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disaccharidase activity in the intestinal tissue of broilers infected with coccidia.maltase and sucrase activities were measured in the intestine of broilers inoculated with sporulated coccidial oocysts. infection with eimeria acervulina, e. maxima, e. necatrix, and e. brunetti decreased disaccharidase activity in the intestinal region in which maximum infection was found compared with the activity in uninoculated controls. the maximum reduction occurred on the first or second day of patency followed by a rapid recovery in activity. disaccharidase activity was inversely proport ...1978355614
energy and nitrogen metabolism of chickens infected with either eimeria acervulina or eimeria tenella.1. the effects of sublethal infections of e. acervulina and e. tenella on the energy and nitrogen metabolism of groups of five broilers aged 16 d were studied for 16 d in respiration chambers. 2. the metabolisable energy content of the diet for chickens infected with e. acervulina was 0.689 of its gross energy content and n retention was 42.5 g/100 g n intake compared with 0.738 and 47.1 g respectively, in uninfected pair-fed controls. chickens infected with e. tenella were similarly affected. 3 ...1979466523
energy and nitrogen metabolism of chickens subjected to infection and reinfection with eimeria acervulina.1. the effects of e. acervulina on energy and nitrogen metabolism were studied in respiration chambers on four groups of four broilers aged 16 d: group c was infected with 1.1 x 10(6) oocysts/bird on day 1 and fed ad libitum, while groups a, b and d were pair-fed to group c to day 16 of the experiment. on day 17, groups a and c were given 5.0 x 10(6) oocysts/bird and fed ad libitum, while group b was pair-fed to group a and group d was pair-fed to group c to the end of experiment on day 32. 2. d ...1979466524
a reappraisal of the taxonomic status of eimeria mivati edgar and seibold 1964, by enzyme electrophoresis and cross-immunity tests.an examination of 2 strains of eimeria acervulina var. mivati (since 1973 e. mivati has been regarded as a variant of e. acervulina) showed that previous confusion over the taxonomic status of e. mivati arose because the investigations were done using laboratory cultures of e. mivati which were contaiminated with e. acervulina. electrophoretic analyses of enzymes, host specificity and cross-immunity tests have revealed that: (1) the 1971 houghton strain of e. acervulina var. mivati was a mixture ...1979471536
anticoccidial activity of narasin in battery raised broiler chickens.the anticoccidial activity of the ionophorus antibiotic narasin was tested against six species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina, eimeria mivati, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, eimeria brunetti, and eimeria tenella) in battery-raised broilers. feeding ration medicated with 60, 80, or 100 ppm narasin significantly improved weight gains during the periods of d 0 to d7 and d 0 to d 14 (d 0 = day of inoculation with sporulated oocysts), compared with the weight gains in corresponding inoculated gro ...1979530901
changes in the generation cycle of duodenal crypt cells in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina.changes in the duration of the progenitor cycle and its four phases were determined for duodenal crypt cells in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina. metaphase curves were constructed using percent labelled metaphase nuclei in duodenal crypt cells at short intervals after the injection of [3h]thymidine. the duration of the progenitor cycle and its four phases were calculated using the synthetic index and data obtained from the metaphase curves. the cycle time was reduced from 14 h in contro ...1977906627
studies on site finding and site specificity of eimeria praecox, eimeria maxima and eimeria acervulina in chickens.sporozoites of 3 species of eimeria were introduced into the caecum of young chickens. e. praecox and e. maxima failed to develop in this site, but light infections of e. acervulina were detected. infection of the small intestine with all 3 species occurred when sporozoites were introduced via the caecum. infections were produced when mucosal scrapings of small intestine from birds, inoculated via the caecum 1-4 h previously, were inoculated orally to susceptible chickens. experiments with 51cr- ...19761012749
[resistance of eimeria acervulina to statil, 3,5-dinitrobenzamide and acylinidrazone]. 19751114676
infections with eimeria maxima and eimeria acervulina in the fowl: effect of previous infection with the heterologous organism on oocyst production.judged by oocyst production, infections with eimeria acervulina in birds immunized with e. maxima were consistently higher than in birds which had not been immunized. oocyst production of e. maxima in birds previously infected with e. acervulina was greater, in three out of four experiments, than in control chickens, but some of the differences were slight. the findings are discussed but no satisfactory explanation can be offered. in general there was little or no difference between the oocys ...19751168890
influence of coccidiosis on salmonella colonization in broiler chickens under floor-pen conditions.the influence of coccidiosis on colonization of salmonella typhimurium in broiler chickens under floor pen conditions was studied by semiquantitative methods. chickens of two groups, unmedicated and medicated with nicarbazin (125 ppm via the feed), were exposed to three species of eimeria (eimeria tenella, eimeria maxima, and eimeria acervulina) at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age and given s. typhimurium in the feed 2 days later. salmonella typhimurium was isolated most often (100%) from ceca of chickens ...19921539023
potential of a recombinant antigen as a prophylactic vaccine for day-old broiler chickens against eimeria acervulina and eimeria tenella infections.a genetically engineered eimeria tenella antigen (gx3262), produced as a fusion protein with beta-galactosidase and identified with a monoclonal antibody, induced partial but significant protection in young broiler chickens against experimental e. tenella and eimeria acervulina infections. the antigen appears to share a t-helper cell epitope with the parasite as evidenced by (a) booster inoculation with either the recombinant antigen or with a small number of live oocysts enhanced the protective ...19921589958
