patterns of feline immunodeficiency virus multiple infection and genome divergence in a free-ranging population of african lions.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus that causes aids-like immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. free-ranging lions, panthera leo, carry a chronic species-specific strain of fiv, fiv-ple, which so far has not been convincingly connected with immune pathology or mortality. fiv-ple, harboring the three distinct strains a, b, and c defined by pol gene sequence divergences, is endemic in the large outbred population of lions in the serengeti ecosystem in tanzania. here we describ ...200415016897
antiretroviral spermicide whi-07 prevents vaginal and rectal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus in domestic cats.whi-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxy alaninyl phosphate] is a novel dual-function aryl phosphate derivative of zidovudine with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and spermicidal activities. whi-07 was active against the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). this study evaluated whether topical application of whi-07 as a single agent and in combination with an organometallic vanadium complex, vanadocene dithiocarbamate (vddtc), via a nontox ...200415047505
gamma interferon/interleukin 10 balance in tissue lymphocytes correlates with down modulation of mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus infection.understanding the early cytokine response to lentiviral infections may be critical to the design of prevention and treatment strategies. by using the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) model, we have documented an interleukin 10 (il10)-dominated response in lymphoid tissue cd4(+) and cd8(+) t lymphocytes within the first 4 weeks after mucosal fiv infection. this profile coincided with the period of high tissue viral replication. by 10 weeks postinfection, tissue viral levels decreased significa ...200415047817
spontaneous t cell apoptosis in feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-infected cats is inhibited by il2 and anti-b7.1 antibodies.lymph node (ln) t cells from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-infected cats have an increased expression of b7 co-stimulatory molecules as well as their ligand ctla4, resembling an activation phenotype shown to induce anergy and apoptosis in activated t cells. in addition, ln t cells from fiv-infected cats also show increased spontaneous apoptosis compared to uninfected animals. the apoptosis observed in these animals occurs primarily in t cells expressing b7 and ctla4, suggesting a role for ...200415113651
risk factors for feline coronavirus seropositivity in cats relinquished to a uk rescue charity.two thousand, two hundred and seven cats from 14 shelters of a major uk cat charity were blood tested for feline coronavirus (fcov) antibodies. data was collated on breed, sex, age, number of cats at original location, outdoor access, health status, and time spent in the shelter prior to sampling (range 0 to 4 years). some cats were also tested for feline leukaemia virus antigen, feline immunodeficiency virus, and toxoplasma gondii antibodies. the effect of these variables on fcov seropositivity ...200415123148
exposure to feline and canine pathogens in bobcats and gray foxes in urban and rural zones of a national park in california.exposure of bobcats (lynx rufus) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) to a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of golden gate national recreation area, a national park in the san francisco bay area, (california, usa) from 1992 to 1995. testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus, leptospira interrogans, feline calicivirus (fcv), feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus, feline enteric co ...200415137484
serosurvey of viral infections in free-ranging namibian cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus).cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) in captivity have unusually high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, a trait that could be an outcome of population homogeneity or the immunomodulating effects of chronic stress. free-ranging namibian cheetahs share ancestry with captive cheetahs, but their susceptibility to infectious diseases has not been investigated. the largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs resides on namibian farmlands, where they share habitat with domestic dogs an ...200415137485
factors that increase the effective concentration of cxcr4 dictate feline immunodeficiency virus tropism and kinetics of replication.the surface glycoprotein (gp95) of the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) binds in a strain-specific manner to several cell surface molecules, including cxcr4, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (hspgs), dc-sign, and a 43-kda cell surface receptor on t cells recently identified as cd134 by m. shimojima et al. (science 303:1192-1195, 2004). cxcr4 is the entry receptor in all known cases, and the other molecules act as binding receptors to help facilitate infection. in this report, we confirm and exte ...200415308709
the critical role of proximal gag sequences in feline immunodeficiency virus genome encapsidation.retroviral rna encapsidation is mediated by specific interactions between viral gag proteins and cis-acting packaging sequences in genomic rna. feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) rna encapsidation determinants have been shown to be discrete and noncontinuous, comprising one region at the 5' end of the genomic mrna (r-u5) and another region that mapped within the proximal 311 nt of gag. to aid comparative understanding of lentiviral encapsidation and refinement of fiv vector systems, we used rna ...200415327902
prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in northern florida.objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in northern florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or pcr assays. male cats were at higher risk for fiv, mycoplasma haemofelis, and m. haemominutum. infection with either felv or fiv was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, m. haemofelis, or ...200415363760
sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (felis catus linnaeus, 1758) in a zoological garden of rio de janeiro, brazil.the colony of urban stray cats living in the rio de janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. as many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals) and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. they were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. all animals had a blood sample drawn for cbc, platelet count, heartwor ...200415517031
cellular immune responses to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) induced by dual-subtype fiv vaccine.vaccine-induced t cell responses to fiv were assessed by measuring fiv-specific cytokine and cytotoxic-effector molecule production. a total of 22 cats at 10-12 weeks of age received either dual-subtype fiv vaccine (n=12), uninfected cell lysate (n=5) consisting of cells used to produce vaccine viruses, or no immunization (n=5). significant increases in mrna and protein production of t-helper 1 (th1) cytokines (il-2, ifngamma), mrna production of a cytotoxic-effector molecule (perforin), and lym ...200415530685
