975808206
efficacy of lincomycin feed medication for the control of necrotic enteritis in broiler-type chickens.necrotic enteritis was reproduced in two trials, conducted in a penned research-type broiler facility, by growing broiler-type chickens on litter obtained from a commercial poultry house which had experienced a chronic necrotic enteritis mortality problem. in each trial, various concentrations of lincomycin in feed were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling necrotic enteritis. lincomycin was evaluated at concentrations of 2 to 100 g./ton in trial 1 and at concentrations of 2 and 4 g./ton in ...1977611495
the ultrastructure and distribution of micropores in the various developmental forms of eimeria brunetti.the structure and distribution of micropores in the various developmental stages of eimeria brunetti was examined. micropores were observed in all the endogenous forms with the exception of the microgamete. oocysts from chicken faeces were also examined at various stages of sporulation and micropores were demonstrated in zygotes, sporoblasts, sporozoites, and the residual cytoplasmic masses. the number of micropores per organism appeared to be correlated with the surface area of the organisms ir ...1977605802
diagnosis of eimeria species using traditional and molecular methods in field studies.the objective of this study was to identify and characterize species of eimeria in broiler chickens using traditional morphological and pathological plus molecular (dna amplification) diagnostic methodologies. using a combination of those techniques it was possible to identify the presence of multiple circulating species in the flock as well as higher frequencies for some of them, especially eimeria praecox and eimeria maxima, which were identified in 100% of the flocks. the frequencies of the o ...201021167646
a polymerase chain reaction-coupled high-resolution melting curve analytical approach for the monitoring of monospecificity of avian eimeria species.coccidiosis is a significant disease of poultry caused by different species of eimeria. differentiation of eimeria species is important for the quality control of the live attenuated eimeria vaccines derived from monospecific lines of eimeria spp. in this study, high-resolution melting (hrm) curve analysis of the amplicons generated from the second internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal dna (its-2) was used to distinguish between seven pathogenic eimeria species of chickens, and the re ...200919156576
effects of eimeria brunetti on intestinal ph in conventional and gnotobiotic chickens.white leghorn cockerels, 2-4 weeks of age, inoculated with sporulated oocysts of eimeria brunetti had a lower mean ph in the middle and lower small intestine than did uninoculated controls by 5-9 days post-inoculation. no effect of the infection on ph was seen in the upper intestine while ph in the gizzard and caeca was occasionally higher than in controls. magnitude of ph. decrease did not correlate with increases in oocyst dosage and severity of infection as measured by lesion score. studies w ...197518777294
eimeria brunetti: selection and characteristics of a precocious (and attenuated) line.a line of eimeria brunetti with an abbreviated life cycle (i.e. a 'precocious' line) was obtained by repeated selection for the first oocysts to be passed during an infection in chickens. the precocious line, when compared with the parent strain, was characterised by a significant attenuation of virulence, reduced output of oocysts and an endogenous development in which third-generation schizonts were almost completely eliminated. however, despite the loss of asexual stages, the immunogenicity o ...198618766572
the pathogenicity, immunogenicity and endogenous development of a precocious line of eimeria brunetti.a precocious line of eimeria brunetti with a prepatent period of 75 hours was compared with the parent strain (normal prepatent period of 120 hours) in a battery study. the precocious line was less pathogenic than the parent, and caused less weight depression and lower lesion scores in chickens given any dose of oocysts (1,000, 5,000, 25,000 or 125,000). no chickens receiving the precocious line died, whilst 19% and 25% mortality occurred in groups receiving 25,000 and 125,000 oocysts of the par ...198618766571
composition of heart, liver, and skeletal muscle from broilers with coccidiosis.infection with eimeria acervulina, eimeria brunetti, or eimeria tenella affected the composition of the breast, thigh, heart, and liver of 3 or 4-week-old broilers. liver glycogen was significantly increased at 6 and 8 days postinoculation (pi) with e. acervulina. conversely, liver glycogen was decreased at 4 and 6 days pi with e. tenella and was unaffected by infection with e. brunetti. the levels of rna and lipid in the liver were decreased with e. acervulina but unchanged with e. tenella. bot ...19816172783
[pathogenicity of "eimeria brunetti levine, 1942", as measured by lesion scoring and weight gains]. 19744461443
identification of eimeria brunetti using glucose phosphate isomerase and lactate dehydrogenase. 19902144028
effects of eimeria brunetti infection and dietary zinc on experimental induction of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.broilers infected with eimeria brunetti and given dietary zinc were examined for experimental induction of necrotic enteritis. inoculation with sporulated e. brunetti oocysts at 7 days of age was followed by 5 consecutive days of oral inoculation with cultured clostridium perfringens. feed was supplemented with zinc at 1000 ppm. upon necropsy of broilers 6 days after coccidial inoculation, necrotic enteritis was found in 20% (2/10) of birds given both organisms and dietary zinc. coccidial lesion ...19921567311
