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diseases of the european wildcat (felis silvestris schreber, 1777) in great britain.the author describes an examination conducted in collaboration with the nature conservancy council of great britain into the status with regard to disease, conservation and genetics of the european wildcat (felis silvestris). feline leukaemia virus (felv) infection was detected by positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood from 2 of 23 wildcats and was tested and confirmed by felv isolation in one of the two cats. this is the first time the virus has been clearly demonstrated in a free- ...19921339067
transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from mother to kitten. 19911648280
development of il-2-independent feline lymphoid cell lines chronically infected with feline immunodeficiency virus: importance for diagnostic reagents and vaccines.two interleukin 2 (il-2)-independent feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) producer cell lines (fl-4 and fl-6) were produced by selecting cells from an il-2-dependent culture of mixed peripheral blood lymphocytes infected with fiv. the new cell lines have been stable for over 1 year and spontaneously produce fiv with an average reverse transcriptase titer of 300,000 cpm/ml and an average sucrose gradient purified viral protein concentration of 1 mg/l. fiv produced from these cultures is highly inf ...19911657826
simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses: animal lentivirus models for evaluation of aids vaccines and antiviral agents.infection of captive macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) and domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), both discovered in the last five years, represent excellent animal models for infection of humans with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). protection against challenge infection and protection against development of simian and feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has been achieved in each model by use of inactivated whole virus or virus-cell vaccines. a reco ...19911659310
regulation of gene expression directed by the long terminal repeat of the feline immunodeficiency virus.the long terminal repeat (ltr) of a retrovirus contains sequence elements that constitute a promoter for controlling viral gene expression in infected cells. we have examined regulation of ltr-directed gene expression in feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), a t-lymphocytopathic lentivirus associated with a fatal aids-like disease in domestic cats. two independent virus isolates, designated fiv-petaluma and fiv-ppr, have been molecularly cloned and show greater than 85% sequence homology. both cl ...19921310554
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies and antigens in the aqueous humor of cats.serum and aqueous humor samples, collected from 14 clinically normal cats and 96 cats with clinical evidence of intraocular inflammation, were assayed with elisa for toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin m (igm), t gondii-specific igg, t gondii-specific antigens, total igg, and total igm. additionally, serum was assayed with elisa for feline leukemia virus p27 antigen and antibodies against the feline immunodeficiency virus as well as with an immunofluorescent antibody assay for antibodies a ...19921429123
elevation of feline interleukin 6-like activity in feline immunodeficiency virus infection.the involvement of feline interleukin 6 (il-6)-like activity in polyclonal b-cell activation in feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection was investigated by using the proliferative response of hybridoma cell clone b3b1. cats spontaneously infected with fiv had hyperimmunoglobulinemia, as shown by increases in the percentage of gamma-globulin and the plasma igg concentration and decrease in the albumin/globulin (a/g) ratio. because il-6 plays an essential role in the differentiation of activ ...19921451326
prevalence of feline leukemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in norway.serum samples from 224 norwegian cats were analyzed for the presence of feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 common core antigen, and for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). ninety specimens originated from the serum bank at the central referral clinic at the norwegian college of veterinary medicine, which had been collected during the years 1983-1989; 67 sera were submitted from veterinarian practitioners; while 67 sera originated from cats presented for euthanasia. the cats were cla ...19921316024
pathological features of lymphoid tissues in cats with natural feline immunodeficiency virus infection.a range of tissues from a total of 17 cats naturally infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus was examined histologically. in 11 cases, chronic inflammatory lesions were present in various tissues including, most commonly, the intestine, brain and lung. extensive inflammation in the intestinal wall was present in seven of the cats. no particular bacterial organisms were demonstrated in these inflammatory lesions. a range of changes was present in the lymph nodes, including hyperplasia, at ...19911651959
isolation in italy of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv).the authors report the isolation in italy of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) from a cat inoculated with whole blood from a naturally fiv infected cat. the virus was isolated in feline circulating leucocytes cultured in rpmi medium and stimulated with concanavalin-a and recombinant human interleukin-2. the infected cultures showed a characteristic cytopathic effect (ballooning degeneration, giant cell formation, cell death) and a specific fuorescence using fiv-positive cat serum and monoclona ...19911649960
a recombinant-based feline immunodeficiency virus antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.we have developed an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the identification of animals infected by feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). the elisa solid-phase antigen consists of recombinant fiv gag proteins expressed in bacteria. the proteins are purified from bacterial lysates as insoluble inclusion bodies. in the case of bacterially expressed p24gag, it is shown that all of the linear, sequential epitopes presented by viral p24 during infection are retained. purifi ...19921337392
retrovirus infections in non-domestic felids: serological studies and attempts to isolate a lentivirus.an african lioness from the zoo of zurich had to be euthanized because of an inoperable tumor. the serum tested negative for feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) but was strongly positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies by elisa and western blot. when her only offspring and mate were tested for fiv, high antibody titers to fiv were also found in their serum. lymphocytes were prepared from these two lions on different occasions a ...19921337398