structural mapping of cd134 residues critical for interaction with feline immunodeficiency virus.cd134 is a primary binding receptor for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and with cxcr4 facilitates infection of cd4(+) t cells. human cd134 fails to support fiv infection. to delineate the regions important for defining virus specificity of cd134, we exchanged domains between human and feline cd134. the binding site for fiv surface glycoprotein (su) is located in domain 1, in a region distinct from the natural ligand (cd134l)-binding site. mutagenesis showed that asp60 and asp62 are require ...200415592478
changes in the su can modulate the susceptibility of feline immunodeficiency virus to tm-derived entry inhibitors.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) provides a valuable animal model by which criteria for the development of hiv-1 inhibitors can be explored. previous studies had shown that a synthetic 8-mer peptide modeled on the tryptophan-rich motif of the ectodomain of the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (tm) is a potent inhibitor of fiv the observation that inhibition efficiency varied somewhat depending on fv strain prompted the present study in which we investigated whether changes in the surface (su) ...200415646068
bold attitude makes male urban feral domestic cats more vulnerable to feline immunodeficiency virus.individual differences in behaviour are a phenomenon that is more and more attracting the attention of scientists. among the other reasons, behavioural individuality occurs because selection favours the adoption of different tactics by individuals. it is now widely recognized that within many vertebrate species, individuals vary along an axis the extremes of which are represented by individuals 'bold' and 'shy', sometimes called 'proactive' and 'reactive'. here we present the case of feral domes ...200415652262
evaluation of feline immunodeficiency virus orf-a mutants as candidate attenuated vaccine.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) made defective in the accessory gene orf-a were previously shown to be greatly attenuated in its ability to replicate in lymphocytes but to grow normally or near normally in other cell types. here, we examined whether fiv thus mutated could protect specific pathogen-free cats against challenge with ex vivo fully virulent homologous virus. no reversion of the vaccinating infections to wild type orf-a was noted over 22 months of in vivo infection. following chal ...200515680433
puma lentivirus is controlled in domestic cats after mucosal exposure in the absence of conventional indicators of immunity.a high percentage of free-ranging pumas (felis concolor) are infected with feline lentiviruses (puma lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus pco [fiv-pco], referred to here as plv) without evidence of disease. plv establishes productive infection in domestic cats following parenteral exposure but, in contrast to domestic cat fiv, it does not cause t-cell dysregulation. here we report that cats exposed to plv oro-nasally became infected yet rapidly cleared peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbm ...200515708998
development and validation of puma (felis concolor) cytokine and lentivirus real-time pcr detection systems.studies of immune correlates of disease outcome associate humoral immune response mediated by t-helper 2 cytokines (il-4, il-10) with more virulent disease relative to a cell-mediated response driven by t-helper 1 cytokines (il-2, ifn-gamma), particularly in viral and other intra-cellular infections. specifically, the kinetics of both human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection are closely associated with type 1 versus type 2 cytokine profiles. puma (feli ...200515734541
antiviral activity in vitro of urtica dioica l., parietaria diffusa m. et k. and sambucus nigra l.parietaria diffusa m. et k., urtica dioica l. (urticaceae) and sambucus nigra l. (caprifoliaceae) are plants usually used in popular medicine of central italy for treating numerous diseases, first of all herpes zoster. several plant products have been described as potential antiviral agents, with special attention being devoted to those having retroviruses as etiological agents, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids), in which a retrovirus, the designated human immunodeficiency viru ...200515814267
feline immunodeficiency virus vaccine issues. 200515907039
toward a detailed characterization of feline immunodeficiency virus-specific t cell immune responses and mediated immune disorders.infection of domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is associated with the development of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). the pathogenesis of fiv is not fully understood but it has been reported that the immune system is progressively impaired during disease progression. as a result, anti-fiv specific immune response will usually not clear the virus and the acute stage is followed by a chronic asymptomatic phase. the overall objective of this study was to characteri ...200515910988
igg from acutely infected cats blocks mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus infection.we have previously shown an absence of detectable systemic or local infection in cats exposed to an infectious (100 tcid(50)) feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) plasma inoculum via either the rectal or vaginal mucosa. in contrast, this same plasma inoculum was infectious via parenteral inoculation. moreover an equivalent dose of cell-free tissue culture-origin virus inoculum infected 100% of cats by either the rectal or vaginal exposure route. to evaluate this phenomena, we used a tissue cultur ...200515910995
seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among felidae and hyaenidae species.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv). species-specific strains of fiv have been described for domestic cat (felis catus), puma (puma concolor), lion (panthera leo), leopard (panthera pardus), and pallas' cat (otocolobus manul). here, we employ a three-antigen western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion fiv antigens) and pcr analysis to sur ...200515956574
toll-like receptor expression in feline lymphoid tissues.toll-like receptors (tlrs) are germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (prrs) that activate the innate immune system. while it is clear that tlrs are important in the immune response against pathogens, they may also be exploited by some pathogens. our objective is to determine whether feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection affects tlr expression or function thereby resulting in innate immune dysfunction. to this end, we cloned partial sequences for feline tlrs 1--3, 5--8, and devel ...200515963821
