[examination of cats for the elimination of toxoplasma gondii oocysts].two hundred and two samples of excrements were investigated for the presence of toxoplasma gondii oocysts. fifty-two samples were taken from dead domestic cats and a hundred and fifty samples were obtained from wild cats living in various localities of the cssr. the investigation was orientative and a flotation method with the breza flotation solution of the specific weight of 1.300 was used. if the finding was positive, residues of the excrements were floated with a saccharose, solution of the ...1979105452
[cytochemical study of the different stages in the life cycle of toxoplasma gondii. viii. nucleic acid distribution in the parasites at developmental stages from the cat intestine and the problem of the systematic position of toxoplasma]. 1977146290
[cytochemical study of the different stages in the life cycle of toxoplasma gondii. ix. the polysaccharides and lipids in the parasites at developmental stages from the cat intestine].amylopectin was detected in all the stages examined. in the oval stages the minute granules of pas-positive material were seen in the cytoplasm when examined on fresh-frozen sections. in merozoites, amylopectin was more conspicuous with maturation. the residual body of microgametocytes contain large amounts of amylopectin; no polysaccharide was visualized in microgamete bodies. amylopectin was most abundant in macrogametocytes and zygotes. however, no peripheral position of pas-positive "plastic ...1977146291
[cytochemical study of various stages of life cycle of toxoplasma gondii. 10. phosphatases in the parasites during developmental stages in cat's intestines].several methods of acid and alkaline phosphatese and atpase detection using both natural and artificial substrates were applied to the intestinal stages of toxoplasma gondii with negative results to reveal enzymatic activity in all the stages except the microgametocyte. possible explanation of this unexpected phenomenon is discussed taking into account host-parasite relationships with intestinal stages of toxoplasma and with coccidia in general.1978148759
serological study of amebiasis and toxoplasmosis in the lindu valley, central sulawesi, indonesia.results of a serology survey in april 1972 for entamoeba histolytica and toxoplasma gondii antibodies among 484 inhabitants of the isolated lake lindu valley of central sulawesi (celebes) are presented. indirect hemagglutination antibody titers for amebiasis were found in over 10% of the population, although only 3.7% demonstrated significant titers of 1:128 or greater. there appeared to be no relationship between antibody titers and the age and sex of individuals tested, and the frequency distr ...1975171809
pneumocystis carinii, toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus and the compromised host.pneumocystis carinii and toxoplasma gondii are the two major parasitic protozoan pathogens in the immunocompromised host. both organisms cause latent infection in humans and many animals. cats are the definitive hosts for toxoplasmosis; the animal vector for pneumocystis (if any) has not been defined. toxoplasma is an obligate intracellular parasite, whereas the available evidence suggests that pneumocystis carinii exists primarily extracellularly. in compromised hosts, pneumocystis infection us ...1979217182
the prevalence and epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in ontario.the results of testing 7060 human serum specimens obtained in the province of ontario, canada, were analysed for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii. of these samples 38% were serologically positive at a titre of 1/16 or greater. the age-specific rates climbed from 2.7% in infants between 6 months and 1 year of age, to about 50% in individuals aged 25 years or over. variations in prevalence were noted between different areas within the province and evidence is put forward to show tha ...1977265346
tazonomy of toxoplasma.after reviewing reports of the hosts, structure and life cycle of toxoplasma, the genus is placed in the apicomplexan family eimeriidae and the folllowing 7 species are recognized: toxoplasma gondii (nicolle & manceaux) (type species) from about 200 species of mammals and birds, with oocysts in felids; toxoplasma alencari (da costa & pereira) from the frog leptodactylus ocellatus; toxoplasma brumpti coutelen from the iguana iguana tuberculata; toxoplasma colubri tibaldi from the snakes coluber m ...1977325203
[toxoplasma gondii. infection and its prevention]. 1978351357
effect of immunization of cats with isospora felis and bcg on immunity to reexcretion of toxoplasma gondii oocysts.the effect of pretreatment with isospora felis and bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) on the reexcretion of toxoplasma gondii oocysts was studied in 16 coccidia-free cats. the following conclusions were drawn: (a) chronically t. gondii-infected cats reexcreted t. gondii oocysts after superinfection with i. felis, and this reexcretion was prevented in cats infected with i. felis before t. gondii infection. (b) administration of bcg before toxoplasma infection had no apparent effect on the outcome of ...1978364044
the prevalence of toxoplasma infection in southern determine the prevalence of infection with toxoplasma gondii in the fars province of iran, sera from 300 patients hospitalised at the pahlavi university medical centre in shiraz were tested. there were 157 males and 143 females, with a mean age of 39 years (range 10--80 years). the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique was used and titres of 1:16 and above were considered positive. eighty eight patients of whom 50 were male and 38 female (mean age 41 years, range 14--80 years) had pos ...1978366166
toxoplasma gondii cysts in cell culture: new biologic evidence. 1977412941
cockroaches as vectors of sarcocystis muris and of other coccidia in the assess the roles of the german cockroach (blatella germanica) and the american cockroach (periplaneta americana) in the transmission of sarcocystis muris and of 3 other coccidia of cats-toxoplasma gondii, isospora felis, and isospora rivolta, cockroaches exposed to feces containing these coccidia were periodically fed to mice, as was a portion of the fecal matter. sarcocystis muris sporocysts, which in feces remained infectious for at least 20 days, were also transmitted to mice by p. america ...1978417163