interaction of acute feline herpesvirus-1 and chronic feline immunodeficiency virus infections in experimentally infected specific pathogen free cats.cats with or without chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection were exposed to feline herpesvirus, type 1 (fhv-1). fiv infected cats became sicker than non-fiv infected cats and required more supportive treatment. however, there were no differences in the length of their illness or in the levels and duration of fhv-1 shedding. fhv-1 infection caused a transient neutrophilia at day 7 with a rapid return to preinfection levels. the neutrophilia coincided with a transient lymphopenia th ...19921363011
immunization-induced decrease of the cd4+:cd8+ ratio in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.in a previous experiment a group of 15 specified pathogen free (spf) cats were experimentally infected with a swiss isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). a group of 15 spf cats served as fiv negative controls. nine cats of each group were vaccinated with a recombinant feline leukemia virus (felv) vaccine, six cats in each group with a placebo vaccine. all vaccinated cats developed high antibody titers to felv and were protected against subsequent felv challenge infection. in both contr ...19921363009
use of two virustatica (azt, pmea) in the treatment of fiv and of felv seropositive cats with clinical symptoms.in the present study the therapeutic efficacy and the side effects of two antiretroviral compounds used in human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) research, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (azt, zidovudine, retrovir) and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (pmea), were investigated in the treatment of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and cats naturally infected with feline leukemia virus (felv). azt was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 bo ...19921363008
feline immunodeficiency virus. proceedings of an international conference. davis, california, 4-7 september 1991. 19921363006
tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus: effects of immunization and feline leukemia virus infection.tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf alpha) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and by cell culture bioassay in supernatants of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated feline monocyte cultures and in cat serum samples. there was a good correlation between the results obtained by the two methods. from the fact that tnf alpha was neutralized quantitatively by antibodies to human tnf alpha in feline monocyte supernatants and in feline sera, it was concluded that feline tnf alpha i ...19921337403
association between feline immunodeficiency virus antibodies and host characteristics in finnish cats.toward the end of 1989 the largest private veterinary laboratory in finland (vet/lab) began using a commercial combined elisa test for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies and feline leukemia virus (felv) antigens (cite combo). the overall proportion of fiv seropositive feline samples was 5% during the 22 month study period. the number of tests performed increased slowly while the positive test results decreased with time (7% in 1990 and 4% in 1991). the decrease in prevalence was assu ...19921336930
sequences within the feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat that regulate gene expression and respond to activation by feline herpesvirus type 1.we constructed a series of deletion mutants of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) long terminal repeat (ltr) to identify the regions that regulate gene expression and are responsive to trans-activation of fiv ltr by feline herpes-virus type 1 (fhv-1). we demonstrated that sequences between -124 and -79, and between -21 and -32 (relative to the cap site) are essential for gene expression of fiv in felis catus whole fetus 4 (fcwf-4) cells. further, we demonstrated that the sequence between -63 an ...19921326814
comparison of the viral promoter activities in feline cell lines (crfk and fcwf-4 cells). 19921313705
lymphosarcoma in experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection [corrected].a cat experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) but known to be free of feline leukaemia virus (felv) developed lymphosarcoma. the lesions in the liver and kidneys were present nine months after infection, when the cat was 21 months old. the cat had no overt signs of immunodeficiency and it is suggested that the b cell activation induced shortly after fiv infection produced a large pool of proliferating lymphocytes from which the malignant cells emerged.19921317615
pharmacokinetics of potential anti-aids agents thiofoscarnet and foscarnet in the cat.the pharmacokinetics of thiophosphonoformate (tpfa) and phosphonoformate (foscarnet, pfa) were studied in normal adult cats, a species susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection. parent drugs and metabolites were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). tpfa had a mean terminal plasma half-life of 42 min, a total clearance of 4.58 ml/min/kg, and a renal clearance of 1.24 ml/min/kg (n = 4). tpfa underwent in vivo metabolism to pfa and thiophosphonic acid (tp ...19921387417
[the effectiveness of paramunization for the control of feline coryza].20 cats in a cat home were treated prophylactically and therapeutically with baypamun hk. the animals were allocated into three groups as described. 7 freshly admitted clinically healthy cats were treated prophylactically on day 1, 2 and 9 with 1 ml baypamun hk (group i). 7 cats, who already were allocated for one year in the home and were sick of the feline respiratory disease complex were treated as described for group i (group ii). 6 further cats, who also showed symptoms of the feline respir ...19921524577
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods for detection of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays have been widely used for diagnosis of felv and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infections. various elisa kits for felv are available from several manufacturers. although these tests are configured in a variety of formats, they are all direct antigen-detection systems for the viral core protein p27. on the other hand, elisa for fiv exposure detects specific feline antibody to fiv. basic immunoassay principles and the application of elisa technology used in ...19911666077
early events in the immunopathogenesis of feline retrovirus infections.feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) are lymphotropic retroviruses that cause a wide range of diseases in domestic cats. although it is known that both viruses are capable of infecting t lymphocytes and that infected cats are lymphopenic, it was not known how infection with either virus might alter specific lymphocyte subpopulations. using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to feline lymphocyte subpopulations, we examined, by use of flow cytometric analysis, lymphocyte cha ...19911666073
