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epidemiology of feline foamy virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in domestic and feral cats: a seroepidemiological study.although foamy viruses (spumaviruses) have repeatedly been isolated from both healthy and diseased cats, cattle, and primates, the primary mode of transmission of those common viruses remains undefined. a database of the feline foamy virus (fefv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibody status, age, and sex of 389 domestic cats presented to veterinarians was assembled. a similar database for 66 feral (wild) cats was also assembled. that fefv antibody status reflects infection was validat ...199910449463
mapping the specificity of an anti-feline immunodeficiency virus monoclonal antibody using a filamentous phage displayed peptide library.recent developments in peptide technology enable the use of random peptide libraries for identifying linear amino acid sequences (mimotopes) which can mimic conformational epitopes without necessarily exhibiting amino acid sequence homology with the native linear sequence. in this study a 15-mer random peptide library displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage has been used to characterise the conformational epitopes recognised by a monoclonal antibody raised against the envelope protein gp ...199910506664
investigation of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor type i in thymus regeneration in the acute stage of experimental fiv infection in juvenile cats.thymus involvement and the development of thymic lesions in hiv-1 infection is hypothesized to suppress thymus function and limit t cell maturation and replenishment of the peripheral lymphoid pool. therapeutic modulation to protect or enhance thymus function may therefore ameliorate peripheral lymphocytopenia and retard disease progression. thymotrophic agents, such as insulin-like growth factor type i (igf-i), may therefore represent adjunctive but important methods of treatment to protect or ...199910515153
envelope gene sequences encoding variable regions 3 and 4 are involved in macrophage tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus.the envelope is of cardinal importance for the entry of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) into its host cells, which consist of cells of the immune system including macrophages. to characterize the envelope glycoprotein determinants involved in macrophage tropism, chimeric infectious molecular clones were constructed containing envelope gene sequences from isolates that had been propagated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). the progeny virus was examined for growth in pbmc and bone ...199910573157
circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopic properties of the major core protein of feline immunodeficiency virus and its tryptophan mutants. assignment of the individual contribution of the aromatic sidechains.the gene coding for the major capsid protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) has been cloned into the expression vector pqe60, which allows protein purification by affinity chromatography on a nitrilotriacetic acid/ni/agarose column. the gene was expressed in escherichia coli and the resultant soluble protein (fiv-rp24) purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. the amino-acid composition of the recombinant protein is almost identical to that predicted from the dna sequence. this protein ha ...199910583405
bad for cats, good for humans? modified feline immunodeficiency virus for gene therapy. 199910587510
factors influencing cellular immune responses to feline immunodeficiency virus induced by dna vaccination.virus-specific effector cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) were elicited in the peripheral blood of domestic cats following a single intramuscular inoculation of replication defective feline immunodeficiency virus proviral dna (fivdeltart). higher levels of virus-specific cytolysis were observed in the blood when cats were co-inoculated with feline gamma-interferon (ifn) dna. the responses declined by 12 weeks following the first dna inoculation and were, with the exception of fiv gag-specific respon ...200010590334
high prevalence of borna disease virus in domestic cats with neurological disorders in japan.a total of 15 (t-1-t-15) domestic cats with neurological disorders in tokyo area were examined for association with borna disease virus (bdv). none had detectable antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), feline leukemia virus, feline infectious peritonitis virus and toxoplasma gondii, and only cat t-8 had detectable antibody to fiv. serological and molecular epidemiological studies revealed a significantly high prevalence of bdv infection in these cats: antibodies against bdv p24 and/o ...199910596800
mhc-restricted protection of cats against fiv infection by adoptive transfer of immune cells from fiv-vaccinated donors.the role of cellular immunity in vaccine protection against fiv infection was evaluated using adoptive cell transfer studies. specific-pathogen-free cats received two adoptive transfers of washed blood cells from either vaccinated or unvaccinated donors with varying mhc compatibility at 1-week intervals, and a homologous fiv(pet) challenge 1 day after the first adoptive transfer. fiv-specific ctl, ifn-gamma production, and proliferation responses were detected in the pbmc from the vaccinated don ...199910612649
replication rate of feline immunodeficiency virus in astrocytes is envelope dependent: implications for glutamate uptake.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) induces neurological abnormalities in domestic cats. previously, we demonstrated that two disparate strains of fiv (fiv-34tf10 and fiv-ppr) varied greatly in the ability to replicate in feline cortical astrocytes. to investigate the impact of the env region on the replication efficiency of these strains, we constructed two env chimera viruses, fiv-34tf10-pprenv and fiv-ppr-34tf10env, to infect feline cortical astrocytes in vitro. although all of these viruses ...200010612672
the effects of feline retroviruses on cytokine expression.to identify potential roles of cytokines in retroviral pathogenesis, we used reverse transcription-quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (rt-qcpcr) assays to characterize mrna levels of 19 different lymphokines, chemokines, monokines and hematopoietic growth factors in three feline cell lines productively infected with subgroup a feline leukemia virus (felv-a) or various feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) strains. infection of a cd8+, cd5- large granular lymphocyte (lgl) cell line ...199910628677