electrophoretic and immunologic characterization of proteins of merozoites of eimeria acervulina, e. maxima, e. necatrix, and e. tenella.merozoites of eimeria acervulina, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, and eimeria tenella were compared by gel electrophoresis, western-blotting with chicken antiserum, indirect fluorescent antibody reactions, and antiserum neutralization. merozoites from the 4 species had dissimilar patterns of proteins and antigens in soluble and membrane fractions. coomassie blue staining of sds-page gels revealed 16-22 protein bands depending on the species of merozoite but only 3 bands per species in the memb ...19921738074
benzylated 1,2,3-triazoles as anticoccidiostats.substituted 5-amino-4-carbamoyl-1,2,3-triazoles 3a-w were prepared by two synthetic schemes and evaluated in vivo for anticoccidial activity. both schemes proceeded by brominating appropriately substituted toluenes 4a-s,v to 5a-s,v. in scheme i, the brominated benzyl analogues 5 were converted to the corresponding benzyl azides 6, which were treated with cyanoacetamide to yield 1-substituted-5-amino-4-carbamoyl-1,2,3-triazoles 3. in scheme ii, the benzyl halides 5 were employed to alkylate the s ...19911895303
cross-protection against four species of chicken coccidia with a single recombinant antigen.a cdna clone, so7', from an eimeria tenella cdna library was inserted into the high-expression vector pjc264 and was expressed in escherichia coli as a fusion protein, chey-so7', with a molecular mass of approximately 36 kda. by using the purified recombinant antigen to immunize young chicks, it was demonstrated that a single dose, without adjuvant, not only protected against severe coccidiosis induced by infection with e. tenella but also protected chicks challenged with the heterologous specie ...19912004809
some mechanisms of reduction of carotenoid levels in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina or e. tenella.the levels of plasma carotenoids were markedly reduced in broiler cockerels infected with eimeria acervulina or e. tenella. the mechanisms of this depigmentation differed between the two species, being primarily associated with interference of absorption of xanthophyll (carotenoids) from the intestinal lumen with e. acervulina infection and with leakage through the damaged wall of the cecum with e. tenella infection. chicks reared on an essentially carotenoid-free diet and inoculated with e. ace ...1975476
eimeria spp. of the domestic fowl: resolution of chromosomes by field inversion gel electrophoresis.the molecular karyotypes of five species of chicken coccidia, viz., eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, e. maxima, e. necatrix, and e. tenella, were determined using field inversion gel electrophoresis (fige). each species has a distinctive set of resolvable chromosomes which range from about 1 to greater than 5.7 megabases. we were able to resolve at least 8 chromosomes for e. acervulina, 5 for e. brunetti, 10 for e. maxima, 6 for e. necatrix, and 9 for e. tenella. if the value of 67 megabases for ...19912015869
studies on the stage of action of lasalocid against eimeria tenella and eimeria acervulina in the chicken.broiler chickens in battery pens were either fed a diet containing 100 ppm lasalocid or no drug for 24 h prior to inoculation with sporulated oocysts of eimeria tenella or eimeria acervulina. different groups of birds remained on medicated feed for 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 or 144 h after inoculation. conversely, other groups started on an unmedicated diet, were given medicated feed at different times after oocyst inoculation. starting lasalocid medication 24 h (e. tenella) or 48 h (e. acervulina) aft ...19902251751
development of resistance to coccidiosis in the absence of merogonic development using x-irradiated eimeria acervulina oocysts.sporulated oocysts of the protozoan eimeria acervulina were subjected to 0, 10, 15, 20, or 30 krad of x-irradiation and inoculated into susceptible outbred chickens to determine if radioattenuated coccidia could induce protection against parasite challenge. irradiation treatment had an appreciable dose-dependent effect on parasite development. insignificant numbers of oocysts were produced by chickens inoculated with parasites that had been exposed to greater than 10 krad x-irradiation. sporozoi ...19912015867
eimeria tenella, e. acervulina and e. maxima: studies on the development of resistance to diclazuril and other anticoccidial drugs in the chicken.resistance to diclazuril was induced by 10 passages of the houghton strains of eimeria acervulina and e. tenella in chickens given progressively greater concentrations of the drug. this resistance was, however, not complete since the drug retained some efficacy against the drug-passaged lines. attempts to passage the houghton strain of e. maxima in birds medicated with concentrations of diclazuril greater than 0.016 parts per million (ppm) were unsuccessful and after 10 passages at this concentr ...19892556680
altered metabolism of carotenoids during pale-bird syndrome in chickens infected with eimeria acervulina.the progression of changes in carotenoid metabolism during pale-bird syndrome caused by a coccidial infection was investigated. male broiler chickens 15 days of age on a yellow corn and soybean meal-based diet were infected with eimeria acervulina oocysts and their serum, liver, and toe webs were sampled at 0, 4, 6, and 10 days postinfection for hplc analysis of carotenoids. at 4 days postinfection a drastic reduction (71%) in serum lutein, the main body carotenoid, and smaller reductions in liv ...19911956852
increase of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes expressing cd8 antigen following challenge infection with eimeria acervulina.eimerian infection-induced changes in the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte (iel) subpopulations expressing cd8 antigen (cytotoxic/suppressor t cells) or antigen-specific t cell receptor (tcr) heterodimer alpha beta (tcr2) or gamma delta (tcr1) were investigated in f2 crosses of 15i5 b-congenic chickens differing for the major histocompatibility complex (mhc). duodenum tcr2+ iel were increased in b2 b2 and b5 b5 chickens 7 days following secondary infection. two-color immunofluorescence reve ...19911830202