neoplasia associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of southern california.between 1988 and 1991, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection status was evaluated in 1,160 cats examined at an oncology referral and general practice in los angeles, california. twenty-nine (2.5%) cats were fiv positive. neoplasia was present in 18 of the 29 (62%) cats. sampling for neoplasia was intentionally biased in the oncology referral group. however, 33% (6/18) of fiv-infected cats with neoplasia originated from the general practice. three neoplastic processes were observed; myelo ...19911666082
prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in random-source cats.retroviral serologic profiles were generated for 506 random-source cats (felis catus) that were received by our facility during a twenty-month period. feline leukemia virus antigens were detected in plasma samples from 26 (5.1%) of the cats. antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus were present in 24 (4.7%) of the samples tested. a single cat (0.2%) was positive for both viruses. neither gender nor vendor correlation with retroviral seropositivity could be demonstrated.19911667194
chemotherapy of feline immunodeficiency virus infection. 19911666108
direct comparisons of inhibitor sensitivities of reverse transcriptases from feline and human immunodeficiency viruses.the sensitivities of reverse transcriptases (rts) from feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv) were directly compared. the two enzymes had similar sensitivities to three analogs of dttp, namely, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine 5'-triphosphate. each of these analogs demonstrated competitive inhibition of both enzymes. ki values for inhibition of fiv rt by these ...19901699491
effect of primary-stage feline immunodeficiency virus infection on subsequent feline calicivirus vaccination and challenge in cats.the effect of experimental primary-stage feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection on feline calicivirus (fcv) vaccination and challenge in cats was studied. clinical signs of acute fcv disease were more widespread in the cats which were infected with fiv than in those which were not. fiv infection also prolonged shedding of fcv, with more of the fiv-infected cats becoming chronic carriers. although vaccination induced protection against acute fcv disease, this was to a lesser degree in fiv- ...19911652980
activation of feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat by feline herpesvirus type 1.by transfection of a recombinant plasmid containing the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) long terminal repeat (ltr) linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene followed by infection of feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) into crandell feline kidney cells and felis catus whole fetus 4 cells, enhancement of cat activity was demonstrated. furthermore, individual feline t-lymphocytes were productively co-infected with both fiv and fhv-1 in vitro as determined by two-color immunofluor ...19911651603
lymphocyte population changes in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is associated with feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (faids) and has been suggested as a model for hiv-induced human aids. the most obvious immunological defect in hiv infection is a reduction in cd4+ cell numbers and an inversion of the cd4:cd8 ratio. to determine whether the same is true in fiv infection, we analyzed by flow cytometry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to feline lymphocyte populations the cd4:cd8 ratios in cats naturally infected ...19901982410
acquired immune dysfunction in cats with experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection: comparison of short-term and long-term infections.specific pathogen-free domestic cats with experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infections of short duration (less than or equal to 10 months) exhibited depressed total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers and a marginally decreased lymphocyte proliferative response to pokeweed mitogen (pwm), while cats with infections of more lengthy duration (greater than or equal to 25 months) exhibited normal leukocyte and neutrophil numbers but a dramatic loss of responsiveness to both pwm ...19911671410
feline immunodeficiency virus--aids in cats? 19921330199
an early defect in primary and secondary t cell responses in asymptomatic cats during acute feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection.as in hiv infection of humans, cats infected with fiv are particularly susceptible to secondary infection by opportunistic pathogens, suggesting an impaired ability to elicit an effective immune response against foreign antigens. in order to investigate the development of immunity in fiv-infected cats, we have used an autologous culture system to directly measure priming of naive cd4+ t cells to soluble protein antigen, in vitro. using this assay, we showed previously that cats infected with fiv ...19921458687
some viral and protozool diseases in the european wildcat (felis silvestris).ten european wildcats (felis silvestris) were examined at necropsy and an additional 23 were examined clinically for evidence of viral diseases in scotland. two plasma samples taken from live free-living wildcats showed positive elisa reactions to feline leukemia antigen. a feline leukemia virus of subgroup a was isolated from one of these samples, taken from a wildcat in north-western scotland. no antibodies to feline coronavirus or feline immunodeficiency virus were detected in any sample. thr ...19911758037
experimental vaccine protection against feline immunodeficiency virus.infection of domestic cats with the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) represents an important veterinary health problem and a useful animal model for the development of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). two experimental fiv vaccines have been developed; one consisting of fixed infected cells (vaccine 1), the other of inactivated whole virus (vaccine 2). after 4-6 immunizations over 2-5 months, both vaccines induced a strong fiv-specific immune response including neutr ...19911662057
antibody response to reverse transcriptase in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.the antibody response in cats to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) reverse transcriptase (rt) was followed for 3 years. eight of the nine cats used in this study produced reverse transcriptase-inhibiting (rti) antibodies. relative inhibitory means of 2.9%, 18.4%, 33%, and 47% were found 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after infection with fiv. the enzyme activity was suppressed by greater than or equal to 78% with the use of 100 micrograms of fiv-associated igg. the rti antibodies were ...19911726399
