derivatives of 4-amino-3,6-disulfonato-1,8-naphthalimide inhibit reverse transcriptase and suppress human and feline immunodeficiency virus expression in cultured cells.we have developed a series of 4-amino-3,6-disulfonato-1,8-naphthalimide (adsn) derivatives in an attempt to create nontoxic compounds effective against lentivirus infections. the adsn derivative lucifer yellow ch ([n-(hydra zinocarbonyl)amino]-4-amino-3,6-disulfonato-1,8-naphthalimid e) (lych) was chosen as a parent compound because of its low toxicity in vivo and in vitro and its tendency to accumulate in monocyte/macrophages, a major reservoir for lentiviruses in vivo. several adsn derivatives ...19937684385
in vivo lymphocyte tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection in the cat is similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in causing a selective reduction in cd4+ cell numbers, leading to inversion of the cd4+/cd8+ ratio. to determine whether fiv, similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1, has a tropism for cd4+ cells, we examined the in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of feline lymphocyte subpopulations to fiv infection. infection of interleukin-2-dependent cd4+ or cd8+ lymphocyte cultures w ...19937688819
establishment of a feline t-lymphoblastoid cell line susceptible to feline immunodeficiency viruses.a feline t-lymphoblastoid cell line susceptible to feline immunodeficiency viruses (fiv) was established and designated as yu-1 cells. yu-1 cells continued to grow over one year with more than 100 successive passages in the presence of human recombinant interleukin-2. surface antigens of yu-1 cells were feline pan-t+, cd4+, and cd8-. susceptibility of yu-1 cells to fiv strains were higher than that of the primary culture of the feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating that this cell ...19937689139
serological diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection based on synthetic peptides from env glycoproteins.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus which infects domestic cats, causing an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). the aim of the present work was the development of an immunoassay for the diagnosis of fiv infection, using synthetic peptides from fiv envelope (env) glycoproteins. four peptides (8 to 11 amino acids long) corresponding to group-specific epitopes of fiv env extracellular (su) or transmembrane (tm) glycoproteins were synthesized. they were evaluated by enzyme-lin ...19937689247
the feline immunodeficiency virus orf-a gene facilitates efficient viral replication in established t-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes.frameshift mutants corresponding to all of the identified open reading frames of feline immunodeficiency virus, including the orf-a gene, which has an unknown function, were constructed in vitro. upon transfection into cells, no significant difference between the phenotypes of orf-a mutant clones and those of wild-type clones was demonstrated. although only orf-a mutant virus among all mutant viruses from transfected cells showed infectivity in established t-cell lines, the replication and propa ...19937690413
comparison of fibrosarcomas that developed at vaccination sites and at nonvaccination sites in cats: 239 cases (1991-1992).questionnaires were sent to veterinarians who had submitted a fibrosarcoma from a cat to the surgical pathology services of the veterinary schools of the university of pennsylvania and tufts university between jan 1, 1991 and june 30, 1992. questionnaire items included signalment, felv and feline immunodeficiency virus status, site of sarcoma, vaccination site, vaccines used, treatment, biologic behavior of the tumor, and final outcome. data were analyzed, using student's t-test for continuous d ...19947698923
induction of feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome by feline leukemia virus: alteration in response to hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system.male kittens who were infected with the feline leukemia virus (felv) were found at various times after exposure to contain a sequence of dysfunction in their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) system. to understand whether the involved endocrine glands in this system were damaged by felv, the hypothalamus, pituitary, and testes were tested for hormonal responsiveness in vivo and in vitro. the infected cats were administered with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) and human chorionic ...19957700890
feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for aids studies and an important cat pathogen.the lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. fiv resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in many respects. similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organizat ...19957704896
nucleotide sequence of feline immunodeficiency virus: classification of japanese isolates into two subtypes which are distinct from non-japanese isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), shizuoka, yokohama, sendai-1, sendai-2, fukuoka, aomori-1, and aomori-2, were isolated from fiv-seropositive domestic cats in japan, and their proviral dnas were amplified by pcr. the nucleotide sequences of their env and gag genes were determined and compared with those of previously described isolates: u.s. and european isolates and one japanese isolate, tm2. phylogenetic analyses of complete env gene sequences demonstrate that worldwide i ...19957745712
early suppression of viremia by zdv does not alter the spread of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.prophylactic zidovudine (zdv) therapy in feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) inoculated cats was evaluated for 12 months postinfection (pi) and 11 months post drug treatment. plasma fiv antigenemia was prevented in six of six zdv-treated and none of six untreated cats during the initial phase of infection. the present study is a continuation of that earlier work. cd4 lymphocyte numbers from zdv-treated cats were higher than in the untreated cats. cd8 lymphocytes numbers were maintained within co ...19957749786
protection of neonatal kittens against feline immunodeficiency virus infection with passive maternal antiviral antibodies.maternal antibodies from either vaccinated or feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-infected female cats (queens) were evaluated for their ability to protect kittens against homologous fiv infection.19957755911
seroepidemiological survey of feline retrovirus infections in cats in taiwan in 1993 and order to investigate the prevalence of infections with three feline retroviruses feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), feline leukemia virus (felv) and feline syncytial virus (fsv) in taiwan, we collected a total of 75 blood samples from cats from veterinary hospitals, a breeding cattery and a homeless shelter in 1993 and 1994. we examined the presences of anti-fiv and fsv antibodies and felv-p27 antigen in these samples by the indirect immunofluorescence and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...19957756412