comparison of resistance level and circulating igg response in chickens experimentally inoculated with a multiple or single immunizing doses of eimeria acervulina.two immunizing methods (trickle or single immunizing doses) against e. acervulina were tested in chickens. the effects of immunization and challenge upon growth, oocyst output and circulating antibodies response (igg) were compared. neither immunization method produced pathogenic effects, similar numbers of oocysts were produced, and the levels of igg in serum were similar and low in each case. after the challenge, immunized birds showed a high level of resistance but susceptible controls produc ...19911789677
characterization of a recombinant eimeria acervulina antigen expressed in sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages.a cdna from eimeria acervulina encoding an immunogenic region of antigens shared between sporozoites and merozoites was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. immunofluorescence staining of sporozoites, merozoites, and coccidial-infected intestinal tissue with monoclonal antibody used to detect the recombinant clone indicated that the epitope was present on internal parasite proteins. immunostaining of nitrocellulose paper containing protein from both asexual stages revealed numerous sporozoi ...19911710269
effects of major histocompatibility genes and antigen delivery on induction of protective mucosal immunity to e. acervulina following immunization with a recombinant merozoite antigen.intramuscular immunization with the recombinant p250 surface antigen of eimeria acervulina merozoite (reamzp250) or oral inoculation with live recombinant escherichia coli expressing the reamzp250 protein resulted in antigen-specific t-cell and humoral responses and conferred a significant reduction in mucosal parasitism compared to immunization with the negative control antigen preparation. among the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) (b)-congenic chickens receiving intramuscular immunizati ...19901698712
eimeria acervulina: cloning of a cdna encoding an immunogenic region of several related merozoite surface and rhoptry proteins.a cdna encoding a recombinant eimeria acervulina antigen, designated eamzp30-47, that contains an epitope shared among several surface and rhoptry proteins of merozoites was characterized. the respective parasite proteins are between 30 and 47 kda as revealed by immunostaining of nitrocellulose membrane containing extracts of 125i-labeled merozoites. as indicated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic staining, the reactive epitope was localized to both the surface membrane and the ...19901690144
etiology and pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis.sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina were administered orally to cage-housed broilers at a dose of 3.5 x 10(5) resulted in mild subclinical coccidiosis. clostridium perfringens incorporated in feed at a level of 2.5 x 10(8) organisms/g. produced lesions characteristic of necrotic enteritis. mortality of 8% (7/80) occurred in birds fed a ration inoculated with cl. perfringens alone. mortality of 35% (28/80) was observed in birds which received an oral dose of e. acervulina and which were fed ...19852869608
eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, and e. maxima: pathogenic effects of single or mixed infections with low doses of oocysts in chickens. 19761269585
scanning electron microscopy of the duodenal mucosa of chickens infected with eimeria acervulina.the morphology of the duodenal mucosal surface of chickens infected with eimeria acervulina has been studied on days 5, 6, 8 and 11 post-infection and compared with that of the normal duodenal mucosa using the scanning electron microscope. the normal duodenum possessed tall, spatulate villi with horizontally-arranged surface clefts upon which a regular pattern of hexagonal absorptive cells and goblet cell mouths was superimposed. a maximum degree of villous atrophy was shown on day 5 post-infec ...19751187183
[analysis of losses due to subclinical small intestinal coccidiosis caused by eimeria acervulina and eimeria maxima under field conditions].subclinical coccidiosis of broiler chickens caused by eimeria (e.) acervulina and e. maxima results in a negative effect on feed conversion and retardation of growth. in the present report investigations in 80 broiler flocks are described in which the relationship between age of infection and economic effects were analysed under field conditions. under these conditions, infections with e. acervulina and e. maxima were found to have a negative effect on growth and feed conversion, that this negat ...19883176009
structure and mode of function of the organelles associated with nutrition of the macrogametes of eimeria acervulina.the macrogamete of eimeria acervulina, lay and developed within the host cell in a parasitophorous vacuole. the cytoplasmic membrane of the host cell bordering the vacuole was not smooth, but it had numerous folds extending into the vacuole. these "intravacuolar folds" varied in depth and number in different sections. in some, the majority of the folds were disconnected from the host cell. once disconnected, they evidently disintegrated forming the amorphous, particulate material present in the ...19751114870
influence of coccidiosis on growth rate and feed conversion in broilers after experimental infections with eimeria acervulina and eimeria maxima.under experimental conditions, the effects of subclinical eimeria (e.) acervulina and e. maxima infections on growth and feed conversion in broilers of different ages were analysed. it was concluded that infection with e. acervulina and e. maxima led to a process which was independent of the age at which the birds were infected. the infection adversely affected growth and feed conversion for 2 to 3 weeks, followed by a recovery period of 2 to 3 weeks when compensatory growth took place. from thi ...19883218068