prevalence of eimeria species in domestic chickens in anhui province, china.prevalence studies can adequately assist in the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. here, the prevalence of eimeria species in chickens was investigated in anhui province, china, from july to september 2016. a total of 171 samples were tested by microscopic examination and molecular methods. the prevalence of coccidiosis in anhui province was found to be 87.75% (150/171). eimeria tenella was the most prevalent species (80.67%, 121/150), and eimeria necatrix, eimeria mitis, eime ...201729114135
necrotic enteritis in chickens: development of a straightforward disease model system.the interaction between eimeria species and clostridium perfringens was investigated in two different necrotic enteritis (ne) models: 120-day-old broilers were used in two separate experiments consisting of six groups (n=10) each. besides controls, chickens were infected with coccidia on study day (sd) 18 (eimeria maxima and eimeria acervulina (experiment 1) or eimeria tenella and eimeria brunetti (experiment 2) and/or a netb toxin positive c perfringens strain (both experiments: sd 14 or sd 22, ...201424714053
prevalence and risk factors for subclinical coccidiosis in broiler chicken farms in mazandaran province, iran.coccidiosis is a disease of almost universal importance in poultry production. the subclinical form of coccidiosis has most significant economic impact due to impaired growth rate and feed conversion. some factors such as: age, size of flock, season, etc., may effect on severity of this disease. in this study, the relationships between some major risk factors and prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis were investigated. this study was done in 120 broiler farms in five different cities of mazandar ...201121626064
cross-reactivity of anti-eimeria tenella antibody fragments on merozoites and sporozoites of different chicken eimeria species.eimeria tenella-specific antibodies were examined for the cross-reactivity on the sporozoites and merozoites of e. tenella, eimeria maxima, eimeria acervulina and eimeria brunetti in an indirect fluorescence antibody test. two of nine antibodies showed cross-reactivity with sporozoites of e. maxima, e. acervulina and e. brunetti; however, the localization of specific fluorescence differed between species. no antibody binding was observed on merozoites. the suitability of these antibodies to alte ...201021107860
sequence diversity of internal transcribed spacer-1 (its-1) region of eimeria infecting chicken and its relevance in species identification from indian field samples.conventional method of species identification in eimeria employs phenotypic characters of the oocysts and the site of infection in the chicken intestine, which are subjective analyses. pcr-based identification of eimeria spp. is known to be specific and sensitive. we used internal transcribed spacer 1 (its-1)-based nested pcr to follow the distribution of eimeria spp. in the field, which may be of significant value in the management of coccidiosis in chickens. in the present study, intestinal sa ...201020012096
efficacy of early treatment with toltrazuril in prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in the present study, efficacy of the toltrazuril treatment for prevention of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis was tested. ninety-six 14-day-old commercial broiler chickens were caged and divided into eight groups (n=12), designated groups 1 to 8. chickens of groups 1 to 6 were inoculated orally at 18 days of age with 25,000 oocysts of eimeria tenella and 75,000 oocysts of eimeria brunetti. at 22 days of age, chickens of groups 1 to 6 were infected with 10(9) colony-forming unit clostridium pe ...201323941631
cryptic eimeria genotypes are common across the southern but not northern hemisphere.the phylum apicomplexa includes parasites of medical, zoonotic and veterinary significance. understanding the global distribution and genetic diversity of these protozoa is of fundamental importance for efficient, robust and long-lasting methods of control. eimeria spp. cause intestinal coccidiosis in all major livestock animals and are the most important parasites of domestic chickens in terms of both economic impact and animal welfare. despite having significant negative impacts on the efficie ...201627368611
identification and immunogenicity of microneme protein 2 (ebmic2) of eimeria brunetti.there have been only a few antigen genes of eimeria brunetti reported up to now. in this study, the gene encoding the microneme protein 2 (ebmic2) was isolated from oocysts of e. brunetti by rt-pcr and the immunogenicity of recombinant ebmic2 was observed. the ebmic2 was cloned into vector pmd19-t for sequencing. the sequence was compared with the published ebmic2 gene from genbank revealed homology of the nucleotide sequence and amino acids sequence were 99.43 and 98.63%, respectively. the corr ...201626743188
analysis of humoral immune response and cytokines in chickens vaccinated with eimeria brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (ebama1) dna vaccine.this study aimed to determine the changes of cytokines, specific serum igg and several parameters in chickens vaccinated with dna vaccine encoding eimeria brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (ebama1) antigen. two-week-old chickens were divided into five groups (four groups for experiment) randomly. experimental groups of chickens were immunized with dna vaccine while control group of chickens were injected with pvax1 plasmid alone or te buffer solution. all immunizations were boosted 2 weeks late ...201424815774
characterization of eimeria brunetti isolated from a poultry farm in japan.none of anticoccidial vaccines (trivalent tam™, monovalent neca™ and imported pentavalent paracox(®)-5) contain eimeria brunetti in japan, which has not been regarded as a cause of coccidiosis, because of its low prevalence. however, we have recently reported the evidence of a high nationwide prevalence of this species. in this report, we describe the characteristics of e. brunetti which have never been clearly defined in japan. mortality rates and other disease characteristics caused by our str ...201423965940
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