coccidioidomycosis in 48 cats: a retrospective study (1984-1993)coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed in 48 cats. forty-one cases were identified within a period of 3 years. coccidioides immitis was revealed by cytological or histopathological examinations, or culture in 70% of cats. the remaining 30% of cases were diagnosed by appropriate clinical signs, radiographic lesions, and serological test results. the average age of affected cats was 6.2 years with a median age of 5.0 years. fifty-four percent (n = 26) were female and 46% (n = 22) were male. domestic sho ...19957760314
thoughts on retroviruses. 19957782231
sleep patterns are disturbed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-related sleep disturbances have been reported early in aids. likewise, the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), a natural lentivirus pathogen of cats, produces a similar immunodeficiency syndrome with neurological sequelae. to identify the neurophysiological substrate of fiv infection in brain, pathogen-free cats were infected with the maryland strain of fiv. eight weeks after inoculation, all fiv-infected cats seroconverted and virus was detected in the cerebr ...19947809152
autologous red cell agglutination test for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus.the t-lymphotropic lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is now recognised as a major viral pathogen affecting domestic cat populations worldwide. a rapid, autologous red cell agglutination test for antibodies to fiv has been developed. a synthetic peptide analog corresponding to the immunodominant epitope within the fiv transmembrane glycoprotein gp40 residues (680-715) kveamekflytafamqelgc (acm)nqnqffk(brac)kiplelwtr was conjugated to an anti-feline erythrocyte antibody using a thio- ...19947810059
effect of 3'azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (azt) on experimental feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domestic cats.the compound 3'azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (azt) inhibits the replication of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in cell culture, and treatment with the compound has been reported to induce some clinical improvement in some cases of feline fiv infection. in order to determine the effect of prophylactic treatment with azt on experimental fiv infection, cats were treated with the compound at 0.2, 1.0, 5, 25 or 50 mg kg-1 day-1 for 29 days. one day after the treatment was started, they were inoculat ...19947817010
feline immunodeficiency virus infection of macrophages: in vitro and in vivo inhibition by dideoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate-loaded erythrocytes.although hiv-1 and other mammalian lentiviruses infect macrophages, they are not cytopathic. consequently, these infected long-lived cells serve as major virus reservoirs with a key role in the propagation of the virus throughout the body as well as in the pathogenesis of aids. furthermore, well-differentiated macrophages possess low abilities to phosphorylate the most common reverse transcriptase inhibitors of the nucleoside analog family. in an attempt to overcome these problems we have evalua ...19947826702
hemostatic disorders in feline immunodeficiency virus-seropositive cats.the hemostatic function of 40 feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) seropositive and 8 fiv and feline leukemia virus (felv) seropositive cats was evaluated and compared with reference values from 30 clinically healthy cats. the fiv-positive cats were divided into 3 groups: group i included asymptomatic carriers; group ii comprised sick fiv-infected cats with illnesses not likely to influence the hemostatic system; and group iii included fiv-positive cats with diseases potentially associated with c ...19947837113
structural analysis of the principal immunodominant domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus transmembrane the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (tm) of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), two cysteine residues, conserved in most retroviruses, are thought to form a loop containing five to seven amino acids. these elements make up a b-cell epitope recognized by nearly 100% of sera from infected patients or animals, designated the principal immunodominant domain (pid). the pid amino acid sequences are highly conserved between ...19957884857
superinfection of cats with feline immunodeficiency virus subtypes a and b.the ability of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) isolates from subtypes a and b to superinfect cats and cell cultures was tested. three specific pathogen-free (spf) cats were first inoculated with 10 id50 of subtype b virus (fivbang) and 30 weeks later inoculated with 100 id50 of subtype a virus (fivpet). on the basis of subtype-specific pcr analysis, both fiv subtypes were detected in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbls) of two of three cats from 9 to 30 weeks following the second inoculat ...19947888234
early haematological and pathological abnormalities of pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv).twelve 8-12-week-old specific-pathogen-free (spf) cats were inoculated intraperitoneally with feline immunodeficiency virus, or with blood from inoculated cats. three cats of the same age were used as controls. all animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after inoculation. the inoculated cats seroconverted between the 3rd and 6th weeks after inoculation. for 6 infected cats, a decrease in the cd4/cd8 lymphocyte ratio was observed as early as the 6th to the 10th week after inoculation. granular lymphocy ...19947889036
malignant lymphoma associated with experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection.a malignant low-grade b-cell lymphoma, primarily in the kidney, is described in a specific-pathogen-free cat experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and free of feline leukaemia virus. at the time of diagnosis the cat showed a marked reduction of circulating cd4+ t lymphocytes, was 2 years old, and had been infected for 18 months. fiv was isolated both from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the neoplastic tissue. dna of fiv gag gene was detected in several specimens ...19947914523
inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus gene expression and replication by alphaherpesvirus icp4 homologues.we investigated the effects of pseudorabies virus (prv), herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) icp4 homologues on feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) long terminal repeat (ltr)-directed gene expression. this was done by using the transient expression chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) assay in crandell feline kidney (crfk) and felis catus whole fetus 4 cells transfected with a chimeric fiv ltr-cat reporter construct in combination with effector plasmids ...19947931167
analysis of the vif gene of feline immunodeficiency virus.we have examined fiv vif function in the context of molecular clone pf34 (genbank accession no. m25729). rabbit antisera directed against the translation product of the vif gene identified a 29-kda protein in tissue culture cells infected with fiv-pf34; this protein was not present in cultures of uninfected cells. thus, the vif gene of this virus strain is expressed in infected cells. three mutations were made in distinct regions of the vif gene of molecular clone fiv-pf34: (i) deletion of 223 b ...19947941360