reproduction of the cycle of coccidia eimeria acervulina (tyzzer, 1929) in cell cultures of chicken kidneys.the cycle of eimeria acervulina was grown in primary culture of cells of three-week-old-chicken kidneys. eht medium (eagle, hydrolysate of lactalbumine, bacto-tryptose phosphate) allowed the development of this coccidium. 44 hours after infestation of the cells with sporozoites, the first schizonts appeared. the merozoites of first generation were released after 54 hours. they invaded the neighbouring cells and developed in them into schizonts of second generation mature after 68 hours. after 72 ...19761027365
eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, e. maxima, and e. necatrix: low doses of oocysts to immunize young chickens. 1976971728
studies on the growth, chemotherapy and enzyme variation of eimeria acervulina var. diminuta and e. acervulina var. mivati.eimeria acervulina var. diminuta was serially passaged 12 times in chicken embryos, but growth in cultured chick kidney cells was limited to 2 generations of schizonts. after 7 embryo passages the sensitivities of e. acervulina var. diminuta and an embryo-adapted strain of e. acervulina var. mivati to the anticoccidial drugs amprolium, methyl benzyquate, robenidine and sulphaquinoxaline were compared. both parasites were sensitive to all the anticoccidials but e. acervulina var. diminuta was mor ...1977927885
influence of dietary aflatoxin on the severity of eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chickens.broiler chicks (hubbard x hubbard) receiving 2.5 microgram of aflatoxin/g of diet and inoculated with sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina gained significantly less weight than chicks receiving either aflatoxin or coccidia alone. aflatoxin alone affected body weight more in females than males. blood parameters, however, showed no sex-related differences to e. acervulina or aflatoxin. e. acervulina had no effect on packed cell volume, red cell number, or hemoglobin levels. gross lesions in th ...1978697658
anticoccidial activity of salinomycin in battery raised broiler chickens.infections with single species of eimeria acervulina, e. mivati, e. maxima, e. tenella, e. necatrix, and e. brunetti, and the six species mixed, were utilized in three separate battery experiments to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of various levels of salinomycin (ahr-3096), a fermentation product of a strain of streptomyces albus. at the 60 to 100 p.p.m. treatment levels, this compound showed significant anticoccidial activity for all parameters studied (mortality, weight gain, feed conver ...1977605065
incidence of chicken coccidia from broiler houses in japan, 1973-1977.a survey was made on the incidence of coccidial oocysts in 11,365 fecal samples from japanese broiler houses during five years from 1973 to 1977. the eimerian species were identified by a combination of two methods, examination of oocyst morphology and chicken passage test. oocysts were detected from 7,526 (66.2%) of the samples tested during five years. annual variation was statistically significant at the 5% level. coccidial incidence during july to september (corresponding to summer season) w ...1979506554
the site of action of the anticoccidial salinomycin (coxistac).the anticoccidial salinomycin has a cidal effect against chicken coccidia. restricted and unrestricted medication studies and histopathological examinations of chicks infected with eimeria acervulina, e. maxima, or e. tenella showed that parasites were destroyed within host cells during asexual development. most sporozoites failed to become trophozoites and were destroyed 30--72 hr after ingestion of oocysts. the drug also affected schizonts during initial nuclear replication by either destroyin ...1979448588
speciation studies with eimeria acervulina and eimeria mivati.eimeria mivati was described as a new species of chicken coccidia in 1964 by edgar and seibold, but recently some british workers have relegated its status to that of a variety of eimeria acervulina. using strains supplied by dr. edgar, we have prepared lines of e. acervulina resistant to methyl benzoquate, sulfaquinoxaline and robenidine and a line of e. mivati resistant to methyl benzoquate. genetic transfer of resistance between the various lines of e. acervulina to produce doubly-resistant c ...1978281483
effect of eimeria acervulina infection on nutrient retention with special reference to fat malabsorption in chickens.nutritional balance studies were conducted to determine the effect of eimeria acervulina infection on the retention of nutrients and the efficiency of utilization of protein and energy in the diet during the course of intestinal coccidiosis in chickens. both light and electronmicroscopic studies were conducted to elucidate the pathogenesis of fat malabsorption in the infected chickens. the infection with e. acervulina during the acute phase of the disease (day 4 to day 8 postinfection) caused a ...1975164990
protective immunization against the intestinal parasite eimeria acervulina with recombinant coccidial antigen.the gene encoding an immunodominant eimeria acervulina merozoite surface antigen (eamz250) was expressed in bacteria as a fusion peptide with the galactose-binding protein (gbp) of escherichia coli. recombinant and control antigens were administered to 1-wk-old chickens by peroral inoculation with live nonpathogenic bacteria that were expressing gbp-eamz250 or gbp protein. the immunization elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses as measured by elisa and t-cell blastogenes ...19912047347
eimeria acervulina and eimeria tenella in 15.b-congenic white leghorns.six ea-b-congenic lines of chickens were used to study the role of the b histocompatibility complex in susceptibility and immunity to eimeria tenella and e. acervulina. the b haplotypes were 2, 2, 5, 12, 13, or 19. parental line 15i5 with the b15 haplotype (15i5-15) and a commercial white leghorn (cwl) line were also used. the b-congenic lines were generally less susceptible to e. tenella than the cwl line based on weight gain, cecal lesion score, plasma pigment, and packed cell volume. within t ...19892704696