porcine toxoplasmosis in indiana.toxoplasmosis was diagnosed at necropsy in a 4-week-old pig from a litter of 16 born to a clinically normal sow. multifocal acute necrosis of blood vessels and parenchyma was found in the small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain. numerous tachyzoites, ultrastructurally indistinguishable from toxoplasma gondii, were found in lesions. the affected pig and seven other littermates died after diarrhea had developed within 1 to 2 weeks of birth. the most likely source of infect ...1979422464
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in horses. 1979448624
toxoplasmosis in a calf.gross post mortem and histopathological changes are described in a calf with toxoplasmosis. the major pathological changes were restricted to the lungs and kidneys and comprised interstitial pneumonia with multifocal necrosis, and glomerular necrosis. many pseudocysts were present in both organs. the calf had been in close contact with young cats, one of which was killed and examined and shown to have a high antibody titre to toxoplasma gondii, although there was little histological evidence of ...1979473542
an ultrastructural study on the excystation of the sporozoites of toxoplasma gondii.the ultrastructural changes which occur during the in vitro excystation of the sporozoites of toxoplasma gondii were examined. the excystation was carried out at 37 degrees c on suspensions of oocysts which had been ground and then treated with an excysting medium containing 0.25% trypsin and 0.75% sodium taurocholate in phosphate buffered saline, ph 7.3. it was found that sporocysts within intact oocysts were unaffected while sporocysts exposed to the medium ruptured. the sporocyst wall consist ...1979525353
direct development of enteroepithelial stages of toxoplasma in the intestines of cats fed cysts.four newborn (1- to 2-day-old) and two weaned (55- to 67-day-old) toxoplasma-free cats were killed between 23 and 120 hours after ingestion of toxoplasma gondii cysts from the brains of infected mice, and the cats' tissues were examined for the development of toxoplasma. intraepithelial toxoplasma types (b, c, and d) were found in sections of small intestine. homogenates of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver of each cat were injected intraperitoneally into each of six weaned toxoplasma-fr ...1979525882
toxoplasma gondii: scanning electron microscope studies on the small intestine of infected and uninfected cats.the mucosal surfaces of villi from the small intestine of cats infected with toxoplasma gondii were studied with the scanning electron microscope and compared with those from uninfected control cats. in uninfected cats villi were predominantly leaf shaped and were lined with ridges; goblet cell openings could be seen. the enterocytes had a hexagonal surface outline and were dome-shaped. infected cats had both normal and abnormal villi. injured villi were shortened and attained a broad leaf shape ...1979539422
attempted transmission of toxoplasma gondii infection from pregnant cats to their kittens.sixteen 1- to 7-week-old pregnant specific-pathogen free cats were inoculated orally with toxoplasma gondii cysts. fetuses and neonatal kittens were examined for toxoplasma infection by inoculating suspensions of their tissues into mice. toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 23 fetuses and 16 newborn kittens from 13 queens. six (3 litters) of the 15 kittens from the 3 remaining queens were killed on the day of or a day after birth, and the remaining 9 kittens were housed with their mothers for ...1977557468
attempeted transmission of feline coccidia from chronically infected queens to their kittens.eight female, 12- to 34-month-old, specific-pathogen free cats were inoculated orally with toxoplasma gondii cysts on day 0, then with isospora felis and isospora rivolta oocysts on day 39, and cysts of hammondia hammondi on day 86 after inoculation with toxoplasma. all cats shed oocysts of all 4 of these coccidia within 11 postinoculation days. the female cats were caged with 4 male toxoplasma-free cats, starting 66 days after inoculation with toxoplasma, until they were 5 to 6 weeks pregnant. ...1977557469
experimental infection of bovines with oocysts of toxoplasma gondii.calves aged 3 months were readily infected with oocysts and cysts of toxoplasma gondii administered by oral route. fever, respiratory distress, nasal discharge and hyperemia of the conjunctivas were the most significant clinical signs noted in the infected animals. parasitemia was demonstrated in all infected calves. it occurred on different days and up to 62 days after the infection. toxoplasma was demonstrated in tissues of all infected calves, and the organ most frequently parasitized was the ...1977558305
toxoplasmosis.recent research has shown that toxoplasma gondii, the cause of human toxoplasmosis, is a protozoan close to the genus isospora, whose life cycle involves cats as the definitive host, and other mammals, including man, and birds as intermediate hosts. cats shed oocysts in their faeces; these are infective to the intermediate hosts when ingested. but the non-felid intermediate hosts can also become infected by eating other intermediate hosts. probably most human infections occur in this manner and ...1977603449
[incidence of the oocyst of toxoplasma gondii in the domestic cat of the federal district of the city of mexico]. 1977608559
[toxoplasmosis. a common infection, not very often recognized clinically].epidemiological survey and microscopical diagnosis point out that toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan infection usually with percentages of positivity higher than 20 per cent. even in places with prosperous economical conditions the human infections can be relatively high due to the habit of eating raw meat or not properly exposed to temperatures lethal to toxoplasma gondii. but sometimes they can be explained by cultural patterns or to individual psicological factors in relation to cats, the defini ...1977613305