feline immunodeficiency virus diagnosis after vaccination.prior to the widespread use of vaccination for the control of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection, diagnosis was made by the detection of antibodies against fiv. a number of commercial animal side tests perform quite well for this determination, with positive predictive values between 91 and 100% and negative predictive values between 96 and 100%. furthermore, results of these tests could be confirmed by western blot analysis of fiv test-positive sera. currently, a killed whole virus f ...200415984349
humoral immunity in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus or leukaemia virus.the humoral antibody responses of 82 domestic cats to the common commensal bacteria pasteurella multocida and staphylococcus aureus were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence assay to give a subjective quantification of specific igg in serum. there was no significant difference in specific serum igg levels between sick cats which tested antibody-positive to feline immunodeficiency virus or antigen-positive to feline leukaemia virus and sick, virus-negative cats. this finding suggested that ...199416031766
an update on aspects of viral gastrointestinal diseases of dogs and cats.viruses commonly cause gastrointestinal illnesses in dogs and cats that range in severity from mild diarrhoea to malignant neoplasia. perpetual evolution of viruses is reflected in changing disease patterns, so that familiar viruses are sometimes discovered to cause new or unexpected diseases. for example, canine parvovirus (cpv) has regained the ability to infect felids and cause a panleucopenia-like illness. feline panleucopenia virus (fpv) has been shown to cause fading in young kittens and h ...200316032339
feline lentiviruses demonstrate differences in receptor repertoire and envelope structural elements.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) causes fatal disease in domestic cats via t cell depletion-mediated immunodeficiency. pumas and lions are hosts for apparently apathogenic lentiviruses (plv, llv) distinct from fiv. we compared receptor use among these viruses by: (1) evaluating target cell susceptibility; (2) measuring viral replication following exposure to specific and non-specific receptor antagonists; and (3) comparing env sequence and structural motifs. most isolates of llv and plv produ ...200516120451
the feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cat: a model for lentivirus-induced placental immunopathology and reproductive failure (mini-review).pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection is largely a result of transplacental transmission, and pregnancy perturbation is more frequent in hiv-infected women. dysregulation of placental immunology may occur during hiv infection, possibly facilitating hiv vertical transfer and miscarriage. the (fiv)-infected cat is a useful small-animal model for hiv pathogenesis because the viruses share common biological and clinical features. transplacental transmission is readily achieved exper ...200516135008
hiv-1 p24 vaccine protects cats against feline immunodeficiency virus infection.based on previous analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-specific cross-reactive antibodies to hiv-1 p24, cats vaccinated with hiv-1 p24 were evaluated for cross-reactive immunity to fiv.200516135898
feline immunodeficiency virus plasma load reduction by a retroinverso octapeptide reproducing the trp-rich motif of the transmembrane glycoprotein.the trp-rich motif (trpm) of the transmembrane glycoprotein (tm) of lentiviruses is an attractive domain on which to design new potential cell entry peptide inhibitors. we recently demonstrated that an octapeptide reproducing the trpm of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), designated c8, broadly inhibited this virus in vitro and that the retroinverso analogue of this peptide (ric8) was almost as inhibitory and exhibited features suggestive of a much increased stability. here, we demonstrated th ...200516152761
chronic axillary wound repair in a cat with omentalisation and omocervical skin flap.a mature, neutered male domestic cat was presented with a chronic axillary wound of unknown origin and at least three years' duration. the diagnostic investigation included screening tests for feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus, tissue culture and histological examination. no underlying aetiology or perpetuating cause could be identified. an omental flap was created, passed via a subcutaneous tunnel, and packed into the wound site after excision of all chronic granulation t ...200516245665
real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect a broad range of feline calicivirus isolates.this report describes a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay with sybr green targeting the vp2 (orf 3) of feline caliciviruses. all of the 44 feline calicivirus isolates tested were detected, whereas neither feline herpesvirus, feline panleukopenia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus nor other calicivirus like rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and a canine calicivirus isolate showed specific amplification products. the sensitivity of ...200616266755
restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus by ref1, lv1, and primate trim5alpha proteins.the ref1 and lv1 postentry restrictions in human and monkey cells have been analyzed for lentiviruses in the primate and ungulate groups, but no data exist for the third (feline) group. we compared feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) to other restricted (human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [hiv-1], equine infectious anemia virus [eiav]) and unrestricted (nb-tropic murine leukemia virus [nb-mlv]) retroviruses across wide ranges of viral inputs in cells from multiple primate and nonprimate species ...200516306589
[evolution of lentiviruses and receptor specificity].lentiviruses consist of primate lentiviruses, ungulate lentiviruses and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). the primate lentiviruses utilize cd4 and chemokine receptors as a primary receptor and coreceptors, respectively. recently we found that fiv utilizes cd134 and cxcr4 as a primary receptor and a coreceptor, respectively. fiv utilizes feline cd134 but not human cd134, whereas it can utilize both feline and human cxcr4. exceptionally an fiv laboratory strain can infect human cells via cxcr4 ...200516308527
phylogenetic analysis of portuguese feline immunodeficiency virus sequences reveals high genetic diversity.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus responsible for an immunodeficiency like disease in domestic cats. based on the genetic diversity of the v3-v5 region of env gene fiv is divided in five phylogenetic subtypes (a, b, c, d and e) with a world-wide distribution. to understand the subtype diversity of fiv in portugal a serological survey was conducted during 1 year in the veterinary faculty hospital, lisbon, portugal to identify seropositive animals. two viral genomic regions were ...200616384661