colostrum from cows immunized with eimeria acervulina antigens reduces parasite development in vivo and in vitro.experiments were undertaken to determine whether passive immunization utilizing hyperimmune bovine colostrum (hbc) specific for eimeria acervulina (ea) antigens conferred protection against coccidiosis in chickens. the hbc was produced by immunizing three pregnant, nonmilking jersey cows with ea antigens administered via one intramuscular injection followed by three intramammary infusions at approximately 10, 8, 6, and 4 wk before parturition. one cow was immunized with sporozoites (sz), the sec ...19921454682
immune responses to infections with coccidia in chickens: gut hypersensitivity.sporulated oocysts or oocyst hulls of eimeria acervulina given via the crop, and oocyst juice or sporozoites inoculated directly into the intestinal lumen, were tested for their effects on the hypersensitivity of the intestines of immunized and susceptible birds. only viable sporozoites consistently caused an increase in the permeability of the immunized intestine to macromolecules, shown by the leakage of intravenously injected dye. repulsion of epithelium and disruption of the villi were seen ...19751202410
anticoccidial activity of lasalocid in control of moderate and severe coccidiosis.the fermentation product lasalocid ("antibiotic x-537a," hoffmann-laroche) showed good anticoccidial activity when administered via feed at 50 or 75 ppm in a replicated floor-pen experiment. lasalocid was compared with monensin (121 ppm) ("positive control") and also with unmedicated ("negative") controls in pens heavily seeded or indirectly seeded with eight species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, e. hagani, e. maxima, e. mitati, e. necatrix, e. praecox, and e. tenella). under sev ...19751120028
does plasmodium gallinaceum induce relapse of eimeria acervulina infection in chickens?an experiment was carried out to test the hypothesis that chickens previously infected with eimeria acervulina, but having ceased producing oocysts, recommence e acervulina oocyst production when infected with plasmodium gallinaceum. no relapse of coccidiosis was caused by the malarial infection. subsequent treatment with the immunosuppressant betamethasone of the control chicks infected with e acervulina only did not reveal any occult coccidial infection. the results are critically compared wit ...19854070797
immunization of chickens with live escherichia coli expressing eimeria acervulina merozoite recombinant antigen induces partial protection against coccidiosis.inoculation of chickens with live escherichia coli n6405 transformants containing a plasmid which encodes ampicillin resistance and an immunodominant p250 surface antigen of eimeria acervulina merozoites induced partial protection against challenge with live coccidia. the inoculation with e. coli transformants induced antigen-specific immunoglobulin and cell-mediated immune responses. challenge with infective oocysts of eimeria acervulina enhanced both immune parameters, indicating that administ ...19892663723
coccidial infections and gut microflora.oral inoculations of sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina, e. necatrix, e. brunetti, e. tenella, or none were given to five groups of 4-wk-old chicks. fecal samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, and 21 days postinoculation and total fecal aerobe, total fecal anaerobe, fecal lactobacilli, and fecal coliform concentrations were enumerated. fecal aerobe concentrations increased 10-fold during the period from 3 to 8 days postinoculation. fecal anaerobe concentrations had small increase ...19873684872
multiple concurrent stressors in chicks. 1. effect on weight gain, feed intake, and behavior.effects of multiple concurrent stressors on hubbard x hubbard chicks (days 10 to 17 posthatch) were studied in a 2(6)-factorial experiment that employed as treatments aerial ammonia (a, 0 or 125 ppm), beak trimming (b, sham handled or beak trimmed/cauterized), coccidiosis (x, gavage with 0 or 6x10(5) sporulated eimeria acervulina oocysts), intermittent electric shock (e, 0 or between 2.9 and 8.7 ma), heat stress (h, 30.4 or 34.8 c) and continuous noise (n, 80 or 95 db). all stressors, except noi ...19892748498
presence and development of eimeria acervulina in the goblet cells of the duodenal epithelium in experimentally infected birds. 19744428879
mucosal morphology and cellular renewal in the intestine of chickens following a single infection of eimeria acervulina. 19734576141
physiological responses of chicken gut tissue to coccidial infection: comparative effects of eimeria acervulina and eimeria mitis on mucosal mass, carotenoid content, and brush border enzyme activity.broiler chicks, 3 to 4 wk of age, were inoculated with either eimeria acervulina or e. mitis, and mucosal dry weights, brush border enzyme activities, and carotenoid contents as well as plasma carotenoid levels were measured at 3, 5, and 7 days postinoculation (pi). at 5 and 7 days pi mucosal dry weights, brush border enzyme activities, and carotenoid contents were significantly decreased at primary sites of infection (duodenum, e. acervulina; lower small intestine, e. mitis). in contrast, at si ...19873684853
cdna encoding an immunogenic region of a 22 kilodalton surface protein of eimeria acervulina sporozoites.cdna encoding an immunogenic region of a 22 kda surface protein of eimeria acervulina sporozoites was cloned and expressed in the bacteriophage lambda gt11 vector. the recombinant beta-galactosidase fusion protein, designated ma1, has an apparent molecular size of 125 kda. immunofluorescence staining of intact e. acervulina sporozoites and merozoites and immunoblotting of 125i-surface labeled protein from both stages revealed exclusive expression of the cloned cdna in the sporozoite stage. the g ...19892927444
fine structural changes associated with microgametogenesis of eimeria acervulina in chickens. 19734773437