mutants of feline immunodeficiency virus resistant to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.we selected 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (azt)-resistant mutants of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in a cat cell culture system. the characterization of one of these mutants was facilitated by the development of a focal immunoassay which could accurately measure fiv infectivity. this assay was used to quantitate the susceptibility of fiv to various inhibitors. the azt-resistant mutant was found to be cross-resistant to 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyuridine and 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine but rema ...19911845891
a serologic survey of oklahoma cats for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus, coronavirus, and toxoplasma gondii and for antigen to feline leukemia virus.a serologic survey was done on 618 cat sera submitted to the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory between july 1, 1987 and june 30, 1988. the samples were collected from clinically normal and sick cats. the sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus by a commercial immunoassay, to a coronavirus by an indirect fluorescent antibody test, and to toxoplasma gondii by a commercial latex agglutination test and for the presence of feline leukemia virus ant ...19901965583
worldwide prevalence of lentivirus infection in wild feline species: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.the natural occurrence of lentiviruses closely related to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in nondomestic felid species is shown here to be worldwide. cross-reactive antibodies to fiv were common in several free-ranging populations of large cats, including east african lions and cheetahs of the serengeti ecosystem and in puma (also called cougar or mountain lion) populations throughout north america. infectious puma lentivirus (plv) was isolated from several florida panthers, a severely endan ...19921382145
pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv; formerly, feline t-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a typical lentivirus resembling human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in morphologic features, protein structure, and reverse transcriptase enzyme. it is antigenically dissimilar, however. the virus is tropic for primary and permanent feline t-lymphoblastoid cells and crandell feline kidney cells. the virus did not grow in other permanent feline non-lymphoblastoid cells that were tested, or in lymphoid and non ...19882459996
immunological changes in cats with concurrent toxoplasma gondii and feline immunodeficiency virus infections.to examine the immunological changes in cats concurrently infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and toxoplasma gondii, kittens (four per group) were inoculated with fiv, t. gondii, both agents, or no pathogens. blood mononuclear cells and plasma were collected weekly for lymphocyte assays and serology. at week 14, spleen and lymph node cells were used for lymphocyte assays; brains and mesenteric lymph nodes were used for isolation of t. gondii. more t. gondii organisms were present i ...19921346403
diagnosis of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections.feline leukemia virus is an oncogenic retrovirus that can result in a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases, including immunosuppression. diagnosis of felv infection can be achieved by several methods, including virus isolation; ifa assay of a peripheral blood smear; and detection of a viral protein (called p27) by elisa testing of whole blood, plasma, serum, saliva, or tears. commercially available elisa kits have revolutionized felv testing and have become very popular as "in- ...19892549672
processing of the glycoprotein of feline immunodeficiency virus: effect of inhibitors of glycosylation.the processing and transport of the envelope glycoprotein complex of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in the persistently infected crandell feline kidney (crfk) cell line were investigated. pulse-chase analyses revealed that the glycoprotein is synthesized as a precursor with an mr of 145,000 (gp145) and is quickly trimmed to a molecule with an mr of 130,000 (gp130). treatment of gp130 with endoglycosidase h (endo h) resulted in a protein with an mr of 75,000, indicating that nearly half the ...19911847441
myelitis in a cat infected with toxoplasma gondii and feline immunodeficiency virus.severe necrotizing myelitis secondary to localization and reactivation of toxoplasma gondii within the spinal cord of a domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed by use of light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. the cat also was infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. this case may have useful comparative features to t gondii infections in human patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.19902153650
hp 0.35, a cephalosporin degradation product is a specific inhibitor of lentiviral rnases h.penicillins, cephalosporins and other betalactam antibiotics are widely used antibacterial drugs. recently it was found that some of them also have effects on proliferating eukaryotic cells (neftel, k.a. and hübscher, u. (1987) antimicrob. agents chemother. 31, 1657-1661), and one such effect was shown to be the inhibition of dna polymerase alpha (huynh do,u., neftel, k.a., spadari, s. and hübscher, u. (1987) nucl. acids res. 15, 10495-10506). the data suggested that degradation products of beta ...19911714562
characterization of two monoclonal antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus gag gene products and their application in an assay to evaluate neutralizing antibody activity.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) 3b7 and 1c11 were produced against the gag gene products of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). these mabs reacted strongly with fiv p24 in western blots (immunoblots) and recognized p50 with a lower intensity. they specifically bound antigens in the cytoplasm of fiv-infected cells as determined by indirect immunofluorescence and immunocytochemistry. although neither mab inhibited viral replication in vitro, they were useful in a simple assay for the detection and q ...19911848596
cytologic, microbiologic, and biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from 24 healthy cats.twenty-four healthy cats underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine the normal cytologic environment of the lower respiratory tract of cats. initial screening to ensure the health of the study population included complete histories, physical examinations, thoracic radiography, cbc, serologic tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, and occult heartworm, and sugar and baermann fecal flotation. in 18 cats, protected catheter brush samples of airway secret ...19911928912
existence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in japanese cat population since 1968. 19902168001