evaluation of in vivo and in vitro interactions of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia determine the potential mechanisms for disease potentiation where feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection of persistently feline leukemia virus (felv)-infected cats results in more severe fiv disease and increased mortality than fiv infection of specific pathogen-free cats.19947946095
histopathology and viral antigen distribution in lymph nodes of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.lymph nodes from cats with natural feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection were examined histopathologically for characterization of lesions in the symptomatic and terminal stages. the localization of viral antigen was also studied in the nodes by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody to fiv p24. in a node of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy stage, follicular hyperplasia was prominent and the viral antigen was demonstrated predominantly in the follicular lymphocytes and ti ...19947948383
feline immunodeficiency virus can productively infect cultured endothelial cells from cat brain microvessels.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) provokes a disease in cats characterized by histopathological lesions similar to those observed in aids patients. in order to determine whether endothelial cells from brain microvessels are involved in the central nervous system disease to the same extent as macrophages and microglia, cells were isolated from healthy cat brains, cultured and infected in vitro with the fiv villefranche iffa 1/88 strain. the isolated cells displayed typical endothelial cell ultr ...19947996160
fiv and hiv vaccines--problems and prospects. 19948025838
serologic survey and serum biochemical reference ranges of the free-ranging mountain lion (felis concolor) in california.serum samples from 58 mountain lions (felis concolor) in california (usa) were collected between april 1987 and february 1990. nineteen serum samples were used for serum biochemistry determinations; the ranges were similar to reference values in domestic cats, captive exotic felidae and free-ranging mountain lions. a serological survey was conducted to determine whether antibodies were present against selected infectious agents. fifty-four (93%) of 58 sera had antibodies against feline panleukop ...19948028105
nucleotide sequence analysis of puma lentivirus (plv-14): genomic organization and relationship to other lentiviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of puma lentivirus (plv-14) was obtained by an inverse polymerase chain reaction (i-pcr) technique and confirmed by conventional pcr. both methods were used to amplify overlapping regions of proviral dna, for cloning and sequencing, from genomic dna isolated from plv-14 infected florida puma (felis concolor coryi) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). the provirus has a total length of 9100 nucleotides and the genomic organization of presumed p ...19948030248
[epidemiology of felv and fiv infection in the federal republic of germany].in a nationwide study 6101 cats were tested for presence of feline leukemia virus (felv) antigen and for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies utilizing enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). 21.8% of the german cat population may be felv- and/or fiv-positive. of the animals tested, 13.4% were found to be felv carriers, while 8.4% showed evidence of fiv infection. infection with both viruses was identified in 2.1% of the cats tested. of the animals showing clinical symptoms, nearly ...19948048038
a lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human aids viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. fiv causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the cd4 t-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. a serological survey of over 400 free-ranging african and asian lions (panthera leo) for antibodies to fiv revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. a lion ...19948057472
pathological findings in a cat with cryptococcosis and feline immunodeficiency virus infection.this report describes the gross, histopathological, immunocytochemical and electron microscopic findings in a cat with systemic cryptococcosis and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection. lymphadenopathy and cloudiness of leptomeninges were the major gross findings. numerous cryptococcal yeasts were found in lymph nodes, brain, and lung, and were less common in the kidney and the eye. the inflammatory reaction varied in intensity and cell type (mononuclear through granulomatous) depending ...19948075490
development of clinical disease in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) develop an aids-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. to investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (spf) and 12 random-source (rs) cats were infected with fiv. over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of cd4+:cd8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mi ...19948077711
feline immunodeficiency virus decreases cell-cell communication and mitochondrial membrane potential.the in vitro effects of viral replication on mitochondrial membrane potential (mmp) and gap junctional intercellular communication (gjic) were evaluated as two parameters of potential cellular injury. two distinct cell types were infected with the petaluma strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). primary astroglia supported acute fiv infection, resulting in syncytia within 3 days of infection, whereas immortalized crandell feline kidney (crfk) cells of epithelial origin supported persisten ...19948084006
nucleotide sequence and characterization of the feline herpesvirus type 1 immediate early gene.we report the nucleotide sequence of feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) immediate early (ie) gene encoding a homologue to the icp4 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 and its flanking sequences. when we examined the regulatory function of the fhv-1 ie gene product by using the transient transfection assay with an effector plasmid expressing the fhv-1 ie gene in combination with chimeric various promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter constructs, the product was able to transactivat ...19948091674
localization of the viral antigen of feline immunodeficiency virus in the lymph nodes of cats at the early stage of infection.immunohistochemical examinations of localization of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) gag protein were performed on lymph nodes of cats experimentally inoculated with three different strains of fiv (infectious molecular clone of tm 1, petaluma, and kyo-1 strains), using rabbit anti-fiv gag serum. the fiv gag antigens were observed in many follicular dendritic cells (fdcs) and sparsely in small lymphocytes of paracortical area in the lymph nodes of cats inoculated with petaluma and kyo-1 strain ...19938102229