structural studies of fiv and hiv-1 proteases complexed with an efficient inhibitor of fiv protease.three forms of feline immunodeficiency virus protease (fiv pr), the wild type (wt) and two single point mutants, v59i and q99v, as well as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (hiv-1 pr), were cocrystallized with the c2-symmetric inhibitor, tl-3. the mutants of fiv pr were designed to replace residues involved in enzyme-ligand interactions by the corresponding hiv-1 pr residues at the structurally equivalent position. tl-3 shows decreased (improved) inhibition constants with these fiv pr ...200010651036
t cells overexpressing interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 are found in both the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) replicates in the thymus of infected animals, causing marked alteration in thymic lymphocyte subpopulations. the immune phenotype and cytokine patterns in the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of fiv-infected cats were investigated. fiv infection caused an acute-stage transient reduction in cd4cd8 double-positive thymocytes, a marked increase in cd8 single-positive thymocytes, and formation of thymic b cell l ...200010669340
detection, identification, and correction of a bias in an epidemiological study.the relative lack of epidemiological studies of natural populations is partly due to the difficulty of obtaining samples that are both large enough and representative of the population. here, we present the result of an epidemiological study (december 1992-august 1995) of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in a free-roaming population of domestic cats (felis catus), with a special emphasis on sample bias. over five trapping periods, the prevalence of fiv in sampled cats steadily declined. acros ...200010682746
feline immunodeficiency virus vif localizes to the nucleus.monoclonal antibodies prepared against recombinant vif derived from the 34tf10 strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were used to assess the expression and localization of vif in virus-infected cells. analyses by western blotting and by immunoprecipitation from cells infected with fiv-34tf10 revealed the presence of a single 29-kda species specific for virus-infected cells. confirmation of antibody specificity was also performed by specific immunoprecipitation of in vitro-transcribed and ...200010684267
in vivo infection of ramified microglia from adult cat central nervous system by feline immunodeficiency virus.infection of microglial cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is supposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of aids-related central nervous system (cns) complications. so far, however, experimental data about interactions between hiv and ramified microglia from the adult cns were only occasionally reported, making it difficult to understand the exact nature of pathogenic events contributing to hiv-encephalopathy. therefore, we used the animal model of feline immunodeficienc ...200010704350
prevalence of enteric zoonotic organisms in cats.to determine prevalence of enteric zoonotic organisms in cats in north-central colorado.200010707683
prevalence and pathogenicity of retroviruses in wildcats in france.feline leukaemia virus (felv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) are frequently encountered in domestic cats (felis catus) and in wild felids, but only felv has been previously identified in wildcats (fellis silvestris). thirty-eight wildcats, either captured alive or found dead, were sampled in eastern and central france. nine of them (23.7 per cent) carried the felv p27 antigen, and three (7.9 per cent) had antibodies to fiv. there was a significant relationship between two measures of bo ...200010766116
multiple antiviral activities of cyanovirin-n: blocking of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 interaction with cd4 and coreceptor and inhibition of diverse enveloped viruses.cyanovirin-n (cv-n) is a cyanobacterial protein with potent neutralizing activity against human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). cv-n has been shown to bind hiv type 1 (hiv-1) gp120 with high affinity; moreover, it blocks the envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion reaction associated with hiv-1 entry. however, the inhibitory mechanism(s) remains unclear. in this study, we show that cv-n blocked binding of gp120 to cell-associated cd4. consistent with this, pretreatment of gp120 with cv-n in ...200010775592
long-term impact on a closed household of pet cats of natural infection with feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus.a closed household of 26 cats in which feline coronavirus (fcov), feline leukaemia virus (felv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were endemic was observed for 10 years. each cat was seropositive for fcov on at least one occasion and the infection was maintained by reinfection. after 10 years, three of six surviving cats were still seropositive. only one cat, which was also infected with fiv, developed feline infectious peritonitis (fip). rising anti-fcov antibody titres did not indicate t ...200010811262
8-difluoromethoxy-4-quinolone derivatives as anti-feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) agents: important structural features for inhibitory activity of fiv replication.the inhibitory activities of various 8-difluoromethoxy-4-quinolone derivatives against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) replication in the chronically infected cell line p-crfk were investigated. certain derivatives were found to inhibit fiv production from p-crfk cells in a dose-dependent manner without exhibiting cytotoxic effects at inhibitory concentrations. based on this study, the structures important for anti-fiv activity are suggested to be (i) a carboxyl group at position c-3, and (i ...200010852398
mucosal immunization with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) vaccines induces both antibody and t cell responses but does not protect against rectal fiv challenge.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a natural lentiviral pathogen of cats which can be experimentally transmitted via rectal and vaginal routes--the major routes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in man. an important objective for lentiviral research is the development of vaccine strategies which generate good mucosal immune responses capable of giving protection from a mucosal virus challenge. the experimental vaccines employed in this study were based on (a) a peptide from ...200010869770
lentivirus infection in the brain induces matrix metalloproteinase expression: role of envelope diversity.infection of the brain by lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), causes inflammation and results in neurodegeneration. molecular diversity within the lentivirus envelope gene has been implicated in the regulation of cell tropism and the host response to infection. here, we examine the hypothesis that envelope sequence diversity modulates the expression of host molecules implicated in lentivirus-induced brain disease, including matrix m ...200010906175