feline lentivirus evolution in cross-species infection reveals extensive g-to-a mutation and selection on key residues in the viral polymerase.factors that restrict a virus from establishing productive infection in a new host species are important to understand because cross-species transmission events are often associated with emergent viral diseases. to determine the evolutionary pressures on viruses in new host species, we evaluated the molecular evolution of a feline immunodeficiency virus derived from a wild cougar, puma concolor, during infection of domestic cats. analyses were based on the coding portion of genome sequences reco ...200616501082
quantification of feline immunodeficiency virus (fivpco) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, lymph nodes and plasma of naturally infected cougars.infection of domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) results in a fatal immunodeficiency disease, similar to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (hiv-1) in humans. elevated plasma viral loads in domestic cats are correlated to decreased survival time and disease progression. however, fiv is also maintained as an apathogenic infection in other members of the family felidae including cougars, puma concolour (fivpco). it is not known whether the lack of disease in cougars is a result of d ...200616528047
differential utilization of cd134 as a functional receptor by diverse strains of feline immunodeficiency virus.the feline homologue of cd134 (fcd134) is the primary binding receptor for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), targeting the virus preferentially to activated cd4+ helper t cells. however, with disease progression, the cell tropism of fiv broadens such that b cells and monocytes/macrophages become significant reservoirs of proviral dna, suggesting that receptor utilization may alter with disease progression. we examined the receptor utilization of diverse strains of fiv and found that all strai ...200616537606
development of antiviral fusion inhibitors: short modified peptides derived from the transmembrane glycoprotein of feline immunodeficiency virus.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a naturally occurring pathogen that causes an aids-like syndrome in domestic cats and is a valuable model system by which criteria for antiviral vaccines and drugs development can be tested. the cell-entry step of the lentivirus life cycle is regarded as a promising target for the development of new generation inhibitors. we have previously described potent in vitro anti-fiv activity associated with a synthetic octapeptide, termed c8 (ac-trp-glu-asp-trp-val ...200616566046
in vivo pharmacokinetics and toxicity profile of the anti-hiv agent stampidine in dogs and feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.the pharmacokinetics and toxicity profile of stampidine (stamp, dde-113, hi-113, n-[p-(4-bromophenyl)-2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxy-5'-thymidylyl]-l-alanine methyl ester, cas 217178-62-6) were studied in beagle dogs and feline immunodeficiency virus-infected domestic cats. therapeutic plasma concentrations of stamp 3-4 logs higher than its ic50 value can be achieved after its p.o. administration to dogs as well as cats at the 100 mg/kg nontoxic dose level. in accordance with its safety profile in rod ...200616570826
platelet-bound antibodies detected by a flow cytometric assay in cats with cats, primary or secondary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia have rarely been described or characterised. the objective of this study was to determine platelet-bound antibodies (pba) by a flow cytometric assay in both healthy and thrombocytopenic cats. direct pba testing was performed in 42 thrombocytopenic cats (platelet counts 6-179 x 10(9)/l, median 56 x 10(9)/l). of these 42 cats, 19 had positive pba test results, 17 of which were considered to have secondary immune-mediated thrombocytopen ...200616616569
molecular subtyping of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats in determine the prevalent subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) present in the domestic cat population of australia.200616629189
feline leukaemia virus (felv) and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in cats in the pisa district of tuscany, and attempts to control felv infection in a colony of domestic cats by vaccination.the seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in 203 apparently healthy domestic cats living in the district of pisa, central italy, was 11.3 per cent, and the prevalence of feline leukaemia virus (felv) was 8.4 per cent. the prevalence of fiv depended significantly on the lifestyle and age of the cats; cats living outdoors were more likely to be fiv-positive than cats living indoors, and the proportion of fiv-positive cats increased with age. in contrast, there was no significant re ...200616632529
cryptococcus neoformans granuloma in the lung and spinal cord of a free-ranging cheetah (acinonyx jubatus). a clinical report and literature review.a 6-year-old, male, wild-born, free-ranging cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) was evaluated for acute onset of progressive lameness in the right hind limb. survey radiographs were unrewarding and myelography indicated an intramedullary compressive mass at the l3-l4 region. a fine needle aspirate of the lesion indicated the presence of cryptococcus organisms. necropsy confirmed the presence of granulomas (cryptococcoma) in the lung and the spinal cord (meningomyelitis) caused by cryptococcus neoformans ...200516642721
mediastinal lymphoma in a young turkish angora 8-month old intact male turkish angora cat was referred to the veterinary medical teaching hospital (vmth), seoul national university, for an evaluation of anorexia and severe dyspnea. the thoracic radiographs revealed significant pleural effusion. a cytology evaluation of the pleural fluid strongly suggested a lymphoma containing variable sized lymphocytes with frequent mitotic figures and prominent nucleoli. the feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus tests were negative. th ...200616645348
lessons from the cat: development of vaccines against lentiviruses.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a natural infection of domestic cats, which produces a disease with many similarities to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in man. the virus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pet cats worldwide. as such an effective vaccine is desirable both for its use in veterinary medicine and also as a model for the development of an hiv vaccine. a large number of candidate vaccines have been tested against feline immunodeficiency virus. the ...200616678276
rna in situ hybridization for the detection of feline immunodeficiency virus in infected the present study, we have applied a novel approach to generate specific digoxigenin- and biotin-labeled rna probes to detect feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) gag gene in the fiv-infected feline t-lymphoblastoid cell line (mya-1). this involved cloning of the fiv gag gene into a pcr script vector containing both t3 and t7 promoters, followed by amplification of the insert and the two promoter sequences, using specific primer sequences. the fiv rna probes were more sensitive than fiv dna pr ...200616771221