survey for toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals from norway and sweden.fifty-nine of 1250 (4.7%) wild and domestic animals from norway and sweden had positive dye-test titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) for antibody against toxoplasma gondii. a dye-test titer of 1:8 (30-40 i.u.) or higher was detected in 3 of 732 small rodents (0.4%), 21 of 87 domestic cats (24%), 9 of 29 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) (31%), 2 of 2 domesticated arctic foxes (alopex lagopus), 12 of 99 red deer (cervus elaphus) (12%), 5 of 8 roe deer (capreolus capreolus) (63%) and in 7 of 34 wild rab ...1978650778
[cytochemical study of various stages of life cycle of toxoplasma gondii. 11. oxidation-reduction enzymes in the parasites during developmental stages in cat's intestines].dehydrogenases of glycolysis, krebs' cycle and pentose phosphate shunt were investigated in the intestinal stages of t. gondii. the "oval stages" appeared to display the activity of all the enzymes studied differing in this from merozoites and macrogametocytes. the macrogametocytes displayed very low, if any, activity of the enzymes studied, even the mature parasites. immediately after fertilization, sharp shifts were observed in the oxidative metabolism of the zygote: from very low or negative ...1978653827
the prevalence of serum antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in ontario mammals.the prevalence of seropositive reactions to toxoplasma gondii was studied in farm animals, companion animals, wild rodents and birds. of the animals tested, 17% of cattle, 65% of sheep, 45% of pigs, 9% of horses, 33% of dogs and 20% of cats were seropositive by the sabin-feldman dye test. in addition 11% of mice (mus musculus), 5% of deer mice (peromyscus), 3% of rats (rattus norvegicus) and less than 2% of sparrows (passer domestcus) were seropositive. all samples from short-tailed field mice ( ...1978667705
the detection of hammondia hammondi in australia and the identification of a free-living intermediate host.a cat fed commercially prepared cat food and free-living rats (rattus rattus and r. norvegicus) passed coccidian oocysts which were morphologically similar to toxoplasma gondii. mice dosed with these oocysts did not develop toxoplasmosis, but instead developed small, thin-walled parasitic cysts containing small bradyzoites in their striated muscles. these cysts measured 35 to 90 micron by 9 to 40 micron and they resembled cysts of hammondia hammondi. unlike t. gondii this coccidian parasite was ...1978735301
ultrastructure of excystment of toxoplasma gondii oocysts.the excystation of sporozoites from intact toxoplasma gondii oocysts or mechanically released sporocysts was studied by light and electron microscopy. both intact oocysts and free sporocysts excysted in 5% bovine bile in 0.9% nacl solution after 30-60 min incubation at 37c. sporozoites were first activated in either intact sporocysts or oocysts within 2-12 min of incubation in bile. sporozoites escaped from sporocysts through 4 plate-like sutures in the sporocyst wall, and from the oocyst as the ...1978739410
the prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii among hospitalized animals and stray dogs.hospitalized animals and stray dogs were serologically tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. in addition, the data were examined for the possibility of toxoplasmosis infection being associated with the clinical diagnosis and with the discharge status (alive vs. dead). among 1056 hospitalized animals, 17 (20%) of 86 cats, 112 (14%) of 804 dogs, 34 (26%) of 133 horses and 6 (18%) of 33 cattle had serological evidence of infection with t. gondii. only 22 (6%) of 342 young (median age = o ...1978743598
serological study for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in jakarta, indonesia.a total of 280 sera from medical students, laboratory personnel from the university of indonesia and other persons living in jakarta were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. antibody titers equal to or greater than 1:256 were considered positive and were detected in 35 or 12.5% of the persons tested. the sero-positivity rates were not significant between 178 males (13.5%) and 102 females (10.8%) but were significantly different between persons of ind ...1978749222
epidemic toxoplasmosis associated with infected october, 1977, an outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurred in patrons of a riding stable in atlanta, georgia; 37 became ill with toxoplasmosis or had serologic evidence by indirect fluorescent-antibody test of acute infection with toxoplasma gondii (titer greater than or equal to 1:4096 or a positive fluorescent-antibody test for toxoplasma antibodies). forty-nine additional patrons did not become ill. two of the three adult cats from the stable were seropositive for toxoplasma, which was also reco ...1979763300
detection of circulating antigen in acute experimental infections with toxoplasma gondii.although many serologic tests are available for determination of antibody to toxoplasma gondii, circulating antigen has not been studied in infections with this organism. presence of circulating antigen was sought by immunologic methods in experimental infections (rh strain) of mice and rabbits. in mice, which succumbed to infection within four days; circulating antigen was detectable in serum by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis and agar gel diffusion on days 2-4 of infection. in rabbits; w ...1975808579
toxoplasmosis in man and animals in south kalimantan (borneo), indonesia.sera from 1,050 persons, 69 cats, 18 goats, 23 bovines, 2 monkeys, and 1 dog from 7 villages in south kalimantan were tested for indirect hemagglutination toxoplasma gondii antibodies. a seroepidemiologic study with the methylene blue dye test was conducted 1 year later at one village among 25 families and their cats. toxoplasma antibody prevalence in man in different villages varied from 9.7% to 51.0%. forty-one percent of the cats and 61% of the goats also had positive titers. none of the bovi ...1976816213
loss of stages after continuous passage of toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia jellisoni.toxoplasma gondii, passed from mouse to mouse in the tachyzoite stage for 30-35 generations, developed cysts, which when fed to cats, failed to produce oocysts. besnoitia jellisoni, passed similarly for 20 generations, lost the capacity to form cysts. these phenomena are explained by a loss of genomes or gene products during the rapid passage selecting for tachyzoites.1976823327