efficient transduction of nondividing cells by optimized feline immunodeficiency virus vectors.second- and third-generation three-plasmid vector systems, termed felix, were constructed from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). to enhance vector production, the weak fiv long terminal repeat promoter was replaced with the human cytomegalovirus enhancer/promoter. to construct a minimal system in which gag-pol was the only viral protein present, the cytoplasmic transport element was used in place of the fiv rev-rre system to facilitate nuclear export of gag-pol and the transfer vector. unconc ...200010933909
contrastive prevalence of feline retrovirus infections between northern and southern vietnam.the prevalence of infections with three feline retroviruses; feline leukemia virus (felv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline foamy virus (fefv), was examined in domestic cats (felis catus) and leopard cats (felis bengalensis) in southern vietnam in 1998. we then compared this data with our previous study in northern vietnam in 1997. none of the cats had felv antigens in both the northern and southern areas. in contrast, there is a great distinction in the seropositivity of fiv. twen ...200010993195
vaccination with inactivated virus but not viral dna reduces virus load following challenge with a heterologous and virulent isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus.it has been shown that cats can be protected against infection with the prototypic petaluma strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv(pet)) using vaccines based on either inactivated virus particles or replication-defective proviral dna. however, the utility of such vaccines in the field is uncertain, given the absence of consistent protection against antigenically distinct strains and the concern that the petaluma strain may be an unrepresentative, attenuated isolate. since reduction of vira ...200011000209
feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus.ophthalmic manifestations of felv or fiv infection can occur in all ocular tissues and may be manifestations of direct viral effects or secondary to viral-related malignant transformation. additionally, the manifestations of common feline ophthalmic pathogens may be more severe and poorly responsive to therapy because of the immunosuppressive effects of felv or fiv infection. prompt diagnosis of underlying viral infection in cats with ophthalmic disease is paramount for accurate diagnosis and pr ...200011033869
relationship of lymphoid lesions to disease course in mucosal feline immunodeficiency virus type c infection.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection typically has a prolonged and variable disease course in cats, which can limit its usefulness as a model for human immunodeficiency virus infection. a clade c fiv isolate (fiv-c) has been associated with high viral burdens and rapidly progressive disease in cats. fiv-c was transmissible via oral-nasal, vaginal, or rectal mucosal exposure, and infection resulted in one of three disease courses: rapid, conventional/slow, or regressive. the severity of ...200011055861
methamphetamine and hiv-1: potential interactions and the use of the fiv/cat model.the interaction of methamphetamine with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), the aetiologic agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids), has not been thoroughly investigated. however, increasingly, a larger proportion of hiv infected individuals acquire the virus through methamphetamine use or are exposed to this drug during their disease course. in certain populations, there is a convergence of methamphetamine use and hiv-1 infection; yet our understanding of the potential effects that s ...200011106303
molecular mimicry between the trimeric ectodomain of the transmembrane protein of immunosuppressive lentiviruses (hiv-siv-fiv) and interleukin 2.this work shows the presence of structural and physical analogies between some precise sites of the trimeric ectodomain of the transmembrane envelope glycoproteins of the hiv, siv and fiv viruses and some precise sites of the interleukin 2 of the corresponding infected species (man, monkey, cat, respectively). in all the cases examined, the ectodomains of gp41 (hiv-siv) and gp36 (fiv), because of their trimeric structure, place in the same spatial configuration the same amino acids clusters as t ...200011144025
influence of preassay and sequence variations on viral load determination by a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for feline immunodeficiency virus.determination of retroviral load is an important tool in the investigation of the success of therapeutic or vaccination trials in patients infected with lentiviruses such as hiv, or with their simian (siv) or feline (fiv) counterparts. we have developed an one-tube quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay based on the abi prism 7700 sequence detection system (taqman) to quantify the viral load of fiv-infected cats. two different primer/probe systems were design ...200111176264
partial characterization and tissue distribution of the feline mu opiate receptor.heroin abuse is a common route of acquiring hiv-1 infection. however, the effects of opiates on lentivirus disease progression are not well understood. feline immunodeficiency virus is recognized as a good animal model for hiv-1, but characterization of the opiate receptor system in cats is lacking. here we report the partial sequencing of the feline mu opiate receptor (mor) and demonstrate a homology of 92 and 93% to the published human mor sequences. additionally, mor transcripts were detected ...200111245968
bias-corrected confidence intervals for the concentration parameter in a dilution assay.interval estimates of the concentration of target entities from a serial dilution assay are usually based on the maximum likelihood estimator. the distribution of the maximum likelihood estimator is skewed to the right and is positively biased. this bias results in interval estimates that either provide inadequate coverage relative to the nominal level or yield excessively long intervals. confidence intervals based on both log transformation and bias reduction are proposed and are shown through ...199911318144
hiv and pet ownership.the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) states that there is no evidence that dogs, cats or non-primate animals can contract the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) or transmit it to human beings. when the immune system is suppressed through disease, age, or medical treatments, a person becomes more vulnerable to infections. pets are wonderful support (paws) has developed guidelines for having pets. proper pet selection, proper pet care and good personal hygiene of the owner can elim ...199511362398