t-lymphocyte profiles in fiv-infected wild lions and pumas reveal cd4 depletion.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) that causes feline aids in the domestic cat (felis catus). serological surveys indicate that at least 25 other species of cat possess antibodies that cross-react with domestic cat fiv. most infected nondomestic cat species are without major symptoms of disease. long-term studies of fiv genome variation and pathogenesis reveal patterns consistent with coadaptation of virus and host in free-ranging fi ...200616870846
altered gag polyprotein cleavage specificity of feline immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus mutant proteases as demonstrated in a cell-based expression system.we have used feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) protease (pr) as a mutational system to study the molecular basis of substrate-inhibitor specificity for lentivirus prs, with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) pr. our previous mutagenesis studies demonstrated that discrete substitutions in the active site of fiv pr with structurally equivalent residues of hiv-1 pr dramatically altered the specificity of the mutant prs in in vitro analyses. here, we have expanded these studies ...200616873240
compartmentalization and evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus between the central nervous system and periphery following intracerebroventricular or systemic inoculation.the emergence of distinct neuropathogenic strains resulting from the adaptation and the unique evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in the brain may contribute to the development of hiv-induced neurological diseases. in this study, the authors tracked early changes in virus evolution and compartmentalization between peripheral tissues and the central nervous system (cns) after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation of animals with cell-free feline immun ...200616966221
recent advances in hiv describe recent advances in hiv neuropathy.200616969153
cyclophilin a interacts with diverse lentiviral capsids.the capsid (ca) protein of hiv-1 binds with high affinity to the host protein cyclophilin a (cypa). this binding positively affects some early stage of the viral life-cycle because prevention of binding either by drugs that occupy that active site of cyclophilin a, by mutation in hiv-1 ca, or rnai that knocks down intracellular cypa level diminishes viral infectivity. the closely related lentivirus, sivcpz also binds cypa, but it was thought that this interaction was limited to the hiv-1/sivcpz ...200617038183
recombination in feline lentiviral genomes during experimental cross-species infection.domestic cats develop an asymptomatic, productive infection with a feline immunodeficiency virus (plv) derived from a naturally infected cougar (p. concolor). we previously demonstrated that there are extensive g to a substitutions, characteristic of host cytidine deaminase editing, and positive selection on reverse transcriptase in the plv genome during this cross-species infection. in this study, we evaluated full-length viral genomes from each of four cats infected with plv to determine if vi ...200717046045
animal models used for the evaluation of antiretroviral therapies.several animal models for the study of hiv/aids have been established and characterized and have been widely used to study the pathogenesis of hiv/aids as well as vaccine development. the purpose of this study was to review the literature and identify the animal models most frequently used for the evaluation of drugs, drug combinations, plant extracts and drug-plant combinations. four of these animal models were evaluated namely the siv model due to its similarities in pathogenesis of disease to ...200617073618
vaccination of cats with attenuated feline immunodeficiency virus proviral dna vaccine expressing gamma interferon.a feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) provirus with a vif gene deletion (fivdelta vifatggamma) that coexpresses feline gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) was tested as a proviral dna vaccine to extend previous studies showing efficacy with an fiv-ppprdelta vif dna vaccine. cats were vaccinated with either fivdelta vifatggamma or fiv-ppprdelta vif proviral plasmid dna or with both fiv-ppprdelta vif dna and a feline ifn-gamma expression plasmid (pcdna-ifngamma). a higher frequency of fiv-specific t-cell ...200717079309
phylogenetic analysis to define feline immunodeficiency virus subtypes in 31 domestic cats in south africa.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), a lentivirus, is an important pathogen of domestic cats around the world and has many similarities to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). a characteristic of these lentiviruses is their extensive genetic diversity, which has been an obstacle in the development of successful vaccines. of the fiv genes, the envelope gene is the most variable and sequence differences in a portion of this gene have been used to define 5 fiv subtypes (a, b, c, d and e). in this st ...200617137049
feline immunodeficiency virus subtype b in domestic cats in minas gerais, brazil. 200617139547
expression of feline immunodeficiency virus vif is associated with reduced viral mutation rates without restoration of replication of vif mutant viruses.the vif gene of lentiviruses has been demonstrated to be essential for efficient viral replication in many cell types. although the vif protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) displays limited homology to hiv-1 vif, the role of vif in fiv replication is not known. we have examined the requirements of vif for replication of a fiv strain isolated from a non-domestic felid, otocolobus manul (fiv-oma). in agreement with others, we find that replication of fiv vif mutant molecular clones in cr ...200717169394
phylogenetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus in feral and companion domestic cats of new zealand.nested pcr was used to amplify envelope v3-v6 gene fragments of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) from new zealand cats. phylogenetic analyses established that subtypes a and c predominate among new zealand cats, with clear evidence of intersubtype recombination. in addition, 17 sequences were identified that were distinct from all known fiv clades, and we tentatively suggest these belong to a novel subtype.200717192306
a case of feline leprosy caused by mycobacterium lepraemurium originating from the island of kythira (greece): diagnosis and treatment.a 2-year-old, 4 kg, healthy, domestic shorthair female cat presented with ulcerated subcutaneous nodules on the commissures of its mouth. the cat was negative for feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. skin mycobacteriosis was diagnosed after detection of numerous acid-fast bacilli in ziehl neelsen-stained smears from the ulcers. feline leprosy was suspected following preliminary polymerase chain reaction results: positive for mycobacterium genus but negative for mycobacterium ...200717239641
evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus gag proteins.we evaluated the predicted biochemical properties of gag proteins from a diverse group of feline immunodeficiency viruses (fiv) to determine how different evolutionary histories of virus and host have changed or constrained these important structural proteins. our data are based on fiv sequences derived from domestic cat (fivfca), cougar (fivpco), and lions (fivple). analyses consisted of determining the selective forces acting at each position in the protein and the comparing predictions for se ...200717265140
vaccine protection against feline immunodeficiency virus: setting the challenge.since feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was first isolated, international research efforts have been directed towards developing a protective vaccine, not least because it may provide a model for a candidate human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) vaccine. this article reviews the challenges facing vaccine development, the current state of knowledge and future prospects for fiv vaccination.200717300445
deep and superficial skin scrapings from a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive 8-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat housed at the north carolina state university, college of veterinary medicine, laboratory animal research facility as part of a research colony was examined because of mulifocal skin lesions. the lesions consisted of patchy alopecia with mild crusting of the periauricular region, neck, and dorsum; periauricular excoriations; marked dorsal seborrhea and scaling; and generalized erythematous papules. a moderate amount of ceruminous exudate was p ...200717311204
serologic survey of domestic felids in the petén region of guatemala.blood samples were analyzed from 30 domestic cats (felis domesticus) from the petén region of guatemala to determine the seroprevalence of common pathogens that may pose a potential risk to native wild felids. eight of the cats had been vaccinated previously; however, owners were unable to fully describe the type of vaccine and date of administration. in addition, blood samples were obtained from two captive margays (leopardus wiedii). samples were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficienc ...200517315469
prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern australia.serum samples from 340 pet cats presented to three inner city clinics in sydney australia, 68 feral cats from two separate colonies in sydney, and 329 cattery-confined pedigree and domestic cats in eastern australia, were collected over a 2-year period and tested for antibodies directed against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) using immunomigration (agen fiv rapid immunomigration test) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (snap combo feline leukaemia virus antigen/fiv antibody test k ...200717409007
defibrinated bovine plasma inhibits retroviral transcription by blocking p52 activation of the nfkappab element in the long terminal repeat.bovine leukemia virus (blv) induces a persistent but latent infection in cattle. viral latency is invoked by a protein known as plasma blocking factor (pbf) that is found in both bovine and human plasma. we report here on pathways that mediate latency in the presence of pbf. reporter-gene constructs driven by the promoters of 6 retroviruses were used to measure the production of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) in cell lines cultured with or without defibrinated bovine plasma. plasma inh ...200717479775
follow-up of the health conditions of an urban colony of free-roaming cats (felis catus linnaeus, 1758) in the city of rio de janeiro, brazil.similar to other urban areas where food and shelter are abundant, the zoological garden of rio de janeiro has dealt for years with a colony of feral or semi-feral domestic cats. a survey was conducted during 2002-2004 as a follow-up to a previous study in 2001 of the cat colony to identify pathogens circulating among the population and to annually follow the status of the cats to analyze morbidity coefficients and associations among infections and infestations identified in the colony. during th ...200717481822
immunopathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in the fetal and neonatal cat.the global incidence of pediatric hiv infection is estimated at 2.3 million children, most acquiring the infection from their mothers in utero, peripartum, or postpartum. pediatric hiv infection typically causes a rapidly progressive disease when compared with adult infection, due in part to the profound susceptibility of the neonatal thymus to productive infection or degenerative changes. failed production of naive t-lymphocytes further limits the success of antiviral therapy to restore immunol ...200717485330
plasma electrophoretogram in feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and/or feline leukaemia virus (felv) infections.the electrophoretogram of 89 cats, including those infected by feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv+), feline leukaemia virus (felv+) and non-infected, showed statistically significant differences in several of the fractions. fiv+ cats had very high protein values (mean, 8.10 g/dl), mostly because of hypergammaglobulinemia (mean, 2.81 g/dl) as compared with non-infected animals and felv+. in addition, in these fiv+ animals, the albumin/globulins ratio (a/g) was very low (mean, 0.72). statistically ...200717493167
evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on mauna kea, hawaii.we determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (felv) antigen, and toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (felis catus) on mauna kea hawaii from april 2002 to may 2004. six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to fiv and antigen positive for felv, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to t. gondii. antibodies to felv and t. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but fiv occurred only in adult mal ...200717495320
co-infection with different subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus can complicate subtype assignment by phylogenetic analysis.phylogenetic analyses of the v3-v5 region of the env gene are used to determine feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) subtypes but can be complicated by co-infection with different subtypes or the presence of recombinant subtypes. fiv in blood samples from 30 domestic cats in new zealand was subtyped by sequencing three overlapping fragments of the v3-v5 region of the env gene and 467 bp of the gag gene. phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolates clustered with subtype a and c viruses. seven ...200717516035
gene conversion between mammalian ccr2 and ccr5 chemokine receptor genes: a potential mechanism for receptor dimerization.the chemokine receptor genes of the ccr cluster on human chromosome 3p21 play important roles in humoral and cellular immune responses. several of these receptors have been shown to influence human immunodeficiency virus infection and progression to aids, and their homologues may play a role in feline immunodeficiency virus infection. we report the isolation and sequencing of a 150-kb domestic cat bac clone containing the feline ccr genes ccr1, ccr2, ccr3, and ccr5 to further analyze these four ...200717544254