a review of sarcocystis of domestic animals and of other coccidia of cats and dogs.the nomenclature, life cycles, and pathogenicity of sarcocystis of domestic animals are reviewed. sarcocystis had a 2-host life cycle, with carnivores as definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. the following species are found in domestic animals (with the definitive hosts given in parentheses): 3 species in the ox: s cruzi (dog, wolf, coyote, raccoon, fox), s hirsuta (cat), s hominis (man, monkey); 2 species in the sheep: s ovicanis (dog), s tenella (cat); 3 species in the pig: s ...1976824260
toxoplasmosis in a california sea lion (zalophus californianus).disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a female california sea lion that had been used in thermoregulation studies for about 4 years while housed in a small enclosure with a fresh-water pool at the university of hawaii, honolulu. toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in and around necrotic lesions of the heart and the stomach. source of the infection was not established; however, studies on toxoplasmosis in cats were being conducted at the institution, and common caretakers attended both group ...1977835862
persistence of toxoplasma gondii in the tissues of chronically infected cats. 1977845727
development of gametes and oocysts in cats fed cysts derived from cloned trophozoites of toxoplasma gondii. 1977845728
[contribution to the understanding of the biological cycle of toxoplasma gondii in the cat (author's transl)]. 1977858071
anticoccidial activity of 2-sulfamoyl-4,4-diaminodiphenylsulfone, sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and clindamycin in cats infected with toxoplasma gondii. 1977858118
effect of age and sex on the acquisition of immunity to toxoplasmosis in cats.the effects of age and sex of the cat on oocyst shedding, multiplication of toxoplasma gondii in tissues of cats, and acquisition of immunity were investigated after oral inoculation of cats with toxoplasma cysts. twenty-five cats varying in age from 1 week to 39 months were killed 7-97 days after inoculation with t. gondii. homogenates of brain, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, retina, and blood from these cats were inoculated into mice to test for toxoplasma infectivity. toxoplasma was isolated ...1977864622
[isolation of toxoplasma gondii strains from faeces of stray cats in czechoslovakia (author's transl)]. 1977902126
[variability in the number of merozoites of toxoplasma gondii schizont in the small intestine of cats (author's transl)]. 1977902130
characterization of toxoplasma gondii from the feces of naturally infected cats.feces of 1,000 cats from a humane shelter in columbus, ohio, were examined microscopically for oocysts of toxoplasma gondii and by inoculation into mice. from the first 541 cats examined, oocysts of toxoplasma were found in the feces of seven cats but in none of the remaining 459 cats. results of the dye test in these seven cats showed titers of antibody of less than 1:2 in four cats, and of 1:8, 1:6, and 1:32 in the remaining three cats. the pathogenicity and infectivity of oocysts and cysts of ...1977903678
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals of new mexico, arizona and colorado.using the sabin-feldman dye test, sera from wild and domestic animals in new mexico, arizona and colorado were tested for the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii. the prevalence of positive titers (greater than or equal to 1:8) in animals from these areas was: new mexico (178 of 569, 31%), arizona (11 of 56, 20%), and colorado (2 of 7, 29%). the overall prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma was 30% (191 of 632). nine of 17 fecal samples from wild zoo felines contained toxoplasma-like ...1976933314
toxoplasma antibody prevalence in veterinary personnel and a selected population not exposed to further elucidate the epidemiologic factors involved in the transmission of toxoplasma gondii from cats to humans, veterinarians, animal hospital workers and a selected population of non-contact subjects were questioned about rural or urban residency, pets owned, contact with cats and whether their cats used a litter box in the house. sera samples were tested at 1:128 dilution for toxoplasma antibodies using indirect fluorescent and hemagglutination techniques. none of the 60 non-contact indi ...1976937341
effects of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine on the intestinal development of toxoplasma gondii in cats.treatment with combined pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine prolonged the pre-patent period and shortened the patent period of cyst-induced toxoplasmosis in cats. oocyst excretion was inhibited in 3 of 4 cats treated intramuscularly with 2 mg/kg body weight pyrimethamine and 100 mg/kg body weight sulfadiazine but not in 4 cats treated with one-half that dosage. treatment with 2.2 mg/kg body weight pyrimethamine and 132 mg/kg body weight sulfadiazine mixed in cat food did not inhibit oocyst production ...1976937628
the effect of endo-enteric development of toxoplasma gondii on the ultrastructure of epithelial cells of the small intestine of infected cats.toxoplasma gondii undergoing endo-enteric development in the small intestine of the cat affects the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells. the epithelial cells from infected cats have swollen rough endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria may be swollen with degenerate cristae. a statistically significant shortening of the microvilli of the epithelial cells was demonstrated. it appeared that the effect on the microvilli length was related to the parasite distribution within the small intestin ...1976961431
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
internal parasites of feral cats from the tasmanian midlands and king island.eighty-six feral cats from a sheep grazing area in the tasmanian midlands and 21 from king island were examined for internal parasites. major food items in order of decreasing prevalence in stomach contents were insects, lizards, birds, rodents and frogs in the midlands, and rodents, birds, insects, and lizards on king island. feral cats from the midlands had 4 cestode, 7 nematode, 2 trematode and 3 protozoan parasites as follows: spirometra erinacei (66.3%), taenia taeniaeformis (2.3%), dipylid ...1976985246
antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in saskatchewan cats, sheep and cattle. 19761000460
immunity to hammondia hammondi infection in cats.acquisition of immunity to hammondia hammondi, a newly recognized coccidian of cats, was studied in 18 specific-pathogen-free cats. one cat was given a single oral inoculation, 11 cats were given 2 oral inoculations, and 1 cat was given 3 oral inoculations of homogenized mouse carcasses containing h hammondi. in all cats, oocyst shedding began 6 to 9 days after the 1st inoculation. oocyst shedding peaked at 1 to 2 days after the onset of shedding and lasted for 1 to 2 weeks. none of the cats bec ...19751158771
serologic study of toxoplasmosis in taiwan.toxoplasma gondii antibody titers as determined by either the indirect hemagglutination test or the methylene blue dye test were determined for a group of aborigines and for chinese as well as for swine, cats, rats, dogs and one bovine, all resident on the island of taiwan. none of the 194 aborigines and only 3 (1.97%) of the 152 chinese were found to be positive. of 433 swine tested 132 (30.5%) were positive. thirteen (27.7%) of 47 domestic pet cats were positive while none of 11 feral cats we ...19751166342
a survey for toxoplasma gondii antibodies in deer and other wildlife on a sheep range.blood samples were obtained from native mammals and birds on a sheep range (hopland field station) in northern california. serums were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 382 deer that were tested from 1964 to 1973, 77 (20%) were seropositive for t gondii. among 36 serums representing 6 species of wild carnivores (badgers, bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks), 18 (50%) were seropositive. all of the 5 bobcats tested were seropositive, wit ...19751176348
the ultrastructural development of the macrogamete and formation of the oocyst wall of toxoplasma gondii.the macrogametes of toxoplasma gondii develop within the epithelial cells of the cat ileum. as they develop the nucleus enlarges and dense patches of chromatin which were present in the nucleoplasm, disappear. polysaccharide granules and lipid globules appear in the cytoplasm and increase in number during development. the wall-forming bodies of type i (wfb i) appear before the wall-forming bodies of type ii (wfb ii); wfb i are smaller, more osmiophilic and more numerous than the wfb ii. the wfb ...19751180061
letter: coccidia related to toxoplasma gondii: possible zoonoses. 19751198210
toxoplasma antibodies in indonesian and chinese medical students in jakarta.the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in medical students of indonesian and chinese ancestry was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test with titers of 1:256 or greater considered positive. the sera from 90 indonesian and 203 chinese male (146) and female (147) students between 20 and 30 years of age were tested and positive titers detected in the sera of 16 (18%) indonesians and 14 (7%) of the chinese. there were no difference between the presence of positive titer and betwee ...19751226533
[transmission of toxoplasma gondii to the cat by the intake of swine and sheep meat spontaneously infected and normally slaughtered]. 19751227413
cockroaches as possible transport hosts of toxoplasma gondii in costa rica. 19761255363
preservation of feline anti-toxoplasma gondii antibody activity using blood absorbed on filter paper stored under different conditions.the present study deals with the successful long-term preservation of feline anti-toxoplasma gondii antibody activity on filter paper strips stored with silica gel. when filter paper strips were kept at 25 degrees c with silica gel, antibody activity in blood samples was preserved for at least six months.19921320286
macrophage functions in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus and toxoplasma was suspected that feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection would affect the function of feline macrophages, and that the concomitant infection of cats with fiv and toxoplasma gondii would cause even greater changes in macrophage function. sixteen specific-pathogen-free kittens, four per group, were infected either with fiv, t. gondii, both pathogens, or neither pathogen. after the cats had been infected with fiv for 14 weeks (8 weeks after t. gondii infection), peritoneal macrophages we ...19921321533
antibody responses to toxoplasma gondii antigens in aqueous and cerebrospinal fluids of cats infected with t. gondii and fiv.antibodies to antigens of toxoplasma gondii were measured in the aqueous and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of 16 specific-pathogen free kittens experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), t. gondii, or both pathogens. the results indicated that all cats infected with t. gondii had antibody responses to antigens of t. gondii in both aqueous fluids and csf. co-infection with fiv did not affect antibody levels. aqueous fluids from eyes of cats with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis di ...19921330426
serologic prevalence of selected infectious diseases in cats with uveitis.serologic evidence of infection by toxoplasma gondii, feline leukemia virus, feline coronaviruses, or feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is commonly found in cats with uveitis. serum samples from 124 cats with uveitis were assayed by use of elisa for the detection of t gondii-specific immunoglobulin m (igm), igg, and circulating antigens (ag), as well as an elisa for feline leukemia virus ag, an elisa for antibodies to fiv, and an indirect fluorescent antibody assay for antibodies to feline cor ...19921330998
toxoplasma gondii: an aids enhancing cofactor.disseminated toxoplasmosis, one of the most severe acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids)-associated infections in humans, is believed to develop from a latent infection after the cellular immune system is suppressed by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). however, toxoplasma gondii may serve as a cofactor in enhancing the immunodeficiency induced by hiv-1. this hypothesis is supported by the facts that: 1) co-infection with other pathogens in humans infected with hiv-1 may enhance t ...19921334211