cryptosporidium infection in cats: prevalence of infection in domestic and feral cats in the glasgow area.a clinical and post mortem survey of domestic and feral cats in the glasgow area revealed that 19 of 235 (8.1 per cent) were infected with cryptosporidium species. more kittens than adults were infected (p less than 0.01), and of 51 of the cats which had diarrhoea, four also had cryptosporidium infection. of seven domestic cats with cryptosporidium infection, two were also positive for feline immunodeficiency virus. there was no significant difference between the prevalence of cryptosporidium in ...19911664551
identification of the rev transactivation and rev-responsive elements of feline immunodeficiency virus.spliced messages encoded by two distinct strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were identified. two of the cdna clones represented mrnas with bicistronic capacity. the first coding exon contained a short open reading frame (orf) of unknown function, designated orf 2. after a translational stop, this exon contained the l region of the env orf. the l region resides 5' to the predicted leader sequence of env. the second coding exon contained the h orf, which began 3' to env and extended in ...19921323707
vaccination against feline retroviruses. 19902178114
progressive immune dysfunction in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.within 6 months of infection with the petaluma isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, specific-pathogen-free domestic cats exhibited a decrease in the percentage and number of circulating cd4+ lymphocytes and in the cd4+/cd8+ t-cell ratio, along with a marginally significant depression of pokeweed mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. there was no loss of responsiveness to concanavalin a during this stage, and the cats were capable of mounting a satisfactory antibody response to ...19911673159
[feline immunodeficiency virus in switzerland: clinical aspects and epidemiology in comparison with feline leukemia virus and coronaviruses].serum samples from 1421 domestic cats (561 healthy, 860 sick) were tested for fiv-, felv- and coronavirus infection. the results were stored in a computer data base and compared with epidemiologic data and clinical findings. all 3 infections were significantly more prevalent in sick than healthy cats: fiv was found in 0.7% of healthy and 3.4% of sick cats. for felv the prevalence was 3.0% and 13.0% and for coronavirus 21% and 36.2%, respectively. fiv-infected cats were mostly male (73%); no sex ...19902167513
feline immunodeficiency virus, a model for reverse transcriptase-targeted chemotherapy for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), formerly called feline t-lymphotropic lentivirus, causes an immune deficiency in cats that is very similar to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in humans (n. c. pedersen, e. m. ho, m. l. brown, and j. k. yamamoto, science 235:790-793, 1987). we have examined the reverse transcriptase of this virus to determine whether it is similar enough to the reverse transcriptase of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) to enable its use as a model for che ...19892475068
national felv/fiv awareness project. 19911852082
susceptibility in cell culture of feline immunodeficiency virus to eighteen antiviral agents.the in-vitro susceptibilities of two strains of feline immunodeficiency virus to 18 antiviral agents were determined in two cell lines. in terms of inhibiting p24 antigen production, the nucleoside-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most effective compounds. inhibition was also observed with aurintricarboxylic acid, phosphonoformate and butyldeoxynorjirimycin, but not with the other agents tested.19947532645
therapy of presymptomatic felv-induced immunodeficiency syndrome with azt in combination with alpha interferon.azt inhibited replication of an immunodeficiency-inducing strain of feline leukemia virus (felv-faids) in vitro at concentrations as low as 0.005 microgram/ml. this antiviral activity was augmented an additional 25-30% when azt was combined with human recombinant alpha-interferon (2b) (ifn alpha). administration of azt alone or in combination with ifn alpha, beginning at the time of exposure to a 100% persistent viremia-inducing dose of felv-faids, abrogated the progression of viral infection an ...19901964030
isolation of a highly cytopathic lentivirus from a nondomestic cat.a feline immunodeficiency virus-like virus (fiv-oma) isolated from a pallas' cat (otocolobus manul) is highly cytopathic in crfk cells, in contrast to the chronic, noncytolytic infection established by an fiv isolate from a domestic cat (fiv-fca). the virions have typical lentivirus morphology, density, and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity. the major core protein is antigenically cross-reactive with that of fiv-fca; however, fiv-oma transcripts do not cross-hybridize with fiv-f ...19957474172
preliminary comparisons of the biological properties of two strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) isolated in japan with fiv petaluma strain isolated in the united states.two strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were isolated directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) of japanese domestic cats or indirectly from pbmcs of specific pathogen free (spf) cats inoculated with whole blood from naturally infected cats with fiv by cocultivation with primary pbmcs from spf cats. two isolates, designated as fiv tm 1 and fiv tm 2, had a lentivirus-like morphology by electron microscopy, a tropism for interleukin-2 dependent t-lymphocytes and mg2+-depe ...19892480765
feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with felv and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). the cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. abnormal jaw movements ...19892537274
chronic leukopenia associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infection in a cat.leukopenia attributable to lymphopenia and neutropenia was detected over a 28-week period in a 12-year-old domestic cat infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). mild normocytic, normochronic anemia also was evident. platelet counts were normal, and serum biochemical values were unremarkable. antibodies to fiv were detected in serum by use of immunofluorescence and immunoblot electrophoresis assays. cytologic evaluation of bone marrow aspirates revealed normal cellular morphologic featu ...19892537275
epidemiologic and clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats from the continental united states and canada and possible mode of transmission.the epidemiologic features of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection were evaluated in 2,765 cats from the united states and canada. of these cats, 2,254 were considered by veterinarians to be at high risk for the infection, and 511 were healthy cats considered to be at low or unknown risk. of the cats in the high-risk group, 318 (14%) were found to be infected with fiv. the infection rate among low- or unknown-risk cats was 6 of 511 (1.2%). male cats in the high-risk group were 3 times m ...19892537269