use of nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for detection of retroviruses from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded uveal melanomas in cats.thirty-six formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded enucleated globes from cats with a diagnosis of diffuse anterior uveal melanoma were obtained. sections of tumor were excised, deparaffinized, and subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to identify proviral dna sequences from the feline leukemia virus (felv)-feline sarcoma virus (fesv; 36 eyes), and the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv; 18 eyes). all samples tested were negative for fiv dna. three samples were positive for felv-fesv dna ...199911397251
combined omental pedicle grafts and thoracodorsal axial pattern flaps for the reconstruction of chronic, nonhealing axillary wounds in cats.to assess the results of an omental pedicle graft in combination with a thoracodorsal axial pattern flap for the reconstruction of chronic nonhealing axillary wounds in 10 cats caused by forelimb entrapment within a collar.200111443600
interleukin-1beta production in periradicular lesions in a human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome model compared with a noninfected host.this study elucidates the role of interleukin-1 (il-1) in developing periradicular lesions in immunocompetent and immunocompromised (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome) hosts. eight cats were immunosuppressed with steroids before infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). eight uninoculated cats served as controls. periradicular lesions were induced around the canine teeth. at 1 and 4 wk periradicular exudate was sampled via the root canals. il-1beta levels ...200111501585
xenoinfection of nonhuman primates by feline immunodeficiency virus.new viral infections in humans usually result from viruses that have been transmitted from other species as zoonoses. for example, it is accepted widely that human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is the result of the propagation and adaptation of a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) from nonhuman primates to man [1]. previously, we reported productive infection of primary human cells in vitro by feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) [2], a lentivirus that causes an immunodeficiency syndrome in cats ...200111509233
identification of a central dna flap in feline immunodeficiency virus.a duplication of the polypurine tract (ppt) at the center of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) genome (the cppt) has been shown to prime a separate plus-strand initiation and to result in a plus-strand displacement (dna flap) that plays a role in nuclear import of the viral preintegration complex. feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus that infects nondividing cells, causes progressive cd4(+) t-cell depletion, and has been used as a substrate for lentiviral vectors. ho ...200111533203
viral evolution in response to the broad-based retroviral protease inhibitor tl-3.tl-3 is a protease inhibitor developed using the feline immunodeficiency virus protease as a model. it has been shown to efficiently inhibit replication of human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses and therefore has broad-based activity. we now demonstrate that tl-3 efficiently inhibits the replication of 6 of 12 isolates with confirmed resistance mutations to known protease inhibitors. to dissect the spectrum of molecular changes in protease and viral properties associated with resista ...200111533212
cxcr4 is the primary receptor for feline immunodeficiency virus in astrocytes.feline astrocytes were productively infected with the crandell feline kidney (crfk) cell-adapted feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) petaluma strain in a primary culture. they expressed mrna of cxcr4, and the fiv infection was blocked by stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (sdf-1alpha), sdf-1beta, or the bicyclam amd3100 in a dose-dependent manner. these observations suggest that, like fiv infection in crfk cells and lymphocytes, the virus uses cxcr4 as a primary receptor for infecting astrocytes ...200111582522
feline immunodeficiency virus status of australian cats with lymphosarcoma.to determine the fiv status of australian cats with lymphosarcoma and relate this to patient characteristics, tumour characteristics (tissue involvement, histological grade and immunophenotype), haematological and serum biochemical values and felv status of affected cats.200111599813
combined effect of zidovudine (zdv), lamivudine (3tc) and abacavir (abc) antiretroviral therapy in suppressing in vitro fiv replication.in view of close similarities at the molecular and clinical levels, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection of the domestic cat is subject of increasing attention as an animal model for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. a range of reverse transcriptase inhibitors effective against hiv are also active against fiv, allowing successful use of the cat model to investigate drug interactions and resistance development. nevertheless, while combined nucleoside analog and protease inhib ...200211684314
auricular chondritis in a cat.a four-year-old male neutered domestic shorthaired cat developed bilateral thickening of the pinnae, with slight curling, intense erythema and pain. no ear canal disease was present. the cat was negative for feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus and feline coronavirus. biopsy of the ear lesion revealed auricular chondritis. in humans, histologically similar lesions may involve the pinnae, nose, trachea, joints, eyes and heart, and the disease is termed relapsing polychondritis. t ...200111688526
prevalence of fiv and felv infections in cats in istanbul. 200011716594
polymorphic expression in the cd8alpha chain surface receptor of african lions (panthera leo).free-ranging african lion (panthera leo) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were examined using flow cytometry and antibodies developed for use in the domestic cat to determine if phenotypic changes occurred in lion lymphocytes as a result of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection. the percentage of cd8 cells from lion peripheral blood was considerably lower than in the domestic cat. lions with elevated levels of cd8+ cells were typically infected with fiv, similar to observations ...200211777533
nonpathogenic lion and puma lentiviruses impart resistance to superinfection by virulent feline immunodeficiency virus.lion lentivirus (llv) and puma lentivirus (plv) exist as highly divergent virus clades among populations of indigenously infected nondomestic felidae. the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is highly divergent from llv and plv and is pathogenic for domestic cats. when domestic cats are infected with llv or plv, they have immunologically and clinically silent persistent infections. we examined whether llv or plv infection might impart resistance to fiv superinfection in vitro by infecting domest ...200211782584