loss of neutrophil and natural killer cell function following feline immunodeficiency virus infection.experimental infection with the mt. airy isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus (fivma), a lentivirus isolated from a domestic cat exhibiting signs of an immunodeficiency-like syndrome, results in transient lymphadenopathy, fever, stomatitis, enteritis, neurologic abnormalities, and immunosuppression. the effects of fivma infection on neutrophil and natural killer cell (nk) function were examined in vitro. suppression of neutrophil chemiluminescence (cl) responses, as well as reduction in nk-m ...19938105792
cis- and trans-regulation of feline immunodeficiency virus: identification of functional binding sites in the long terminal repeat.nuclear protein binding sites in the long terminal repeat (ltr) of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were identified by the method of dnase i footprinting. using nuclear protein extracts from a feline t lymphoma cell line, several discrete footprints were generated upstream of the transcriptional initiation site (-50 to -150). the specificity of protein binding was examined by competition with oligonucleotides representing consensus dna binding sites for known transcription factors. binding to ...19948126451
the detection and quantification of feline immunodeficiency provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction method (pcr) was used to detect feline immunodeficiency virus proviral dna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of a group of 8 experimentally infected cats. the proportion of pbmc containing provirus was determined from 6 to 32 weeks post inoculation (p.i.) by performing pcr on serially diluted samples of pbmc. primers from the p15 and p24 regions of the gag gene were used and southern hybridization using an end-labelled probe was required to confirm primer ...19938128595
identification of three feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) env gene subtypes and comparison of the fiv and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolutionary patterns.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus associated with aids-like illnesses in cats. as such, fiv appears to be a feline analog of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). a hallmark of hiv infection is the large degree of viral genetic diversity that can develop within an infected individual and the even greater and continually increasing level of diversity among virus isolates from different individuals. our goal in this study was to determine patterns of fiv genetic diversity by focusi ...19948139008
feline immunodeficiency virus can be experimentally transmitted via milk during acute maternal infection.postnatal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in neonates nursed by acutely infected mothers and infection resulting from oral inoculation of kittens with fiv were evaluated. ten of 16 kittens nursed by four queens with fiv infection established immediately postpartum developed fiv infection. five of 11 neonates orally administered cell-free fiv culture supernatant developed fiv infection. kittens that developed fiv infection had greater proportions of cd4+ and pan-t+ lymphocytes ...19948151797
neurological abnormalities associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infection.specific pathogen-free cats were infected with the maryland strain of fiv (fiv-md) for the purpose of assessing the effects of fiv infection on the central nervous system (cns). two separate studies were performed, involving a total of 13 infected cats and six age-matched, sham-inoculated controls. all animals infected with fiv-md seroconverted by 8 weeks post-infection and virus was recovered from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all infected cats. all of the infected animals had lower abs ...19948176384
gag- and env-specific serum antibodies in cats after natural and experimental infection with feline immunodeficiency order to monitor the antibody response to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in cats, following experimental and natural infection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were developed using recombinant env and gag proteins and p24-specific monoclonal antibodies. it was shown that in experimentally infected cats an env protein-specific antibody response was directly followed by a gag protein-specific response. furthermore, an elisa for the detection of env protein-specific serum antibo ...19948203121
serum neutralization of feline immunodeficiency virus is markedly dependent on passage history of the virus and host system.sera from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-infected cats exhibited extremely low levels of neutralizing antibodies against virus passaged a few times in vitro (low passage), when residual infectivity was assayed in the cd3+ cd4- cd8- mbm lymphoid cell line or mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. by sharp contrast, elevated titers of highly efficient neutralizing activity against fiv were measured, by use of high-passage virus, in assays on either the fibroblastoid crfk or mbm ...19948207831
clinical and laboratory findings in chronic conjunctivitis in cats: 91 cases (1983-1991).clinical findings and laboratory test results from 91 cats with chronic conjunctivitis were studied to determine the causes of the disease and the sensitivity of diagnostic procedures used, and to identify correlations between results of various diagnostic procedures and clinical or signalment variations. mean age of affected cats was 2.9 +/- 2.7 years (+/- sd), with a range from 1 month to 11 years. conjunctivitis was more likely to be bilateral (56 cats) than unilateral (35 cats). in cats test ...19938226238
use of a feline panleukopenia modified live virus vaccine in cats in the primary-stage of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.cats in the primary stage of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection and fiv seronegative cats were vaccinated with a modified live feline panleukopenia virus vaccine (fpv-mlv). the fpv-mlv strain was not pathogenic for fiv seronegative cats, whereas in fiv infected cats it produced severe clinical signs, similar to those typically observed in cats naturally infected with field strains of fpv (fever, diarrhoea, leukopenia).19938237206
extensive sequence variation of feline immunodeficiency virus env genes in isolates from naturally infected an investigation of the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in vivo, sequential isolates from a persistently infected cat were examined by direct sequencing following amplification of selected subgenomic regions by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). three isolates, t90, t91, and t92, obtained over a three-year period revealed no changes to regions known to be conserved within gag and pol genes. additionally, no change occurred within gag and pol in an isolate recovered from a secon ...19938240017