detection of feline immunodeficiency virus in semen from seropositive domestic cats (felis catus).electroejaculates from experimentally infected domestic cats were evaluated for the presence of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). virus was isolated from cell-free seminal plasma and seminal cells by cocultivation with a feline interleukin-2-dependent cd4+ t-cell line, in which productive infection was demonstrated by syncytium formation and fiv gag p26 antigen secretion. in addition, an 868-bp segment of the fiv gag provirus gene was identified in cocultured cells by pcr and southern analysi ...19957474164
feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of japan.a seroepidemiologic survey for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection was conducted in japan. between june and december 1987, individual sera (n = 3,323) were submitted by veterinary practitioners from many parts of the country. specimens were from 1,739 cats with clinical signs suggestive of fiv infection and from 1,584 healthy-appearing cats seen by the same practitioners. the overall fiv infection rate among cats in japan was 960/3,323 cats (28.9%). the infection rate was more than 3 t ...19892537270
[cat retroviruses and human retroviruses: elements of comparison].following emotional head-lines of certain articles in the press, making believe that the cat could be susceptible to the aids virus, the authors present elements of comparison between principal feline retroviruses (the feline leucosis virus and the feline immunodeficiency virus) and the two human immunodeficiency viruses (hiv). the feline leucosis virus in differentiated from the human and the feline immunodeficiency viruses by its virological, pathological and epidemiological characteristics. b ...19892553219
immunization trial of cats with a replication-defective adenovirus type 5 expressing the env gene of feline immunodeficiency virus.our aim was to develop a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus suitable for the vaccination of cats against feline immunodeficiency virus. we first demonstrated that this vector was able to transfer a marker gene (e. coli beta-galactosidase) in feline cells in vitro. we then constructed an adenovirus type 5 expressing the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) envelope (env) gene of the wo isolate in the absence of the rev gene (ad-env-wo). ad-env-wo was then tested in four cats in a 3 injec ...19957483252
prevalence of antibody to feline immunodeficiency virus in some cat populations. 19892543117
hematologic manifestations of feline immunodeficiency virus infection.studies were done on 53 cats with community-acquired infection with the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) to determine if hematologic abnormalities were comparable with those observed in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). nine cats were asymptomatic, 24 had clinical symptoms equivalent to aids-related complex (arc), and 20 had aids-like disease. hematologic abnormalities were detected in 75% (40 of 53) of fiv-seropositive cats, and multiple concurrent cytopenias ...19902400806
biochemical and immunological characterization of the major structural proteins of feline immunodeficiency virus.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) structural proteins were identified using sera obtained from experimentally inoculated cats. proteins analysed by both radioimmunoprecipitation and western blotting were specific for fiv infection and failed to cross-react with either antisera to feline leukaemia virus of feline syncytium-forming virus. western blot analysis of purified virus revealed immunoreactive proteins with apparent mr of 65k, 50k, 40k, 32k, 24k, 15k and 10k. the major core structural pr ...19902156003
prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in the united kingdom.a representative sample of the pet cat population of the united kingdom was surveyed. blood samples from 1204 sick and 1007 healthy cats of known breed, age and sex were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukaemia virus (felv). the prevalence of fiv was 19 per cent in sick cats and 6 per cent in healthy cats, and the prevalence of felv was 18 per cent in sick cats and 5 per cent in healthy cats; both infections were more common in domestic cats than in pedig ...19892554556
animal models of aids.animal models of aids are essential for understanding the pathogenesis of retrovirus-induced immune deficiency and encephalopathy and for development and testing of new therapies and vaccines. aids and related disorders are etiologically linked to members of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses; these lymphocytopathic lentiviruses are designated human immuno-deficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and human immuno-deficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2). the only animals susceptible to experimental hiv-1 in ...19892556312
immunoassay for detection of feline immunodeficiency virus core antigen.the feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a recently identified feline lentivirus that has been found at significant levels in domestic cat populations worldwide. a microdilution plate format, monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of the fiv group-associated antigen (gag) designated p24. assays of serially diluted samples containing disrupted virus showed that the assay had a sensitivity limit of approximately 0.2 ng/ml for fiv p24. the assa ...19902161869
polyclonal b-cell activation in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.the specificity of the antibody response following natural or experimental infection of domestic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was examined. the antibody response to a range of non-viral antigens, including trinitrophenol (tnp), ovalbumin, beta-galactosidase, deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (klh), was measured in 220 cats naturally infected with fiv. infected cats had higher antibody levels to these antigens, in particular tnp, klh and beta-galactosidas ...19947518798
bartonella henselae prevalence in domestic cats in california: risk factors and association between bacteremia and antibody titers.the isolation of bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease, from the blood of naturally infected domestic cats and the demonstration that cats remain bacteremic for several months suggest that cats play a major role as a reservoir for this bacterium. a convenience sample of 205 cats from northern california was selected between 1992 and 1994 to evaluate the b. henselae antibody and bacteremia prevalences and to determine the risk factors and associations between bacteremia and antibo ...19957494043
feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections and their relationships to lymphoid malignancies in cats: a retrospective study (1968-1988).sera from 353 cats with naturally occurring feline leukemia virus (felv) infection were collected in boston, los angeles, new york city, and seattle between 1968 and 1988. these sera were retrospectively assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). fifty-one (14.4%) of the felv-positive sera had antibodies to fiv, indicating dual oncovirus and lentivirus infections. fiv infections were confirmed by western blot analysis, antibodies against t ...19902159993