longitudinal analysis of feline leukemia virus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes: correlation with recovery from infection.feline leukemia virus (felv) is a common naturally occurring gammaretrovirus of domestic cats that is associated with degenerative diseases of the hematopoietic system, immunodeficiency, and neoplasia. although the majority of cats exposed to felv develop a transient infection and recover, a proportion of cats become persistently viremic and many subsequently develop fatal diseases. to define the dominant host immune effector mechanisms responsible for the outcome of infection, we studied the lo ...200211836409
kinetics of early fiv infection in cats exposed via the vaginal versus intravenous route.to determine the influence of route of virus exposure on early pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection, cats were exposed to either of two fiv isolates (fiv-b-2542 or fiv-a-ppr) by vaginal or intravenous (iv) inoculation. exposure to either virus clade by either route of inoculation resulted in vaginal and systemic infection. peak plasma viremia and tissue proviral burden were 1-3 log(10) greater in cats infected with fiv-b-2542 vs. fiv-a-ppr, irrespective of inoculation ro ...200211839157
detection of feline immunodeficiency virus rna by two nucleic acid sequence based amplification (nasba) formats.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is an aids-inducing lentivirus that infects domestic cats worldwide. because of its clinicopathologic similarities to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection, the fiv/cat infection system is a valuable animal model for investigating comparative aspects of hiv-1 biology. an assay that detects quickly and efficiently fiv rna in relatively small volume samples of feline blood or other body fluids would be of benefit in studies of viral transmission ...200211906728
involvement of cytolytic and non-cytolytic t cells in the control of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.the appearance of non-cytolytic t cells that suppressed feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) replication in vitro, and fiv-specific cytotoxic t cell (ctl) responses was compared in a group of seven, specific pathogen free (spf) domestic cats following primary infection with the glasgow(8) isolate of fiv (fiv(gl-8)). fiv proviral burdens were quantified in the blood and lymphoid tissues by real-time pcr. non-cytolytic t cell suppression of fiv replication was measured by co-cultivating lymphoblast ...200211943317
a multivariate statistical analysis to follow the course of disease after infection of cats with different strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv).a descriptive multivariate assay is described which is suitable to analyze results of a biological experiment with small sample size but high qualitative and quantitative complexity of variables. this type of assay allows evaluation of multiple variables observed in the course of an experimental virus infection (e.g. viremia, nucleic acid detection, antibody titers, clinical parameters, anti-microbial treatments or vaccination) in a single graph. in our study, a multiple correspondence analysis ...200212008010
evolution of replication efficiency following infection with a molecularly cloned feline immunodeficiency virus of low virulence.the development of an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus is considered to be the most practicable means of controlling the advancing global aids epidemic. studies with the domestic cat have demonstrated that vaccinal immunity to infection can be induced against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv); however, protection is largely restricted to laboratory strains of fiv and does not extend to primary strains of the virus. we compared the pathogenicity of two prototypic vaccine c ...200212021339
productive infection of the bone marrow cells in feline immunodeficiency virus infected cats.bone marrow stromal cells (bmsc) from cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were shown to contain fiv provirus using polymerase chain reaction and viral products were detected in culture supernatant using reverse transcriptase and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques. peripheral blood mononuclear cells from fiv-free cats co-cultured with infected bone marrow cells became productively infected with fiv. such evidence supports the hypothesis that bmsc are a ...200212021873
choroid plexus macrophages proliferate and release toxic factors in response to feline immunodeficiency virus.recent observations have suggested that lentiviruses stimulate the proliferation and activation of microglia. a similar effect within the dense macrophage population of the choroid plexus could have significant implications for trafficking of virus and inflammatory cells into the brain. to explore this possibility, we cultured fetal feline macrophages and examined their response to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) or the t-cell-derived protein, recombinant human cd40-ligand trimer (rhucd40-l) ...200212053277
expression of chemokine receptors in the feline reproductive tract and large intestine.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus that causes feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. infection can be transmitted experimentally via the vagina and rectum, making the cat a useful model for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. some strains of fiv use the cxcr4 chemokine receptor in vitro to gain entry to feline cell lines, thymocytes and peripheral blood leucocytes (pbls). in this study, the tissue expression of messenger ribonucleic acid (mrna) encoding the ccr3, ...200212056777
inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) replication by dna binding polyamides.two dna minor-groove binding polyamides 1 and 2 were designed and synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of fiv-34tf10 replication. both 1 and 2 decreased the replication of fiv-34tf10 by 75% by acting at the level of the virus but outside of the ltr or env region.200212113829
addictive drug increases hiv replication and mutation. 200212150837
retrospective study of 46 cases of feline haemobartonellosis in israel and their relationships with felv and fiv infections.forty-six cats with clinical haemobartonellosis were studied; 75 per cent of the cats of known age were two-and-a-half years old or younger, 50 per cent were intact males and 19.5 per cent were castrated males. the predominant signs of the disease were tachypnoea, lethargy, depression, anorexia, infestation with fleas, pale mucous membranes, icterus, emaciation, dehydration, splenomegaly, anaemia, leucocytosis, increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and ...200212164225