delayed hypersensitivity testing as a clinical measure of cell-mediated immunity in the cat.the purposes of this study were to examine the cell-mediated immune response of the normal cat to the modified live feline viral rhinitis, calicivirus, and parvovirus (fvrcp) vaccine (felocell cvr, norden, lincoln, ne), and to evaluate the intradermal skin test as a clinical measure of the immune response of cats. vaccine and diluent were injected intradermally on the dorsal pinna of 34 normal adult cats. skin thickness measurements, lymphocyte counts, and concanavalin a mitogenesis indices were ...19938256439
feline immunodeficiency virus infection of cats as a model to test the effect of certain in vitro selection pressures on the infectivity and virulence of resultant lentivirus variants.three groups of specific pathogen-free (spf) domestic cats, each containing 5 animals, were infected with one of three closely related fiv variants and monitored for 36 weeks. a fourth group of 5 cats was sham-infected and served as uninfected controls. fiv variants included: (1) a fully virulent animal passaged fiv-petaluma; (2) a crandell feline kidney (crfk) cell-adapted fiv-petaluma (fiv-crfk); and (3) a variant of fiv-crfk (fiv-crfkazt) that had been selected in vitro for resistance to azid ...19938279815
renal involvement in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinicopathological study.renal tissues from 15 cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. renal function and urinary proteins were also studied. kidney abnormalities were found in 12 cats and were characterized by mesangial widening with segmental to diffuse glomerulosclerosis and presence of igm and c3, and scanty igg deposits in the mesangium. tubulointerstitial lesions were also present. in 6 cats the lesions were severe ...19938321363
experimental vaccine protection against homologous and heterologous strains of feline immunodeficiency virus.more than 90% of cats immunized with inactivated whole infected-cell or cell-free feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) vaccines were protected against intraperitoneal infection with 10 50% animal infectious doses of either homologous fiv petaluma (28 of 30 cats) or heterologous fiv dixon strain (27 of 28 cats). all 15 control cats were readily infected with either strain of fiv. protection appears to correlate with antiviral envelope antibody levels by a mechanism yet to be determined.19938380095
current thoughts on feline immunodeficiency virus infection.the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a novel feline retrovirus of the lentivirus subfamily that is known to induce immunodeficiency disorders in experimentally and naturally infected cats. recent studies have characterized the stages of infection and specific immune deficits associated with fiv infection. host cell populations harboring the virus have been better elucidated. molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the genomes of several isolates of fiv indicate sequence varia ...19938380656
structure and variations of feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.we report the characterization of the env gene of a feline immunodeficiency virus isolate from france (fiv wo). fiv wo gag and env genes were cloned directly from cat peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using polymerase chain reaction. the env molecular clone was shown to be functional and to express antigenically relevant envelope glycoproteins in vitro. alignment of fiv wo sequences with available fiv sequences and application of a regionalization algorithm resulted in delineation of variable ...19938380668
prophylactic zdv therapy prevents early viremia and lymphocyte decline but not primary infection in feline immunodeficiency virus-inoculated cats.prophylactic zidovudine (zdv) therapy was evaluated in the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-inoculated cat model for hiv-1 infection in humans. zdv treatment (30 mg/kg/day via continuous subcutaneous infusion) was initiated 48 h prior to virus inoculation and continued for 28 days. transient plasma antigenemia evident in six of six untreated cats at week 2 post-inoculation (pi) was absent in the zdv-treated cats although at 10 and 14 weeks pi (6 and 10 weeks after drug treatment), one of the ...19938381867
post-translational processing of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope precursor protein.the synthesis and processing of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) isolate fiv-ut113 was investigated in a persistently infected crandell feline kidney cell line (crfk) and in an eukaryotic expression system. pulse-chase studies showed two glycoproteins after a 5 min pulse-labeling: a gp150 and a gp130 species. during a 30-min chase the gp150 species disappeared almost completely while gp130 increased proportionally; it was subsequently processed into ...19938382405
feline cd4 molecules expressed on feline non-lymphoid cell lines are not enough for productive infection of highly lymphotropic feline immunodeficiency virus investigate whether the feline cd 4 (fcd4) molecules are involved in infections of highly lymphotropic feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) isolates, we expressed fcd4 stably on crandell feline kidney cells and felis catus whole foetus 4 cells by transfection of a cdna encoding the fcd4 glycoprotein, and then infected them with tm 1 and tm 2 strains of fiv, which are unable to infect these cells productively. in spite of fcd 4 being expressed on these cells, no virus production was observed. t ...19938389115
the ap-1 binding site in the feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat is not required for virus replication in feline t lymphocytes.sequences of 31 bp containing putative ap-1 and ap-4 binding sequences in the u3 region of the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) long terminal repeat (ltr) were deleted and the basal promoter activity of the ltr was measured by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) assay. the activity of the fiv ltr was reduced in felis catus whole foetus 4 (fcwf-4) cells and crandell feline kidney cells by this deletion. cotransfection of murine c-fos or c-jun expression plasmids with the fiv ltr-cat re ...19938393913
the cat/feline immunodeficiency virus model for transmucosal transmission of aids: nonoxynol-9 contraceptive jelly blocks transmission by an infected cell develop an animal model to study transmucosal lentivirus transmission, and to determine whether topical application of contraceptive jelly can block transmission by an infected cell incoulum.19938395855
nucleotide sequences of australian isolates of the feline immunodeficiency virus: comparison with other feline lentiviruses.proviral dna from four australian isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was amplified by pcr and the nucleotide sequence determined for two conserved regions within gag (p15/p24) and pol (rt) genes. comparison with the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two previously described u.s. isolates from california (petaluma and ppr), and a third from maryland (md) as well as the japanese isolate tm2, revealed a close similarity between the australian and californian isolates with 9 ...19938397502