effect of dietary sodium zeolite a and excess calcium on growth and tibia calcium and phosphorus concentration in uninfected and eimeria acervulina-infected chicks.two identical trials were conducted with 5 to 14-day-old broiler chicks. sodium zeolite a (nza, 0 and .75%) and ca (1.0 and 1.5%) were fed to both uninfected and eimeria acervulina-infected chicks resulting in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. coccidial infection reduced weight gain and gain:feed (p less than .01), and tibia ash, ca, and ca:p ratio (p less than .05). excess dietary ca reduced (p less than .05) weight gain and tibia ash in uninfected chicks but had no effect (p gre ...19892554269
fine structure of the schizonts and merozoites of eimeria acervulina in the chicken. 19744814788
eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, and e. maxima: immunity in chickens with low multiple doses of mixed oocysts. 19751204712
characterization and vaccine potential of a novel recombinant coccidial antigen.a cdna clone derived from sporulated oocysts of eimeria tenella and encoding the expression product gx3262 was identified using a monoclonal antibody raised against eimeria acervulina sporozoites. the cdna fragment containing the coccidial antigen gene was cloned in bacteriophage lambda gt11, transferred to a plasmid, and introduced into escherichia coli for analysis of the gene products. the strain carrying the plasmid produced gx3262 as part of a fusion protein consisting of the first 1,006 am ...19892659532
strongly acid intestinal content and lowered protein, carotene and vitamin a blood levels in eimeria acervulina infected chickens. 19694316263
response of 21 canadian field isolates of chicken coccidia to commercial anticoccidial drugs.coccidia were isolated from 30 broiler farms in major poultry-producing provinces of canada; 21 mixed-species isolates were tested for sensitivity to anticoccidial drugs. eimeria acervulina was identified in 20 samples, e. maxima in 15, and e. tenella in 10 of the mixed-species isolates. on the basis of weight gain after infection, 3 isolates were judged sensitive to amprolium, 5 to monensin, 9 to salinomycin, 14 to lasalocid, 19 to halofuginone, and 20 to nicarbazin. similar trends in sensitivi ...19892751568
concentration of 125globulins in intestinal tissues of immunized and non-immunized chickens infected with eimeria acervulina. 19863806332
drug-sensitivity of 99 isolates of coccidia from broiler farms.coccidia were isolated from 99 broiler farms in 12 broiler-producing states and tested for sensitivity to contemporary anticoccidial drugs. the isolates usually comprised two or more species, including 92 eimeria acervulina, 47 e. maxima, 28 e. tenella, and 10 e. brunetti. based on intestinal-lesion-score reduction of 30% or more, 38% of isolates were resistant to monensin (110 ppm), 29% to salinomycin (60 ppm), 20% to nicarbazin (125 ppm), and 46% to amprolium + ethopabate (125 + 4 ppm). isolat ...19863814006
effects of different infection rates on the oocyst production of eimeria acervulina or eimeria tenella in the chicken. 19734761768
[eimeria acervulina coccidiosis in laying hens]. 19695388252
the effect of eimeria acervulina infection on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in young broiler chicks.in young broiler chicks inoculated with 2 x 10(6) sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina per bird, total plasma lipids were significantly depressed compared with controls in the first week after inoculation. the lowest level observed was at 5 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.), at which time the chick host is known to experience malabsorption in the chick host (ruff and wilkins, 1980). analysis of plasma components of infected chicks at 4 and 7 d.p.i. showed that triglycerides, total cholesterol, ...19883212927
eimeria acervulina: evaluation of the cellular and antibody responses to the recombinant coccidial antigens in b-congenic chickens.the roles of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) and non-mhc-linked genes in the genetic control of disease susceptibility and the development of protective immunity to eimeria acervulina infection were investigated in six 15i5-b congenic and four different strains of chickens characterized for the mhc. when oocyst production was assessed, wide variations were noted following initial and challenge infections among the strains of chickens tested. in general, 15.n-21, 15.p-13, b21, b19, sc, and ...19883263928
composition of heart, liver, and skeletal muscle from broilers with coccidiosis.infection with eimeria acervulina, eimeria brunetti, or eimeria tenella affected the composition of the breast, thigh, heart, and liver of 3 or 4-week-old broilers. liver glycogen was significantly increased at 6 and 8 days postinoculation (pi) with e. acervulina. conversely, liver glycogen was decreased at 4 and 6 days pi with e. tenella and was unaffected by infection with e. brunetti. the levels of rna and lipid in the liver were decreased with e. acervulina but unchanged with e. tenella. bot ...19816172783
role of coccidia in the occurrence of necrotic enteritis of chickens.clostridium perfringens type a, eimeria acervulina, and eimeria necatrix were used to produce necrotic enteritis in chickens. the disease was produced in all groups of birds that received feed contaminated with c. perfringens. mortality due to necrotic enteritis was highest (53%) in birds infected with e. acervulina before infection with clostridia. there was a significant difference in mortality rates between birds infected with e. acervulina and birds infected with e. necatrix before infection ...19806254485
evaluation of the efficacy of maduramacin ammonium in combination with roxarsone and avoparcin in caged broiler chickens.1. the anticoccidial activity of maduramicin ammonium (5 mg/kg food) administered alone or with roxarsone (50 mg/kg food) and/or avoparcin (10 mg/kg food) was evaluated in battery-reared broilers artificially challenged with recent field culture mixtures containing eimeria acervulina, e. maxima and e. tenella or e. mivati, e. necatrix and e. brunetti. 2. maduramicin ammonium exhibited a high degree of anticoccidial activity and the addition of roxarsone and/or avoparcin in food at recommended co ...19883409087