immunological changes in cats with concurrent toxoplasma gondii and feline immunodeficiency virus examine the immunological changes in cats concurrently infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and toxoplasma gondii, kittens (four per group) were inoculated with fiv, t. gondii, both agents, or no pathogens. blood mononuclear cells and plasma were collected weekly for lymphocyte assays and serology. at week 14, spleen and lymph node cells were used for lymphocyte assays; brains and mesenteric lymph nodes were used for isolation of t. gondii. more t. gondii organisms were present i ...19921346403
virulent strains of toxoplasma gondii comprise a single clonal lineage.the protozoan toxoplasma gondii is a prevalent parasite in wild and domestic animals worldwide, being transmitted through the food chain by carnivorous feeding and scavenging. toxoplasma normally divides asexually to yield a haploid form that can infect virtually any vertebrate but it also has a well defined sexual cycle that occurs exclusively in cats. toxoplasma has become important as an often fatal opportunistic pathogen in patients with aids, although the 15-85% of adult human populations t ...19921355855
effect of primary phase feline immunodeficiency virus infection on cats with chronic toxoplasmosis.the effect of primary phase feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection on clinical signs, hematological values, toxoplasma gondii oocyst shedding, t. gondii-specific serology, t. gondii-specific cell-mediated immune responses, non-specific cell-mediated immune responses, and lymphocyte subpopulations from cats with experimentally induced chronic toxoplasmosis was studied. no significant clinical or hematologic abnormalities were noted following inoculation with fiv. t. gondii-specific igm was ...19921363007
isoenzyme analysis of hammondia hammondi and toxoplasma gondii sporozoites.isoenzyme analysis using isoelectrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels was used to distinguish hammondia hammondi and toxoplasma gondii sporozoites. five enzyme systems were studied: aconitase (ec, aspartate aminotransferase (ec, glucose phosphate isomerase (ec, lactate dehydrogenase (ec, and phosphoglucomutase (ec three stocks of t. gondii belonging to 3 zymodemes were compared to 1 stock of h. hammondi. hammondia hammondi differed from t. gondii at al ...19921386109
development of elisas based on recombinant antigens for the detection of toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies in sheep and cats.elisas using recombinant parasite polypeptides as antigens were developed to measure toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies in the sera of sheep and cats. compared with an elisa based on traditional parasite antigen, the elisa for sheep sera had a sensitivity of 79% and a negative predictive value of 80%, and the elisa for cat sera had a sensitivity of 100% and a negative predictive value of 100%. both elisas had specificities of 100% and positive predictive values of 100%. these elisas appear to ...19921413451
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies and antigens in the aqueous humor of cats.serum and aqueous humor samples, collected from 14 clinically normal cats and 96 cats with clinical evidence of intraocular inflammation, were assayed with elisa for toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin m (igm), t gondii-specific igg, t gondii-specific antigens, total igg, and total igm. additionally, serum was assayed with elisa for feline leukemia virus p27 antigen and antibodies against the feline immunodeficiency virus as well as with an immunofluorescent antibody assay for antibodies a ...19921429123
the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis on iowa swine farms with an emphasis on the roles of free-living mammals.multiparous sows from 19 central iowa swine farms were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii by the modified direct agglutination test. antibody titers of 1:32 or greater were considered positive. rodents, domestic cats, opossums (didelphis virginiana), raccoons (procyon lotor) and striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were live-trapped on each farm and similarly tested for antibodies. the overall prevalence of t. gondii antibodies in the species tested was 39/273 (14.3%) swine, 31/74 (41 ...19921496780
is immuno-protection against toxoplasma strain specific?two different strains of toxoplasma gondii were isolated from feline faecal deposits in two villages: rommana (northern sinai) and el-ekhewa (sharkyia governorate) as evidenced by their entirely different pathogenic effect and immune response in laboratory swiss webster mice. a man holding both villages as mutual residences, who was already proved to get acute toxoplasmosis twice made us avid to search for the presence of different strains in the two localities. the present study throws a sugges ...19921578182
an unidentified toxoplasma-like tissue cyst-forming coccidium in a cat (felis catus).an unidentified coccidium was found in the brain and the heart of a 6-year-old female cat. tissue cysts measured 40-130 x 40-112 microns and contained hundreds of bradyzoites measuring 4.2-5.2 x 1.2-1.8 microns. the cyst wall was 0.26-0.53 microns thick. tissue cysts reacted positively with anti-toxoplasma gondii serum but not with anti-neospora caninum serum in an immunohistochemical test. ultrastructurally, the cyst was aseptate and contained banana-shaped bradyzoites. micronemes and rhoptries ...19921584745
exposure to toxoplasma gondii and cat ownership in nova this survey, 998 children and adolescents between 7 months and 17 years of age who attended a hospital diagnostic center in the city of halifax, nova scotia, for routine evaluation were tested for toxoplasma gondii antibody. the 5.2% prevalence rate of antibody for children living in the outlying rural areas was significantly higher than the 1.1% rate among the urban children (p = .0006). seroprevalence increased with age for both rural and urban children. cat ownership was associated with an ...19921594371