development of monoclonal antibodies and capture immunoassays for feline immunodeficiency virus.we generated monoclonal antibodies (mab) against feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and characterized these mab by single competition enzyme immunoassays (eia), immunoblot analysis, and radioimmunoprecipitation. four mab identified 3 distinct epitopes of the fiv p24/26 gag major core protein. one mab recognized the p16/17 gag protein; none recognized envelope proteins. we developed an fiv p26 antigen capture eia that proved more sensitive (0.5 ng of p26/ml), less expensive, and less time-consum ...19957544555
evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus replication in cultured kupffer cells.to determine if cultured feline kupffer cells (kc) are as permissive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) as cultured human liver macrophages are for hiv. two types of infection likely to be relevant to the in vivo situation were used. kc were infected with either free virus or autologous infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc).19957543759
is it possible to catch leukemia from a cat? 19957616826
temporal patterns of feline immunodeficiency virus transcripts in peripheral blood cells during the latent stage of infection.we have investigated the in vivo state of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of chronically fiv-infected, asymptomatic cats. fiv was detected in a high percentage of pbmc but not in the plasma of these cats. by quantitative reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) analysis. fiv transcriptional status in the pbmc was characterized by extremely low or undetectable levels of unspliced or singly spliced mrnas and predominantly multiply spliced mr ...19957561756
dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits replication of feline immunodeficiency virus in chronically infected cells.dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that serves as an intermediary in sex steroid synthesis. dhea is produced in abundance by humans and most other warm-blooded animals. based upon previous reports demonstrating the antiviral and immunostimulatory activities of dhea and dhea-sulfate (dheas) we sought to determine whether introduction of these compounds would affect replication of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in chronically infected cells. when ...19957542411
ultrasensitive retrovirus detection by a reverse transcriptase assay based on product enhancement.reverse transcriptase (rt) is an indispensable component of infectious retroviruses. we have developed an ultrasensitive rt test in which rna of bacteriophage ms2 serves as the template for rt-mediated cdna synthesis. a fragment of the cdna is selectively amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplification product is analyzed by southern blot hybridization or enzyme immunoassay. the procedure was 10(6) to 10(7) times more sensitive than a conventional rt test and detected as little as 1 ...19947509077
growth properties of a feline immunodeficiency virus mutant which lacks an ap-1 binding site in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells.thirty-one base pairs (bp) containing putative ap-1 and ap-4 binding sequences in the u3 region of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) long terminal repeat (ltr) were deleted from an infectious molecular clone of fiv for construction of a mutant virus, and the replication rate and the cytopathogenic activity of the virus were compared with those of the wild type virus in concanavalin-a (con-a) stimulated primary feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (fpbmcs). it was found that the replicatio ...19947532437
population dynamics of feline immunodeficiency virus within cat populations.a deterministic model was constructed for studying the circulation of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), a feline retrovirus homologous to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), within populations of domestic cats. the model has been tested with data generated by a long-term study of several natural cat populations. simulations and a study of stability show that once introduced, the retrovirus is maintained within the population, with a stable equilibrium stage reached by both numbers of suscepti ...19957475091
defective natural killer cell cytotoxic activity in feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.flow cytometry has been employed to study nk cell cytotoxic activity in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. the results show that animals infected for 12 months or more have decreased levels of nk cell cytotoxic activity in their blood. the impairment could not be overcome by in vitro treatment of effector cells with interleukin 2. additional results suggest that the nk cells of infected cats are defective, in that they are still able to bind to target cells but have a reduced abil ...19957576935
quantification of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) proviral dna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cats infected with japanese strains of fiv.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method was applied for measurement of the proviral dna copy number of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of cats experimentally and naturally infected with fiv. in experimentally infected cats except one cat infected with the petaluma strain, fiv-specific dnas were efficiently amplified with the pcr method under the conditions used in this study. in the naturally fiv-infected cats, the specific dnas were also ampli ...19957548402
rapid phenotypic reversion of zidovudine-resistant feline immunodeficiency virus without loss of drug-resistant reverse transcriptase.we have selected and plaque purified zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine [azt])-resistant mutants from an infectious molecular clone of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). the patterns of cross-resistance and drug susceptibilities of these mutants were similar to those of the azt-resistant fiv that we previously selected in vitro from a wild-type fiv population and to those of the most common azt-resistant clinical isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. two azt-resistant mutants of ...19947507182
increased mutation frequency of feline immunodeficiency virus lacking functional deoxyuridine-triphosphatase.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) encodes the enzyme deoxyuridine-triphosphatase (du; ec 3.6.1.23) between the coding regions for reverse transcriptase and integrase in the pol gene. here, we report the in vivo infection of cats with a du- variant of the ppr strain of fiv and compare its growth properties and tissue distribution with those of wild-type fiv-ppr. the results reveal several important points: (i) du- fiv is able to infect the cat, with kinetics similar to that observed with wild-t ...19957638216