cd8+ t cells from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infected cats suppress exogenous fiv replication of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) isolates from domestic cats have been classified into five subtypes, designated a, b, c, d and e. although many fiv-infected cats may have frequent contact with multiple strains of fiv, they usually become infected with a single fiv subtype. in the present study, we demonstrate that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of fiv infected cats were resistant to exogenous fiv (second virus) replication in vitro and that the resistance of these pbmc was mediate ...200212181672
tissues rich in macrophagic cells are the major sites of feline immunodeficiency virus uptake after intravenous inoculation into cats.to track the sites of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) clearance in cats and follow viral localization from 30 min until 48 h post-intravenous inoculation, several kinds of cells (pbmc, splenocytes, thymocytes, kupffer cells (kc), lymph nodes, bone marrow and alveolar cells) were collected. after co-culture with uninfected pbmc, p24 antigen was detected. reverse transcription (rt)-nested pcr and pcr were performed on all these cells and in situ rt-pcr on liver, spleen and isolated kc. biochem ...200212270726
prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus in unowned free-roaming cats.to determine prevalence of felv infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in unowned free-roaming cats.200212418520
deluge of questions prompts aafp to develop fiv vaccine brief. american association of feline practitioners. 200212418682
controversial hiv study puts whole-cat work on pause. 200212422178
animal rights pressure on scientists. 200212446873
evaluation of fiv protein-expressing vee-replicon vaccine vectors in cats.venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus-replicon particles (vrp) were used to generate feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) gag- and env-expressing vaccine vectors. serum and mucosal fiv-specific antibody was detected in cats immunized subcutaneously, once monthly for 5 months, with fiv-expressing vrp. expansion of the cd8+ l-selectin negative phenotype and transient cd8+ noncytolytic suppressor activity were seen in cats immunized with fiv-expressing or control vrp. despite induction of fiv-s ...200212450701
fiv vaccine development and its importance to veterinary and human medicine: a review fiv vaccine 2002 update and review.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a natural infection of domestic cats that results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome resembling human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in humans. the worldwide prevalence of fiv infection in domestic cats has been reported to range from 1 to 28%. hence, an effective fiv vaccine will have an important impact on veterinary medicine in addition to being used as a small animal aids model for humans. since the discovery of fiv reported in 1987, fiv vacc ...200212459160
fiv vector systems.why is feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) such an appealing candidate for gene therapy vector development? phylogenetic analysis suggests fiv is only distantly related to the primate lentiviruses, and despite repeated exposure, neither seroconversion nor other detectable evidence of human infection occurs. fiv naturally infects diverse felidae worldwide, including the domestic cat. here, the disease progression parallels the immunodeficiency caused by hiv, and for that reason, fiv and the cat p ...200112465464
expression of cxcr4 on feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells: effect of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.cxcr4 expression on feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) was analyzed. while monocytes and b lymphocytes expressed cxcr4, no cxcr4 was detected on t lymphocytes, in stark contrast to the expression pattern on t lymphocytes from humans. in spite of the important role that cxcr4 plays in infection with feline immunodeficiency virus, expression on pbmc in vivo was unaffected by infection with either a primary or a cell culture-adapted virus strain.200312477874
a highly efficient gene delivery system derived from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). 200312526177
manufacturer addresses concerns about fiv vaccine. 200312555972
antiviral activity and conformational features of an octapeptide derived from the membrane-proximal ectodomain of the feline immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) provides a valuable animal model by which criteria for lentivirus control strategies can be tested. previous studies have shown that a 20-mer synthetic peptide of the membrane-proximal ectodomain of fiv transmembrane glycoprotein, designated peptide 59, potently inhibited the growth of tissue culture-adapted fiv in feline fibroblastoid crfk cells. in the present report we describe the potential of this peptide to inhibit the replication of primary fiv isolates ...200312610147
2001 report of the american association of feline practitioners and academy of feline medicine advisory panel on feline retrovirus testing and management. 200312613492
identifying fiv vaccinates. 200312675285
seroprevalence of bartonella henselae, toxoplasma gondii, fiv and felv infections in domestic cats in japan.seroprevalence of bartonella henselae, toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) infections was investigated in 1,447 domestic cats derived from the north (hokkaido) to the south (okinawa) prefectures in japan. of the cats investigated, 8.8% (128/1,447) were seropositive to b. henselae, 5.4% (78/1,447) to t. gondii, 9.8% (107/1,088) to fiv, and 2.9% (32/1,088) to felv, respectively. for b. henselae infection, the positive rate varied from 11.5% in ca ...200312680718
phylogenetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus in central europe: a prerequisite for vaccination and molecular diagnostics.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a worldwide-occurring lentivirus that severely impairs the immune function of infected domestic cats. due to structural and biological similarities, fiv represents a promising model for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and aids. a major obstacle in developing vaccines against lentiviruses is their high mutation rate. furthermore, mutations in target sequences provide a pitfall for molecular diagnostics. it is therefore important to determine the genetic d ...200312692297
serosurvey for feline leukemia virus and lentiviruses in captive small neotropic felids in são paulo state, brazil.feline leukemia virus (felv), gammaretrovirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus, a lentivirus, are members of the family retroviridae, and may establish persistent infections in the domestic cat (felis catus). cytoproliferative and cytosuppressive disorders may result from infection with these viruses. morbidity and mortality rates are high in domestic cats worldwide. infection of endangered neotropic small felids with these viruses could be devastating. to investigate the prevalence of felv an ...200312723802