mitogen and antigen-specific induction of lymphoblast transformation in cats with subclinical toxoplasmosis.lymphoblast transformation in whole blood was assessed by 3h-thymidine incorporation after stimulation by concanavalin a and toxoplasma gondii secretory and intracellular antigens in samples from cats with experimentally induced toxoplasmosis. toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin m, immunoglobulin g, and circulating antigens were also measured throughout the study period. lymphocytes from all cats were responsive to concanavalin a pre- and post-inoculation with t. gondii. suppression of mit ...19921595188
epidemiologic studies on human and feline toxoplasmosis.human serological profiles, and feline serological and fecal profiles were used to study the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in santa clara county, california. the prevalence of human toxoplasmosis was determined to be 42.9% in a test population of 147 women. the prevalence of feline toxoplasmosis was indicated to be 34.8% based on serological analysis of 158 felines. of 107 cats tested, 6.5% were shedding toxoplasma gondii - like oocysts in their feces. statistical analyses of questionnaire data ...19921619292
[antigenic differentiation among 3 life-cycle stages of toxoplasma gondii using fluorescent antibodies].antigenic differentiation between three stages of the life cycle of toxoplasma gondii by fluorescent antibodies. antisera were prepared in three groups of twenty mice each with three different antigens of toxoplasma gondii: the first group was inoculated with tachyzoites of rh strain and received sulfadiazine treatment; the second with tissue cysts of t-100-cat-6751 strain and the third with oocysts of the same strain, both without treatment. in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique ...19911670263
isolation of toxoplasma gondii from a naturally infected beef cow.toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the intestinal wall of an adult shorthorn cow. the cow had an antibody titer of 1:1,600 in the t. gondii agglutination test using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites. the strain of the parasite designated ct-1 was lethal to mice. this is the first report of the recovery of viable t. gondii from a naturally infected cow in the united states.19921738059
comparison of latex agglutination, indirect hemagglutination, and elisa techniques for the detection of toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies in the serum of cats.the primary purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available latex agglutination and indirect hemagglutination kits for the detection of toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies were capable of detecting t. gondii-specific immunoglobulin m (igm) in the serum of cats. serum samples from 35 cats containing either t. gondii-specific igm, t. gondii-specific immunoglobulin g (igg), or both were collected. each serum sample was assayed using a latex agglutination kit, an indirect hem ...19911748982
cerebral toxoplasmosis in danish aids patients.we estimate the frequency of central nervous system (cns) toxoplasmosis in danish aids patients and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy using the following criteria for acceptance of the diagnosis: either (1) the demonstration of toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue or (2) one or more hypodense or ring-enhancing lesions on computerized axial tomography (cat) scan and a neurologic and cat scan improvement in response to 2 weeks of treatment. from 1981 until july 1990 266 patients were diagnosed with ai ...19911815332
low toxoplasma antibody prevalence in serologic surveys of humans in southern mexico.antibody prevalence to toxoplasma gondii among residents of a pacific coastal region of oaxaca state, mexico is among low rates reported worldwide. from 60 small, rural communities, 3229 persons from ages 6 months to over 70 years provided blood specimens that were stored on filter papers. 124 (3.8%) of the eluates were seropositive (positive titer greater than 1:256) in the indirect hemagglutination test, and 43 (1.3%) had titers greater than 1:1024. seropositive rates increased by age group an ...19911819978
review of toxoplasmosis in malaysia.various studies on toxoplasmosis in malaysia have shown that specific antibodies to toxoplasma gondii are common among malaysians. among the ethnic groups, the malays have the highest prevalence rate followed by indians, orang aslis (aborigines) and chinese. antibody is acquired early in life and increases with age. there is no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females. the disease is apparently more prevalent among rural dwellers and those in the lower socioeconomi ...19911822863
studies on the use of cobalt-60 irradiation to control infectivity of toxoplasma gondii cysts.mouse brains harboring the chinese nt strain of toxoplasma gondii cysts were homogenized with normal saline and irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma rays at various doses. the homogenate was introduced intraperitoneally into nih mice or per os into kittens. loss of infectivity was confirmed according to the following criteria: no cyst found in mouse brain impression smears on the 50th day after inoculation; no oocyst found in feces of kittens 3-15 days after inoculation; subinoculation in mice and a ...19911822867
current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the united states.although not a major public health problem, food-borne parasitic zoonoses in the united states are the cause of numerous diseases that occur widely in the population. the most common food-borne parasitic diseases in the united states are trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, taeniasis/cysticercosis, diphyllobothriasis, and anisakiasis. since 1947, when the us public health service began to record statistics on trichinosis cases in humans, the numbers of reported cases in the united states have declined ma ...19911822940
toxoplasmosis--an overview.increasing concern over food safety has focussed attention on food-borne parasitic diseases, particularly toxoplasmosis. infection by the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and in food animals. cats are the main reservoirs of infection because they are only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts. toxoplasma gondii infection is transmitted by ingesting undercooked infected meat, congenitally, and via feces of infected cats. the most severe clinical in ...19911822945