detection of feline immunodeficiency virus p24 antigen and p24-specific antibodies by monoclonal antibody-based assays.a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) detecting distinct b-cell epitopes on p24 core viral protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) were employed to develop immunoassays to measure p24 concentration in culture and serum samples, to localize p24 in fiv-infected cells and tissues, and to detect anti-p24 antibodies in cat sera. in its optimized configuration the p24 capture assay detected as little as 0.25 ng/ml of protein. the assay was found at least as sensitive as the reverse transcript ...19947516344
serological diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection based on synthetic peptides from env glycoproteins.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a lentivirus which infects domestic cats, causing an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). the aim of the present work was the development of an immunoassay for the diagnosis of fiv infection, using synthetic peptides from fiv envelope (env) glycoproteins. four peptides (8 to 11 amino acids long) corresponding to group-specific epitopes of fiv env extracellular (su) or transmembrane (tm) glycoproteins were synthesized. they were evaluated by enzyme-lin ...19937689247
establishment of a feline t-lymphoblastoid cell line susceptible to feline immunodeficiency viruses.a feline t-lymphoblastoid cell line susceptible to feline immunodeficiency viruses (fiv) was established and designated as yu-1 cells. yu-1 cells continued to grow over one year with more than 100 successive passages in the presence of human recombinant interleukin-2. surface antigens of yu-1 cells were feline pan-t+, cd4+, and cd8-. susceptibility of yu-1 cells to fiv strains were higher than that of the primary culture of the feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating that this cell ...19937689139
the feline immunodeficiency virus orf-a gene facilitates efficient viral replication in established t-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes.frameshift mutants corresponding to all of the identified open reading frames of feline immunodeficiency virus, including the orf-a gene, which has an unknown function, were constructed in vitro. upon transfection into cells, no significant difference between the phenotypes of orf-a mutant clones and those of wild-type clones was demonstrated. although only orf-a mutant virus among all mutant viruses from transfected cells showed infectivity in established t-cell lines, the replication and propa ...19937690413
analysis of leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets in cats with naturally-occurring cryptococcosis but differing feline immunodeficiency virus status.although cryptococcosis is a well-characterised disease of cats, the factors predisposing individuals to infection are unknown. as an indication of the immune status of an individual, lymphocyte subsets can be analysed. reference ranges for feline lymphocyte subsets (pan t+, cd4+, cd8+ and b cells) were established using a rapid whole blood technique and flow cytometry. there were no effects of age or sex on lymphocyte subset values. the numbers of circulating leucocytes and lymphocyte subsets w ...19957611989
quantification of lymphadenopathy in experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domestic cats.nine cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and six fiv-negative cats were necropsied to assess the effect of fiv infection on lymph nodes. the fiv infected cats were inoculated with 10(5) tcid50 21-22 weeks previously. the combined weights of all lymph nodes and the combined lymph node to organ weight ratios were significantly greater in fiv-infected cats when compared to uninfected cats. additionally, by examining all nodes in the body, a regionally severe lympha ...19957618259
tumor necrosis factor-alpha responses are depressed and interleukin-6 responses unaltered in feline immunodeficiency virus infected cats.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), a lentivirus similar to hiv, causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in cats. similar to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), the pathogenesis of fiv is associated with dysregulation of the cytokine network. while alterations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and interleukin-6 (il-6) expression have been reported in hiv-infected patients, changes attributable to hiv and those caused by cofactors such as secondary infections cannot always be readi ...19957618260
serological diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection using recombinant transmembrane glycoprotein.we developed an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using recombinant surface (su), transmembrane (tm) and capsid (ca) antigens of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) expressed in escherichia coli. the three antigens were tested with sera collected from experimentally infected cats in order to follow the course of seroconversion and of the antibody levels throughout the infection. an early and marked increase of tm antibodies was observed. antibodies to tm were demonstra ...19957618262
evaluation of an autologous red cell agglutination test, vetred fiv, for the presence of fiv antibody in cats.a commercially available whole blood agglutination test, vetred fiv, used for the detection of antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), was evaluated. the test is based on the use of a synthetic peptide conjugated to a non-agglutinating anti-feline red blood cell monoclonal antibody. the amino acid sequence of the synthetic peptide was derived from the predicted sequence of the transmembrane protein of fiv. the sensitivity and specificity of vetred fiv was 100% when 34 known fiv-positi ...19957618263
recombinant felv vaccine: long-term protection and effect on course and outcome of fiv infection.the efficacy and the long-term protection of a recombinant feline leukemia virus (felv) vaccine were determined in 30 specified pathogen free cats for over 3 years. at the same time, in order to specify the effects of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) on the immune system, one half of the cats (n = 15) were previously infected with the swiss isolate fiv zurich 2. the second half of the animals (n = 15) served as non-infected controls. eighteen (nine fiv-negative, nine fiv-positive) vaccinated ...19957618252
comparison of fibrosarcomas that developed at vaccination sites and at nonvaccination sites in cats: 239 cases (1991-1992).questionnaires were sent to veterinarians who had submitted a fibrosarcoma from a cat to the surgical pathology services of the veterinary schools of the university of pennsylvania and tufts university between jan 1, 1991 and june 30, 1992. questionnaire items included signalment, felv and feline immunodeficiency virus status, site of sarcoma, vaccination site, vaccines used, treatment, biologic behavior of the tumor, and final outcome. data were analyzed, using student's t-test for continuous d ...19947698923
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