structural basis for distinctions between substrate and inhibitor specificities for feline immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus proteases.we used feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) protease (pr) as a mutational framework to define determinants for the observed substrate and inhibitor specificity distinctions between fiv and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prs. multiple-substitution mutants were constructed by replacing the residues in and around the active site of fiv pr with the structurally equivalent residues of hiv-1 pr. mutants included combinations of three critical regions (fiv numbering, with equivalent hiv numbering i ...200312767979
sequences within the gag gene of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) are important for efficient rna encapsidation.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-based retroviral vector systems are being developed for human gene therapy. consequently, it has become important to know the precise sequence requirements for the packaging of fiv genome so that such sequences can be eliminated from transfer vectors post-transduction for improved safety. recently, we have shown that sequences both within the 5'-untranslated leader region (utr) and the 5'-end of gag are required for efficient packaging and transduction of fiv- ...200312782368
behavioral plasticity and virus propagation: the fiv-cat population example.a new theoretical approach is proposed to investigate the effect of intra-individual variability in behavior on the spread of directly transmitted diseases within host populations. the classical hawk-dove game is used to describe interactions between individuals on a fast time scale (the day). individuals may exhibit both tactics according to their own experience, to environment conditions, and to the opponent. they are not able to recognize the epidemiological state of their opponents. this fas ...200312804868
dynamics of viral and proviral loads of feline immunodeficiency virus within the feline central nervous system during the acute phase following intravenous infection.animal models of human immunodeficiency virus 1, such as feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), provide the opportunities to dissect the mechanisms of early interactions of the virus with the central nervous system (cns). the aims of the present study were to evaluate viral loads within cns, cerebrospinal fluid (csf), ocular fluid, and the plasma of cats in the first 23 weeks after intravenous inoculation with fiv(gl8). proviral loads were also determined within peripheral blood mononuclear cells ...200312805447
quantitative analysis of fas and fas ligand mrnas in a feline t-lymphoid cell line after infection with feline immunodeficiency virus and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from cats infected with the virus.apoptosis is frequently observed in feline lymphocytes in association with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection. in this study, to investigate the mechanism of fiv-induced apoptosis, levels of fas and fas ligand mrnas were measured by real-time reverse transcription-pcr. in a feline t-lymphoid cell line the amounts of fas ligand mrna increased along with the induction of apoptosis after in vitro infection with fiv. in pbmc collected from 10 cats naturally infected with fiv, fas ligand m ...200312814697
fiv vectors. 200312824636
hiv-1 viral load determination based on reverse transcriptase activity recovered from human plasma.we describe a procedure (exavir load) to carry out human immunodeficiency virus-1 (hiv-1) viral load testing using reverse transcriptase (rt) recovered from hiv-1 virions in plasma. samples from individuals infected with hiv-1 were treated with a sulphydryl-reactive agent to inactivate endogenous polymerases. virions were then immobilised on a gel and washed in individual mini columns to remove rt-inhibiting antibodies, antiviral drugs, and other rt inhibitors. immobilised virions were lysed fin ...200312966539
domestic cats infected with lion or puma lentivirus develop anti-feline immunodeficiency virus immune responses.attenuated live viral strains have afforded significant protection against virus challenge in hiv vaccine models. although both cellular and humoral immunity are assumed to be vital for protection, specific parameters consistently associated with control of infection have been elusive. our previous studies have shown that lentiviruses from 2 nondomestic feline species--lion (pathera leo) and puma (felis concolor)--persistently but nonpathogenetically infect domestic cats (felis domestica). moreo ...200314501789
aids vaccination studies using an ex vivo feline immunodeficiency virus model: protection from an intraclade challenge administered systemically or mucosally by an attenuated vaccine.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection of domestic cats represents a valuable system through which to investigate criteria for antilentiviral vaccines in a natural host species. here, we examined whether vaccination with a strain of fiv attenuated as a result of prolonged growth in vitro could protect against a fully virulent, highly heterologous intraclade challenge. the results indicated that the vaccine virus produced a low-grade infection with no detectable pathological effects and af ...200314512524
a serologic survey of wild felids from central west saudi arabia.forty-five wildcats (felis silvestris), 17 sand cats (felis margarita), and 17 feral domestic cats were captured in central west saudi arabia, between may 1998 and april 2000, with the aim to assess their exposure to feline immunodeficiency virus/puma lentivirus (fiv/plv), feline leukaemia virus (felv), feline herpesvirus (fhv-1), feline calicivirus (fcv), feline coronavirus (fcov), and feline panleukopenia virus (fplv). serologic prevalence in wildcats, sand cats, and feral domestic cats were r ...200314567233
immunodeficiency associated with multiple concurrent infections in captive pallas' cats (otocolobus manul).five neonatal pallas' cats (otocolobus manul) at the oklahoma city zoo died from toxoplasmosis with concurrent herpesvirus infection. these multiple infections suggested underlying immunodeficiency, perhaps caused by concurrent infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv); so blood samples were collected for serology, serum protein electrophoresis, lymphocyte proliferation assays, and cytokine analysis by reverse transcriptase-quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (rt-qcpcr). ...200314582784