physiological responses of chicken gut tissue to infection with eimeria acervulina.although eimeria acervulina parasitizes primarily the duodenum of chickens, in heavy infections the entire small intestine may become distended. this reaction was measured in terms of length, fresh weight, dry weight, and moisture in relation to time postinfection (pi) and dose. increases in percent moisture were apparently associated with numbers of infection sites, because higher doses caused increased moisture in the more distal portions of the small intestine. the first gross intestinal resp ...19846441557
evaluation of interspecific hybrids of the chicken, guinea fowl, and japanese quail for innate resistance to coccidia.experimental chicken/guinea fowl hybrids, guinea fowl, and chickens were orally inoculated with eimeria acervulina or e. tenella, which are specific for chickens, or with e. grenieri, which is specific for guinea fowl. no intact oocysts were found in feces within 24 hr of inoculation, suggesting that excystation occurred in the normal and abnormal hosts. no oocysts were found in the feces of hybrids during a 9-day postinoculation period. the guinea fowl passed oocysts of guinea fowl coccidia (e. ...19873442527
gut stasis in chickens infected with eimeria.the duration and locations of gut stasis were examined in chickens infected with either eimeria acervulina or e. maxima. gut passage time (gpt) was used to determine gut stasis. the location of feed retention was determined qualitatively and quantitatively. infections with both species were associated with increased gpt from days 5 to 13 postinoculation. feed appeared to be retained in the crop and gizzard of infected birds when judged visually. however, measurements of total dry matter retained ...19873588493
eimeria spp. of domestic fowl: the migration of sporozoites intra- and extra-enterically.chickens were dosed orally with sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, e. maxima, or e. praecox and the subsequent presence, in various tissues, of parasites capable of inducing patent infections was detected by transferring the tissues to coccidia-free recipients. similar results were obtained with each of the 4 species studied, irrespective of whether initial development occurs in the superficial (e. praecox, e. brunetti) or crypt (e. acervulina, e. maxima) epithelium. infectio ...19873598806
effect of dietary buffer additions on gain, efficiency, duodenal ph, and copper concentration in liver of eimeria acervulina-infected chicks.three experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to investigate the effect of dietary additions of nahco3(1%), a1(oh)3(.5%), kaolin(1%), a1(oh)2naco3(.23%), caco3(.37%), and mgo(1%) on gain, efficiency, duodenal ph, and liver cu concentration of eimeria acervulina-infected chicks. experimental coccidial infection consistently reduced chick gain, efficiency, and duodenal ph, but it increased liver cu concentration of chicks fed excess cu. sodium bicarbonate addition improved chick gain and ef ...19873601861
effect of eimeria acervulina infection on chick (gallus domesticus) high density lipoprotein composition.1. plasma high density lipoprotein (hdl), the principal carotenoid carrier in broiler chicks, was analyzed at zero time and 3, 5 and 7 days after inoculation of chicks with the intestinal coccidial parasite, eimeria acervulina. 2. infection caused significant decreases in total hdl mass from 3 through 7 post-inoculation (pi), and decreases in relative percents of protein and carotenoids, and relative increases in phospholipid and cholesterol esters by 7 days pi. 3. carotenoid content correlated ...19873621900
identification of immunodominant surface antigens of eimeria acervulina sporozoites and merozoites.immunodominant surface antigens of eimeria acervulina sporozoites and merozoites were identified by 125i-labeling and immunoblotting studies. using these methodologies 60% of the immunodominant sporozoite antigens and 90% of the immunodominant merozoite antigens were observed to be 125i-surface labeled. however, several major 125i-labeled sporozoite and merozoite proteins did not represent prominent antigens as measured by immunoblotting. immunodominant surface antigens were found over a wide si ...19873670346
some physiological effects of eimeria acervulina, e. brunetti, and e. mivati infections in young chickens. 19744417272
eimeria acervulina and e. maxima: incidence and anticoccidial drug resistance of isolants in major broiler-producing areas. 19744851799
[influence of duodenal eimeria acervulina coccidiosis on the free amino acid content of muscle in chickens]. 19715001368
the effect of dietary crude protein level on intestinal and cecal coccidiosis in chicken.the effect of interaction of crude protein level in the diet and coccidiosis of the cecum and small intestine of chicks was investigated. a total of 390 day-old chicks were divided in 36 groups of ten and six groups of five chicks each. twelve groups of ten and two groups of six chicks each were fed one of the three diets based on dietary crude protein level (16%, 20% and 24%). all diets contained an equal energy concentration. the chicks were on the appropriate diet for 15 days prior to infecti ...19734266700
effects of coccidiosis on the electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins in chickens.the electrophoretic distribution of serum proteins was measured in chickens inoculated with sporulated oocysts of eimeria acervulina, e. tenella, and e. maxima. total serum protein decreased on day 5 and 7 postinoculation (pi) with all three species. however, the changes produced in the individual serum protein fractions differed with the species. in serum from e. acervulina-infected birds, all protein components decreased quantitatively; the largest decrease was in the alpha globulins. the over ...19827077437
the ultrastructure of chick intestinal absorptive cells during eimeria acervulina infection. 19744841686
the effect of eimeria acervulina on the reproductive potentials of four other species of chicken coccidia during concurrent infections. 19734738008
eimeria acervulina: dna cloning and characterization of recombinant sporozoite and merozoite antigens.genes encoding antigens of eimeria acervulina were cloned from cdna expression libraries prepared from the sporozoite and merozoite stages in order to examine humoral and cellular immune responses to this protozoan parasite. two clones expressing surface antigens were characterized by dna hybridization studies to identify homologous genomic dna fragments. the proteins they encode were identified by 125i-labeling, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and t-cell activation experiments. one, designa ...19882835259