altered tryptophan metabolism in fiv-positive cats.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is analogous to human immunodeficiency virus, the causative agent of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). in aids patients, a progressive reduction in serum tryptophan concentration occurs because of activation of an inducible tryptophan degradation pathway mediated by elevated lamda-interferon production.200717552465
quality of different in-clinic test systems for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection.many new diagnostic in-house tests for identification of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukaemia virus (felv) infection have been licensed for use in veterinary practice, and the question of the relative merits of these kits has prompted comparative studies. this study was designed to define the strengths and weaknesses of seven fiv and eight felv tests that are commercially available. in this study, 536 serum samples from randomly selected cats were tested. those samples reacti ...200717604205
probing the interaction between feline immunodeficiency virus and cd134 by using the novel monoclonal antibody 7d6 and the cd134 (ox40) ligand.the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) targets activated cd4-positive helper t cells preferentially, inducing an aids-like immunodeficiency in its natural host species, the domestic cat. the primary receptor for fiv is cd134, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, and all primary viral strains tested to date use cd134 for infection. we examined the expression of cd134 in the cat using a novel anti-feline cd134 monoclonal antibody (mab), 7d6, and showed that as in rats and h ...200717609274
association of germ-line polymorphisms in the feline p53 gene with genetic predisposition to vaccine-associated feline sarcoma.a case-control study was conducted in order to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the genomic sequence of the feline p53 gene with a predisposition to vaccine-associated feline sarcoma (vafs). in the study, 50 domestic short hair cats with a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of vafs were matched to disease-free controls (1:2) by age, sex, and breed. cats from both the diseased (case) and control groups were also negative for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. ...200717641147
vaccine protection against feline immunodeficiency virus. 200717685973
vaccination against the feline immunodeficiency virus: the road not taken.natural infection of domestic cats by the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). fiv is genetically related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), and the clinical and biological features of infections caused by feline and human viruses in their respective hosts are highly analogous. although the obstacles to vaccinating against fiv and hiv would seem to be of comparable difficulty, a licensed vaccine against feline aids is already in widespread use ...200817706778
evaluation of the association of bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis.gingivostomatitis (gs) is a significant condition in cats because of oral discomfort and associated periodontal disease. several infectious agents have been associated with the presence of gs, but a causal relationship is unclear. the cats in this study were housed together, had a history of flea exposure, and were vaccinated with a modified live fvrcp product. there were nine cats with active gs and 36 unaffected cats at the time of sample collection. serum was tested for feline leukemia virus ...200817766156
prevalence and risk factors for hemoplasmas in domestic cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus and/or feline leukemia virus in rio de janeiro--brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' (mhm) infections in domestic cats tested for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit. based on serological testing, cats were grouped as i) fiv-positive (n=25); ii) felv-positive (n=39); iii) fiv/felv-positive (n=8); and iv) fiv/felv-negative (n=77). complete blo ...200817905624
durable, safe, multi-gene lentiviral vector expression in feline trabecular meshwork.multiple disease-specific considerations have led to interest in the potential of gene therapy to permanently correct elevated intraocular pressure (iop), the main causal risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (poag). since iop elevation results from abnormal resistance to aqueous humor outflow from the eye through the trabecular meshwork (tm), a means to genetically modify this specialized outflow organ permanently and safely is a prioritized goal. here we tested different lentiviral vecto ...200817912236
adenosine deaminase activity in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.adenosine deaminase (ada), an enzyme involved in purine metabolism, has been shown to be of clinical importance in several diseases in humans. to investigate whether ada is of any clinical significance in cats, plasma adenosine deaminase (p-ada) and t cell adenosine deaminase (t-ada) activities were measured in feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) negative and positive cats. the aids-related complex (arc) group showed a significant elevation in p-ada activity compared to the asymptomatic carrier ...200717917371
evaluation of two toxoplasma gondii serologic tests used in a serosurvey of domestic cats in california.we evaluated the sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of an igg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and igg indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for detection of toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies in sera from 2 cat populations using a bayesian approach. accounting for test covariance, the se and sp of the igg elisa were estimated to be 92.6% and 96.5%, and those of the igg ifat were 81.0% and 93.8%, respectively. both tests performed poorly in cats experimentally coinfected with ...200717918359
comparative requirements for the restriction of retrovirus infection by trim5alpha and trimcyp.the restriction factors, trim5alpha in most primates and trimcyp in owl monkeys, block infection of various retroviruses soon after virus entry into the host cell. rhesus monkey trim5alpha (trim5alpha rh) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) more potently than human trim5alpha (trim5alpha hu). trimcyp restricts infection of hiv-1, simian immunodeficiency virus of african green monkeys (siv agm) and fiv. early after infection, trimcyp, like trim5al ...200717920096
human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline aids.treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (art). integrase strand transfer inhibitors (instis) are emerging as a promising new drug class for hiv-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting fiv replication using instis.200717971219
variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (lynx rufus), pumas (puma concolor), and ocelots (leopardus pardalis).although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. we tested bobcats (lynx rufus), pumas (felis concolor), and ocelots (leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (plv), african lion lentivirus (llv), and domestic cat fiv-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzym ...200717984266
feline immunodeficiency virus neuropathogenesis: from cats to calcium.invasion of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) into the central and peripheral nervous system produces a wide range of neurological symptoms, which continue to persist even with adequate therapeutic suppression of the systemic viremia. the development of therapies designed to prevent the neurological complications of hiv require a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of virus penetration into the nervous system, infection, and subsequent neuropathogenesis. these processes, however, are diffi ...200718040840
feline immunodeficiency virus subtypes in domestic cats in new zealand. 200718059658
cd134 and cxcr4 expression corresponds to feline immunodeficiency virus infection of lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells.the lymphotropic lentiviruses feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) enter cells by sequential interaction with primary receptors cd134 or cd4, respectively, and subsequently with chemokine receptors. the host-cell range for fiv is broader than that for hiv, but whether this is a function of receptor expression is unknown. lack of reagents specific to feline molecules has limited detection and analysis of receptors and their interaction with viral components. ...200818089752
molecular characterization of feline immunodeficiency virus budding.infection of domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is an important model system for studying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection due to numerous similarities in pathogenesis induced by these two lentiviruses. however, many molecular aspects of fiv replication remain poorly understood. it is well established that retroviruses use short peptide motifs in gag, known as late domains, to usurp cellular endosomal sorting machinery and promote virus release from infec ...200818094166
evaluation of feline monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with internally inactivated virus as a vaccine against feline immunodeficiency virus.dendritic cells are the only antigen-presenting cells that can present exogenous antigens to both helper and cytolytic t cells and prime th1-type or th2-type cellular immune responses. given their unique immune functions, dendritic cells are considered attractive "live adjuvants" for vaccination and immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. the present study was carried out to assess whether the reinjection of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with an aldithriol-2-in ...200818216184
genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. fiv infection causes aids-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (felis catus) and serves as a natural model for hiv infection in humans. in african lions (panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by fiv infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that fiv causes moderate to severe cd4 depletion.200818251995
genetic characterization of feline leukemia virus from florida panthers.from 2002 through 2005, an outbreak of feline leukemia virus (felv) occurred in florida panthers (puma concolor coryi). clinical signs included lymphadenopathy, anemia, septicemia, and weight loss; 5 panthers died. not associated with felv outcome were the genetic heritage of the panthers (pure florida vs. texas/florida crosses) and co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus. genetic analysis of panther felv, designated felv-pco, determined that the outbreak likely came from 1 cross-species ...200818258118
molecular mechanisms of fiv infection.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is an important viral pathogen worldwide in the domestic cat, which is the smallest animal model for the study of natural lentivirus infection. thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms by which fiv carries out its life cycle and causes an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids) in the cat is of high priority. fiv has an overall genome size similar to hiv, the causative agent of aids in man, and shares with the human virus genomic features that may serve ...200818289701
chemokine receptors and co-stimulatory molecules: unravelling feline immunodeficiency virus infection.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection of the domestic cat induces an immunodeficiency characterised by a gradual depletion of cd4+ t-helper lymphocytes. the virus targets t-helper cells by way of an interaction between its envelope glycoprotein (env) and the cell surface molecule cd134 (ox40), a member of the nerve growth factor receptor/tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily. the env-cd134 interaction is a necessary prerequisite for the subsequent interaction with cxcr4, the only c ...200818289703
the molecular biology and evolution of feline immunodeficiency viruses of cougars.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus that has been identified in many members of the family felidae but domestic cats are the only fiv host in which infection results in disease. we studied fivpco infection of cougars (puma concolor) as a model for asymptomatic lentivirus infections to understand the mechanisms of host-virus coexistence. several natural cougar populations were evaluated to determine if there are any consequences of fivpco infection on cougar fecundity, survival, o ...200818295904
expression of cd134 and cxcr4 mrna in term placentas from fiv-infected and control cats.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) causes a natural infection of domestic cats that resembles hiv-1 in pathogenesis and disease progression. feline aids is characterized by depression of the cd4+ t cell population and fatal opportunistic infections. maternal-fetal transmission of fiv readily occurs under experimental conditions, resulting in infected viable kittens and resorbed or arrested fetal tissues. although both fiv and hiv use the chemokine receptor cxcr4 as a co-receptor, fiv does not u ...200818295905
advances in fiv vaccine technology.advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. fiv vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of hiv-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. this review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterization ...200818295907
functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline apobec3 genes.over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. among these host-encoded restriction factors, the apobec3 (a3; apolipoprotein b mrna-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. while primates encode seven of these genes (a3a to a3h), rodents carry only a single a3 gene.200818315870
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