evaluation of t lymphocytes in captive african lions (panthera leo) infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.to determine whether fiv infection in captive african lions is associated with changes in immune cell variables similar to those detected in domestic cats infected with fiv.200314596469
phenotypic changes in cd8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.it is well documented that several cell surface molecules of t lymphocytes are altered by immune activation. we previously reported that feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection induces a reduction in cd8beta chain expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbls) in cats. in this study, we performed three-color flow-cytometric analysis for activation-associated cell surface molecules (cd2, cd11a, cd45ra-like and major histocompatibility complex antigen class ii (mhc ii)) and light scatters ...200314623012
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic cats from barcelona, spain.cats are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. antibodies to t. gondii were determined in serum samples from 220 domestic cats (felis catus) from barcelona, spain, using the modified agglutination test (mat). antibodies to t. gondii were found in 99 (45%) of 220 cats, with mat titers of 1:25 in 26, 1:50 in 57, and > or = 1:500 in 16 cats. seropositivity (mat 1:25 or more) was significan ...200314627161
escalating morphine exposures followed by withdrawal in feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats: a model for hiv infection in chronic opiate abusers.opiate abuse is a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. because the direct effects of opiates on hiv infection are difficult to determine epidemiologically, animal models of lentivirus infection are relied upon to study the effects of opiates in the absence of confounding factors. morphine, the predominant metabolite of heroin, is used in most experimental systems examining heroin abuse. in this study, morphine treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-infected cat ...200314636969
infection with a proposed new subspecies of babesia canis, babesia canis subsp. presentii, in domestic cats.parasitemia with a large babesia species was identified in two domestic cats from israel. one cat, also coinfected with feline immunodeficiency virus and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum," had profound icterus and anemia which resolved after therapy, whereas a second cat was an asymptomatic carrier. amplification and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses, indicated that infection was caused by babesia canis. however, the sequences of the internal transcribed and 5 ...200414715738
susceptibility of feline immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase chimeras to non-nucleoside rt inhibitors.to map the determinants of the lack of susceptibility of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) reverse transcriptase (rt) to anti human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) non-nucleoside rt inhibitors (nnrtis), a variety of chimeric hiv-1/fiv rts were constructed. the majority of chimeric rts had an affinity (km) for their natural substrates comparable with that of the wild-type hiv-1 and fiv rts, but their catalytic efficacy was decreased. whereas hiv-1 rt could be made entirely insensitive to ...200414722257
prevalence and risk factors for heartworm infection in cats from northern florida.necropsies were performed on 630 adult cats in northern florida to determine the prevalence and risk factors for heartworm infection in cats of this region. heartworms were identified in 4.9% of cats, and serological evidence of heartworm exposure was present in 17% of cats. not all cats from which heartworms were recovered were seropositive for heartworm antigen or antibody. there was no association between heartworm infection and co-infection with feline leukemia virus (felv) or feline immunod ...200314736717
feline immunodeficiency virus: a concise review.among non-primate vertebrates, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection in the cat may be the closest model of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). clinical evolution and immunological and virological relationships between human hiv/aids and disease produced by fiv infection in cats are very close. these similarities should facilitate progress in the understanding of mechanisms of viral infection and immunopathology, and make this model ...200414766374
specific interaction of feline immunodeficiency virus surface glycoprotein with human dc-sign.dc-sign, a specific c-type lectin expressed on dendritic cells, binds and transmits multiple strains of primate immunodeficiency viruses to susceptible cells. here, we report that human dc-sign also captures feline immunodeficiency virus via high-affinity (1 nm), ca(2+)-dependent, d-mannose-inhibited binding to the major envelope glycoprotein, gp95.200414963164
comparative neurovirulence in lentiviral infections: the roles of viral molecular diversity and select proteases.all lentiviruses infect the brain, causing chronic neurological disease in their respective hosts. to examine the relationship(s) between lentivirus molecular diversity and the development of neurological disease, we examined in vitro and in vivo models of lentivirus neurovirulence using different recombinant viruses derived from human (hiv-1) and feline (fiv) immunodeficiency viruses. both in vitro and in vivo studies of fiv neurovirulence showed that the fiv envelope derived from a neurovirule ...200414982749
b7+ctla4+ t cells engage in t-t cell interactions that mediate apoptosis: a model for lentivirus-induced t cell depletion.apoptosis in lymph node (ln) t cells of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-infected cats is associated with cells co-expressing b7.1 and b7.2 costimulatory molecules, and their ligand ctla4. to study the possibility of b7.1/b7.2-ctla4 mediated t-t interactions and the predicted induction of t cell apoptosis in vitro, costimulatory molecules were up-regulated on cd4+ and cd8+ t cells by mitogen stimulation. b7.1 expression on in vitro stimulated cd4+ and cd8+ cells increased within 24h; b7.2 and ...200415010229
reduced constitutive cytokine transcription in isolated monocytes of clinically healthy cats, infected with an fiv strain of low pathogenicity.twenty-five barrier-maintained cats had been experimentally infected for 9.5 months with an fiv strain of low pathogenicity, fiv zurich 2. animals were clinically healthy and did not exhibit any haematological changes. fiv proviral dna was demonstrated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of all cats and in monocytes of most animals, identifying fiv zurich 2 as a both lympho- and monocytotropic strain. monocytes were isolated from fiv-infected cats as well as from age-matched uninfected control cats, ...200415010230
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