expression of feline immunodeficiency virus gag and env precursor proteins in spodoptera frugiperda cells and their use in immunodiagnosis.the gag and env genes of the feline immunodeficiency virus strain ut113 were cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector. the recombinant plasmids were used to create recombinant baculoviruses that expressed either the gag or the env precursor protein in insect cells (sf9 cells). leader sequence cleavage occurred in sf9 cells expressing the envelope precursor, but further processing was not observed. crude lysates of insect cells infected with the wild-type baculovirus or with the recombinant viru ...19938408554
vaccination protects against in vivo-grown feline immunodeficiency virus even in the absence of detectable neutralizing far, vaccination experiments against feline immunodeficiency virus have used in vitro-grown virus to challenge the vaccinated hosts. in this study, cats were vaccinated with fixed feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cells and challenged with plasma obtained from cats infected with the homologous virus diluted to contain 10 cat 50% infectious doses. as judged by virus culture, pcrs, and serological analyses performed over an 18-month period after the challenge, all of the vaccinated cats we ...19968523581
systemic diseases with cutaneous manifestations.the purpose of this article is to briefly discuss the following cutaneous manifestations of selected systemic diseases: poxvirus; feline leukemia virus (felv); feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv); herpesvirus; calcivirus; pseudorabies; plague; tularemia; toxoplasmosis; leishmania; hypothyroidism; hyperthyroidism; hyperadrenocorticism; diabetes mellitus; acromegaly; thallium poisoning; pancreatic disease; hypereosinophilic syndrome; mucopolysaccharidosis; and pansteatitis. recognition of these cu ...19958525575
breaking the shackles of the genetic code: engineering retroviral proteases through total chemical synthesis. 19958540353
molecular modeling of the structure of fiv protease. 19958540361
influence of orf2 on host cell tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus associated with an immunodeficiency syndrome of the domestic cat. a short open reading frame (orf2), of unknown function, is present in all fiv isolates. we have investigated the role of orf2 in determining the cell tropism of two infectious molecular clones of fiv. fiv-ppr is able to productively infect feline peripheral blood leukocytes (pbls) and a t lymphocyte cell line (mch5-4), but not a feline astrocyte cell line (g355-5) or crandell fel ...19968553580
involvement of gag- and env-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes in protective immunity to feline immunodeficiency virus.definition of the immunological mechanisms involved in protective immunity against lentiviral infections is crucial to the development of an effective vaccine. the induction of gag- and env-specific cell-mediated immune responses was studied in cats following vaccination with whole inactivated feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). cats were immunized by inoculation with three doses of paraformaldehyde-inactivated fiv, derived from the feline lymphoid cell line, fl-4, which is persistently infecte ...19958554908
comparative study of the cell tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus isolates of subtypes a, b and d classified on the basis of the env gene v3-v5 sequence.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) isolates have been classified into subtypes a, b, c and d based on the env gene v3-v5 sequence. the cell tropism of seven new japanese isolates and a petaluma (prototype) isolate of fiv, which classified into subtypes a, b and d, for feline lymphoblastoid and feline fibroblastoid cell lines was compared. fet-1 (cd4+/-, cd8-, and cd9+2) and kumi-1 (cd4+2, cd8- and cd9+2) cells were used as the interleukin-2 (il-2)-dependent feline t-lymphocyte cell lines and fe ...19968558132
regional distribution of lesions in the central nervous system of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.neuropathological examination of the central nervous system of 13 naturally and 13 experimentally feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv)-infected cats revealed diffuse gliosis of gray and white matter and vacuolar myelinopathy in a large proportion of infected animals, sometimes associated with lymphocytic meningitis. multinucleated giant cell formation, the hallmark of multifocal giant cell encephalitis in hiv infection, was never observed. morphometric analysis confirmed a marked increase of gfap ...19958573382
maintenance of high virus load even after seroconversion in newborn cats acutely infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.the viral loads in adult and newborn cats have been compared following injection with feline cd4+ fel-039 line cells acutely infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). the level of virus genome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) increased progressively despite seroconversion in the newborn cats, whereas the virus genome was apparently cleared after seroconversion in the adult cats. immunohistochemical staining of thymus of the fiv-infected newborn cats showed clusters of viral ...19958578815
variable expression of major histocompatibility complex class ii in the domestic cat.this paper describes the characterisation of six independently produced monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for non-polymorphic determinants of feline major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii. one mab is an anti-sheep class ii which cross-reacts with the cat and five have been produced in response to immunisation with purified feline immunodeficiency virus. despite their independent source all the mabs have identical reactivities, immunoprecipitating two complex groups of polypeptides o ...19958588090
[findings in the eyes of serologically fiv (feline immunodeficiency virus) positive cats].the findings in the eyes of 19 serologically fiv-positive cats in the terminal stage of the disease were compared to those in 23 serologically fiv-negative cats. an inflammation of iris and ciliary body was more common in the fiv-group than in the other cats and could be seen in 16 out of 19 serologically fiv-positive cats. in most cases a diffuse infiltration of both lymphocytes and plasma cells could be observed. there were only few signs of acute inflammation in the posterior segment. degener ...19958591769
molecular interactions between retroviruses and herpesviruses.human and animal herpesviruses are able to stimulate gene expression of various human and animal retroviruses and the activation appears to be a common theme. it is of interest why the retroviruses can be commonly activated by herpesviruses despite clear diversities in each mechanism for retrovirus gene expression. in this review, three typical examples of the interactions; human immunodeficiency virus and human herpesviruses, avian retroviruses and marek's disease virus, and feline immunodefici ...19958593284