study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in indonesia: a review.congenital toxoplasmosis has been confirmed in indonesia. many newborn children in indonesia have congenital anomalies attributable to toxoplasma gondii. the parasite is widespread, with seroprevalence rates of 2-63% in humans, 35-73% in cats, 75% in dogs, 11-36% in pigs, 11-61% in goats, and less than 10% in cows. the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in pregnant women in the dr cipto mangunkusumo hospital in jakarta is 14.3%, and in 50 abortions it is 67.8%. in patients with a history of one ...19911822946
cellular responses of cats with primary toxoplasmosis.the cellular responses of 8 kittens (4 inoculated orally with mouse brains containing toxoplasma gondii cysts and 4 uninfected controls) were studied. oocyst numbers, body weight, and rectal temperature were monitored daily. blood was collected weekly for serology and mononuclear cell purification. at necropsy, peritoneal and alveolar macrophages, spleen, and lymph node cells were harvested. infected cats shed oocysts 4-15 days postinfection, maintained normal body weight and rectal temperature, ...19911826328
enhancement of humoral immune response of isospora felis-infected cats after inoculation with toxoplasma gondii. 19911830774
humoral immune response to isospora felis and toxoplasma gondii in cats experimentally inoculated with isospora felis. 19911838701
prospective vaccine prepared from a new mutant of toxoplasma gondii for use in cats.kittens are the principal disseminators of toxoplasma gondii. they can shed greater than 10(8) oocysts in the feces after initial infection with bradyzoites in tissue cysts. thereafter, most kittens develop protective immunity and do not shed oocysts again if they are reinfected. bradyzoites of a t gondii mutant, designated t-263, were used to vaccinate kittens. their use did not result in oocyst shedding, but successfully prevented 84% (31/37) of the kittens from shedding oocysts when challenge ...19911854103
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection in young school children in islamabad.sera, from 270 school children (age 13 to 20 years) residing in suburbs of islamabad, were investigated for the presence of toxoplasma gondii, igg antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the overall prevalence was 17.4%. there was no significant difference between the two sexes. since a positive test result for igg antibodies at any level does not eliminate the possibility of a current infection, the toxoplasma igg antibody positive children were further tested for the pr ...19911895497
toxoplasma gondii-like schizonts in the tracheal epithelium of a cat.toxoplasma gondii-like schizonts were found in tracheal epithelium of an 8-yr-old male cat. the parasites were located in parasitophorous vacuoles within the host cell cytoplasm, divided by schizogony, contained periodic acid-schiff-positive granules, and reacted with anti-t. gondii serum but not with anti-neospora caninum serum. mature schizonts were 7.0 x 5.9 microns (5-10 x 4-10 microns; n = 22) and contained 4-16 merozoites. the merozoites were approximately 5 x 1 microns.19911919933
concurrent infection with toxoplasma gondii and feline leukemia virus. antibody response and oocyst production.four adult cats (two testing positive and two negative for feline leukemia virus felv) were fed toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts collected from the brains of mice. two control cats (1 felv+, 1 felv-) were not fed cysts. the cats infected with t. gondii shed thousands of oocysts but remained clinically and physically normal, with hemograms and clinical chemistry values essentially unchanged irrespective of their felv status. infection with felv did not increase the duration of oocyst shedding. at n ...19911920257
a serologic survey of oklahoma cats for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus, coronavirus, and toxoplasma gondii and for antigen to feline leukemia virus.a serologic survey was done on 618 cat sera submitted to the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory between july 1, 1987 and june 30, 1988. the samples were collected from clinically normal and sick cats. the sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus by a commercial immunoassay, to a coronavirus by an indirect fluorescent antibody test, and to toxoplasma gondii by a commercial latex agglutination test and for the presence of feline leukemia virus ant ...19901965583
examination of tissue cyst formation by toxoplasma gondii in cell cultures using bradyzoites, tachyzoites, and sporozoites.tissue cyst formation by a goat isolate (gt-1) of toxoplasma gondii was examined in bovine monocyte, human fetal lung, and madin-darby bovine kidney cell cultures. transmission electron microscopy (tem) and cat feeding studies indicated that tissue cysts were present in all 3 cell lines examined. tissue cysts were first seen 3 days postinoculation (pi) using tem. standard cell culture procedures were used and no additional condition was needed to induce tissue cyst formation. cats fed cell cultu ...19911992083
prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies among women with boh and general population in thousand and thirty-six serum samples obtained from women with bad obstetric history (boh) were subjected to detection of toxoplasma antibody by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) using whole promastigotes of rh strain of toxoplasma gondii as antigen. thirtyone (2.99 per cent) samples were found to be positive (titre greater than or equal to 1:64). of these 31 patients' sera 27 (87.09 per cent) showed rising titre of antibody when second samples were drawn after 4 weeks. two hun ...19902098426
toxoplasma gondii and toxoplasmosis. 19902111511
myelitis in a cat infected with toxoplasma gondii and feline immunodeficiency virus.severe necrotizing myelitis secondary to localization and reactivation of toxoplasma gondii within the spinal cord of a domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed by use of light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. the cat also was infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. this case may have useful comparative features to t gondii infections in human patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.19902153650
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