concurrent infections with reoviruses and coccidia in broilers.these experiments investigated the interaction among two species of coccidia (eimeria acervulina and e. mitis) and three strains of reovirus (virus 2035, a weak to moderate pathogen; and viruses 2408 and 1733, severe pathogens). when reoviruses were not present, high inoculation dosages (10(6) sporulated oocysts/bird) of both e. acervulina and e. mitis depressed weight gain, plasma pigment, and plasma protein. low doses of coccidia (10(4) oocysts) in the absence of virus had no such effect on we ...19852992439
eimeria acervulina infection in the chicken: a model system for estimating nutrient requirements during coccidiosis.eimeria maxima inoculations of 5 x 10(4) oocysts and e. acervulina inoculations of 2 x 10(5) to 4 x 10(5) oocysts were shown to depress growth by 15 to 20% in young chicks fed crystalline amino acid (caa) diets. the intestinal lesions produced were typical of light to moderate coccidiosis. in one experiment, the performance of chicks fed monensin was increased in the presence, but not in the absence, of e. acervulina. thus, monensin prevented the negative effects of e. acervulina on chick perfor ...19817322984
eimeria acervulina infection in the chicken: sulfur amino acid requirement of the chick during acute coccidiosis.five assays were conducted to determine whether eimeria acervulina infection would alter the chick's sulfur amino acid (saa) requirement. chicks were housed in heated starter batteries with raised wire floors and fed completely purified crystalline amino acid diets. with light to moderate e. acervulina infection, data were somewhat inconclusive. in assay 1, infected birds responded to levels of saa above those required by healthy birds; but in two subsequent assays no difference in saa requireme ...19817322985
experimental development of resistance of amprolium or dinitolmide in eimeria acervulina and its effect on inhibition of sporulation of oocysts. 19817328470
effects of eimeria acervulina on intestinal ph in conventional and gnotobiotic chickens. 19744205348
disturbed intestinal absorption of vitamin a and carotenes and the effect of a low ph during eimeria acervulina infection in the domestic fowl (gallus domesticus). 19725018202
lysine and sulfur amino acid utilization in eimeria acervulina-infected chicks as affected by narasin.the effects of supplemental narasin (80 mg/kg) on several dietary factors were investigated in chicks infected with eimeria acervulina. in trial 1, chicks were fed a lysine-deficient corn-corn gluten meal diet containing graded increments of crystalline l-lysine.hcl with or without narasin. supplemental narasin increased weight gain and feed efficiency at all lysine levels fed. based upon slope-ratio methodology, efficiency of l-lysine utilization was virtually the same in both narasin-fed and c ...19873124089
[the effect of anticoccidiosis agents against eimeria acervulina in chickens]. 19676079431
penetration of chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes by eimeria acervulina sporozoites. 19863632104
the use of intestinal d-xylose absorption and other parameters to determine the pathogenicity of and immunity to eimeria acervulina.the degree of pathogenicity of eimeria acervulina infection in broiler chickens was evaluated by body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, oocyst production, gross morphologic lesion score, and intestinal d-xylose absorption. the least pathogenic effects, after challenge, occurred in birds immunized with 5 x 10(4) oocysts and challenged on day 14 with 3 x 10(6) oocysts. intestinal d-xylose absorption was found to be a sensitive method for evaluating the effects of coccidial infection and correlat ...19854070123
the role of chicken macrophages in the parenteral excystation of eimeria acervulina. 19734786839
feed additive interactions in the chicken: reduction of tissue copper deposition by dietary roxarsone in healthy and in eimeria acervulina-infected or eimeria tenella-infected chicks.interactions among roxarsone, copper, and coccidiosis were studied in growing crossbred chicks. corn-soy or corn-soy-corn gluten meal diets were fed in all assays. in the absence of supplemental copper, 50 mg/kg roxarsone did not affect gain. however, in the presence of 250 mg/kg supplemental copper, there was a depression in gain due to feeding 50 mg/kg roxarsone. in contrast, at a toxic level of copper (1000 mg/kg), a growth response resulted from feeding roxarsone. in all instances, roxarsone ...19846473253
immunization by irradiated eimeria acervulina. 19725008847
effect of dietary raw soybeans on coccidiosis in chickens.six battery experiments determined the effect of feeding raw soybeans (rsb) in corn-soybean diets on coccidiosis in broiler chickens. the experimental design represents a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three dietary levels of incorporation of rsb (0, 50, and 100%), and chickens either infected or uninfected. the coccidial species tested singularly were eimeria acervulina, eimeria maxima, eimeria necatrix, eimeria brunetti, and eimeria tenella. with all species of eimeria a signif ...19957603956
studies on eimeria mivati in chickens and a comparison with eimeria acervulina. 19675634116
eimeria maxima gametocyte antigens: potential use in a subunit maternal vaccine against coccidiosis in chickens.affinity-purified gametocyte antigens (apga) from eimeria maxima, emulsified in freund's adjuvant, were injected intramuscularly into breeding hens on two or three occasions. as a result, progeny of the immunized hens were partially immune to infection with e. maxima, eimeria tenella and eimeria acervulina (with a reduction in total oocyst output of 45-63% as compared with progeny of untreated hens). thus, apga in freund's adjuvant appears to have great potential as part of a maternally applied ...19957793129
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