parasite prevalence in free-ranging farm cats, felis silvestris animals tested were positive for feline leukemia virus antigen and chlamydia psittaci antibodies, but all were positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1) and rotavirus. they had antibodies to feline parvovirus (96%), feline coronavirus (84% and cowpox virus (2%). antibody to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was found in 53% of animals, which were less likely to be infected with haemobartonella felis, and had higher fhv antibody titres than cats without ...19968620914
the mutation frequency of feline immunodeficiency virus enhanced by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.we have developed a host range system to measure the mutation frequency of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), the feline homologue of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). when wild-type fiv was grown in the presence of a known mutagen, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (budr), a dose-dependent increase of host range mutants was detected. using this system, we have evaluated the effects of antiviral drugs upon the mutation frequency of fiv. subinhibitory concentrations of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidi ...19968624757
neutralization sensitivity and accessibility of continuous b cell epitopes of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope.antibodies elicited during natural infection of domestic cats by the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) recognize continuous epitopes in nine domains of the virus envelope glycoproteins. whereas antibodies directed against the v3 envelope region can neutralize laboratory-adapted virus, neutralization of fiv has been shown to depend upon cellular substrate, and virus adaptation to laboratory cell lines may alter sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. we therefore undertook a systematic analysis ...19968627265
molecularly cloned feline immunodeficiency virus ncsu1 jsy3 induces immunodeficiency in specific-pathogen-free cats.a full-length feline immunodeficiency virus ncsu1 (fiv-ncsu1) genome (jsy3) was cloned directly from fiv-ncsu1-infected feline cd4+ lymphocyte (fcd4e) genomic dna and identified by pcr amplification with 5' long terminal repeat, gag, env, and 3' long terminal repeat primer sets. supernatant from fcd4e cells cocultured with jsy3-transfected crandell feline kidney (crfk) cells was used as an inoculum. cell-free jsy3 virus was cytopathogenic for fcd4e lymphocytes but did not infect crfk cells in vi ...19968627777
synthesis and targeted delivery of an azidothymidine homodinucleotide conferring protection to macrophages against retroviral infection.the infectivity and replication of human (hiv-1), feline (fiv), and murine (lp-bm5) immunodeficiency viruses are all inhibited by several nucleoside analogues after intracellular conversion to their triphosphorylated derivatives. at the cellular level, the main problems in the use of these drugs concern their limited phosphorylation in some cells (e.g., macrophages) and the cytotoxic side effects of nucleoside analogue triphosphates. to overcome these limitations a new nucleoside analogue homodi ...19968633079
plasma viral rna load predicts disease progression in accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus infection.viral rna load has been shown to indicate disease stage and predict the rapidity of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-infected individuals. we had previously demonstrated that feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) rna levels in plasma correlate with disease stage in infected cats. here we expand upon those observations by demonstrating that plasma virus load is 1 to 2 logs higher in cats with rapidly progressive fiv disease than in long-term survivors. differences ...19968642679
histologic classification and immunophenotype of lymphosarcomas in cats with naturally and experimentally acquired feline immunodeficiency virus infections.lymphosarcoma (malignant lymphoma) is the commonest hematopoietic tumor in the cat. many cases are associated with feline leukemia virus (felv) infection, but epidemiologic and experimental data suggest that feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) may also have a role in lymphomagenesis. in this paper, we describe the clinical presentation, histologic classification, and immunophenotype of lymphosarcoma in eight domestic cats with natural or experimental fiv infections. the tumors were often of unus ...19968740699
evaluation of subunit vaccines against feline immunodeficiency virus infection.subunit vaccines prepared against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection were evaluated in two trials. first, cats were immunized with bacterial expression products of an envelope fragment that contained the v3 neutralization domain of the fiv surface protein fused to either galactokinase (k-su3) or glutathione-s-transferase (g-su3). quantitative and qualitative differences in the humoral immune response were observed with three adjuvants of which quil a was the best in terms of total and ...19968744554
coadaptation and immunodeficiency virus: lessons from the felidae.the emergence of pathogenic viruses in new species offers an unusual opportunity to monitor the coadaptation of viruses and their hosts in a dynamic ongoing process of intense biological selection. tracking lentivirus epidemics in man, monkeys and cats reveals genomic struggles at three levels: quasispecies divergence within an individual; coadaptation of virus and host genomes subsequent to disease outbreaks; and transmission, spread and pathogenesis in related host species. aspects of each lev ...19958745072
proviral burden and infection kinetics of feline immunodeficiency virus in lymphocyte subsets of blood and lymph node.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virologically and induces a clinical syndrome in cats comparable to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 syndrome in humans. to determine the lymphoid target cells of fiv, populations of cd4+ lymphocytes, cd8+ lymphocytes, and cd21+ lymphocytes (b cells) were enriched to more than 96.5% purity and then analyzed for fiv provirus by semiquantitative dna amplification. we found fiv provirus in cd4+, cd8+, and b lym ...19968764024
uveitis in dogs and cats: guidelines for the practitioner.uveitis is a commonly misdiagnosed ophthalmic condition with a wide aetiological base and often the cause cannot be established. uveitis can be associated with systemic diseases like feline infectious peritonitis, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus, lymphoma, toxoplasmosis and canine ehrlichiosis. the classification and general clinical signs of uveitis are discussed. applicable clinical cases, manifestations and diagnostic methods of the selected diseases are mentioned, and a ...19968786609
[dendritic cells in dogs and cats: models of study in human pathology].langerhans' cells (lc) are epidermal bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells. they represent in mankind 1 to 6% of the epidermal cells from which they can be distinguished by specific phenotype (membrane receptors and antigens related to the immune function) and by ultrastructural specific organelles: the birbeck granules. in dogs and cats, such cells were recently described; they display a phenotype very similar to that of human lc (cd1, cd8, cd11/18, cd45 and mhc ii positive for canine lc, and cd1 ...19958786898
proficiency testing of selected antigen and antibody tests for use in dogs and determine the correlation of seroimmunologic test results between reference and nonreference laboratories.19968790539
co-infection of toxoplasma gondii with other pathogens: pathogenicity and chemotherapy in animal models. 19968791703
genetic and phylogenetic divergence of feline immunodeficiency virus in the puma (puma concolor).feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus which causes an aids-like disease in domestic cats (felis catus). a number of other felid species, including the puma (puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat fiv. serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to fiv in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. fiv-pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in the d ...19968794304
genetic diversity of argentine isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus.we report the nucleotide sequence and genetic diversity of part of the envelope (env) gene of four strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) isolated from argentine domestic cats. the dna encoding the v3 to v5 regions of the env gene of the fiv isolates were amplified by pcr, cloned and sequenced. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the argentine isolates did not cluster into a single group; one isolate clustered with subtype b fiv isolated in the usa and japan, whereas the others formed a ...19968811000
initiation of (-) strand dna synthesis from trna(3lys) on lentiviral rnas: implications of specific hiv-1 rna-trna(3lys) interactions inhibiting primer utilization by retroviral reverse transcriptases.initiation of minus (-) strand dna synthesis was examined on templates containing r, u5, and primer-binding site regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and equine infectious anemia virus (eiav) genomic rna. dna synthesis was initiated from (i) an oligoribonucleotide complementary to the primer-binding sites, (ii) synthetic trna(3lys), and (iii) natural trna(3lys), by the reverse transcriptases of hiv-1, fiv, eiav, simian immunodeficiency ...19968816751
pulmonary and mediastinal metastases of a vaccination-site sarcoma in a cat.sarcomas at vaccination sites in cats were first reported in 1992. recent retrospective studies have confirmed an association between these vaccination-site sarcomas (vss) and feline leukemia virus (felv) and/ or rabies vaccines. in most cases, vss are locally invasive fibrosarcomas that tend to recur but rarely metastasize. we report the mediastinal and pulmonary metastases of a vss in a felv-and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative, 8-year-old, domestic short-haired cat. the primary sarcoma ...19968817854
caring for the retrovirus infected commercial vaccine [correction of vacine] exists for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and although feline leukemia virus (felv) vaccines are available, they are neither 100% effective nor used in all cats. these realities clearly indicate the veterinarian will be required to treat either felv- or fiv-positive cats for some time to come. the management of fiv- or felv-positive cats may require supportive therapies as well as virus-specific therapies such as zidovudine (azt; retrovir, burro ...19958820595
hematologic abnormalities associated with retroviral infections in the cat.feline patients with unexplained peripheral blood cytopenias, circulating immature or neoplastic cells, dysplastic or dysmorphic bone marrow abnormalities, and/or lymphoid tumors are likely suffering from an underlying retroviral infection with feline leukemia virus (felv) and/or feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). cytopenic hematologic disorders are often caused by the direct or indirect hematosuppressive effects of these retroviruses. alternatively, secondary infections, nutritional deficienc ...19958820596
feline lentivirus infection in nondomestic felids.human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus are both lentiviruses that cause immunosuppressive disease. similarities between these diseases have promoted the study of feline immunodeficiency virus as a model for human immunodeficiency virus. not only have lentiviruses been found in domestic cats but they have been found in nondomestic felids as well. florida panthers, african lions, and other nondomestic felids have been found to have antibodies directed against lentiviruses a ...19958820600
reduced sensitivity to strain-specific neutralization of laboratory-adapted feline immunodeficiency virus after one passage in vivo: association with amino acid substitutions in the v4 region of the surface glycoprotein. 19968834468
selection and characterization of a mutant of feline immunodeficiency virus resistant to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine.we have selected and plaque purified a mutant of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) that is resistant to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddc). this mutant was selected in cultured cells in the continuous presence of 25 microm ddc. the mutant, designated dcr-5c, was fourfold resistant to ddc, threefold resistant to 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, and more than fourfold resistant to phosphonoformic acid. dcr-5c displayed little or no resistance to (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, ...19968849258
comparative properties of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) proteinases prepared by total chemical synthesis.the aspartyl proteinase (pr) encoded by the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was prepared by total chemical synthesis. the 116-amino-acid polypeptide chain was assembled in a stepwise fashion using a boc chemistry solid-phase peptide synthesis approach and subsequently folded into the biologically active dimeric proteinase. the synthetic enzyme showed proteolytic activity against a variety of different peptide substrates corresponding to putative cleavage sites of the gag and gag-pol polyprot ...19968862421
env-specific ctl predominate in cats protected from feline immunodeficiency virus infection by vaccination.animal models of hiv-1 have a key role to play in elucidation of the cellular mechanisms responsible for protective immunity. vaccination of domestic cats with whole inactivated feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) elicits virus-neutralizing abs and virus-specific ctl in the peripheral blood and lymphoid organs and affords protection from homologous virus challenge. in the present study we confirm the induction of virus-specific ctl following immunization with whole inactivated fiv vaccine and de ...19968871667
prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east africa.while viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. the goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), herpesvirus (fhv), coronavirus (fcov), parvovirus (fpv), and immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and of feline leukemia virus (felv) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting tanzania's national pa ...19968877134
Displaying items 101 - 200 of 660