changes in hookworm distribution in surinam.during the months may-july, 1974, a follow-up investigation was carried out on hookworm infections in dogs and cats in order to study changes in the hookworm distribution in surinam since 1967. fifty-two cats and 152 dogs were examined for the presence of helminths in the oesophagus, small intestine, coecum and heart. in total 15,942 helminths were isolated; most of these (14,006) were hookworms belonging to the species ancylostoma caninum, a. tubaeforme, a. ceylanicum and a. braziliense. the av ...1976987625
the detection of antibodies in human and animal filariases by counterimmunoelectrophoresis with dirofilaria immitis antigens.counterimmunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of precipitin antibody in all of 6 dogs and the 1 cat infected with dirofilaria immitis and in the serum of 17 of 24 individuals living in a setting of hyperendemic subperiodic bancroftian filariasis. antigens used in the test were prepared from microfilariae and adult male d. immitis. some humans and animals had antibodies to both antigens while others had antibodies against microfilariae or adult worms only. the presence of soluble circulating ...19761262695
dirofilaria immitis in cats. 19921632736
morphologic changes in the lungs of cats experimentally infected with dirofilaria immitis. 19912061864
epizootiology of endoparasitic infections in pet dogs and cats presented to a veterinary teaching hospital.prevalences of, and risk factors associated with, protozoan and helminth parasite infections were determined for pet dogs and cats presented to the teaching hospital of the university of pennsylvania school of veterinary medicine. of 2294 canine fecal specimens, 34.8% were found to contain one or more kinds of parasite, consisting of: hookworms (14.4%); trichuris vulpis (12.3%); giardia (7.2%); ascarids (5.5%); coccidia (2.7%); cestodes (1.6%). the following risk factors were identified with inf ...19883245104
incidental findings of dirofilaria immitis in domestic cats. 19744493827
diagnostic features of zoonotic filariae in tissue sections.the diagnostic features in tissue sections from patients with zoonotic filarial infections are reviewed. in general, two types of infections are recognized: 1) those presenting radiologically in healthy patients as coin lesions, which are usually removed because a clinical diagnosis of carcinoma of the lung is made and infarcts containing dirofilaria immitis parasites in pulmonary arteries are found; and 2) those presenting as subcutaneous nodules, in which d. tenuis, a parasite from raccoons, d ...19846539296
[prevalence of protozoans helminths among cats purchased for experimental use in the kanto area].prevalence of protozoan and helminth parasites in adult cats for experimental use obtained from kanto area, japan during the period of 1973-74 (91 cats) and 1980-81 (80 cats) was investigated by means of autopsy, fecal examination and serological tests. no protozoa were found in blood smear specimens. the rate of positive toxoplasma antibody tests was 65.4% (hemagglutination test) in 1973-74 and 26.3% (latex agglutination test) in 1980-81. oocysts of coccidia found in feces were isospora felis a ...19836653679
anthelmintic effect of febantel/praziquantel paste in dogs and cats.a paste formulation of 3.4% febantel and 0.34% praziquantel was given in soft food at a rate of 0.29 g/kg of body weight, once daily for 3 days to dogs and cats. eleven of 12 dogs were naturally infected with ancylostoma caninum, 10 with trichuris vulpis, 2 with toxocara canis, 5 with taenia sp, and 3 with dirofilaria immitis. ten of 11 cats were naturally infected with toxocara cati, 2 with ancylostoma tubaeforme, 3 with taenia sp, 5 with capillaria aerophila, and 1 with paragonimus kellicotti. ...19846703448
indirect immunofluorescence testing for diagnosis of occult dirofilaria immitis infection in three cats. 19827035424
zoonotic implications of cats and dogs in filarial transmission in peninsular malaysia.filarial infections in 447 cats and 68 dogs from six endemic areas of human filariasis in peninsular malaysia were studied as part of the study on the zoonotic transmission of subperiodic brugia malayi infection. 20.6% of cats and 57.4% of dogs had filarial infections. cats were infected with subperiodic b. malayi, b. pahangi, dirofilaria repens and d. immitis. dogs were infected with b. pahangi and d. immitis. 6.9% of the cats had subperiodic b. malayi infection. the zoonotic implications of th ...19807210162
expression of an onchocerca volvulus ov33 homolog in dirofilaria immitis: potential in immunodiagnosis of heartworm this study, the expression of an onchocerca volvulus ov33 homolog was demonstrated in dirofilaria immitis. rabbit antiserum raised against a recombinant fusion protein of o. volvulus, mbp/ovd 5b (ov33), was found to react with a 31-33 kda glycoprotein (dit33) of adult worms of d. immitis. an antibody response to mbp/ovd 5b was observed in dogs, as early as 11 weeks post infection with infective larvae of d. immitis, and in dogs with occult infection. cats both experimentally and naturally inf ...19947970866
serologic survey and serum biochemical reference ranges of the free-ranging mountain lion (felis concolor) in california.serum samples from 58 mountain lions (felis concolor) in california (usa) were collected between april 1987 and february 1990. nineteen serum samples were used for serum biochemistry determinations; the ranges were similar to reference values in domestic cats, captive exotic felidae and free-ranging mountain lions. a serological survey was conducted to determine whether antibodies were present against selected infectious agents. fifty-four (93%) of 58 sera had antibodies against feline panleukop ...19948028105
re-migration of fifth-stage juvenile dirofilaria immitis into pulmonary arteries after subcutaneous transplantation in dogs, cats, and assessment was made of the capacity for re-migration of the 5th-stage juvenile canine heartworm, dirofilaria immitis. live, 5th-stage juvenile worms recovered from the pulmonary arteries of infected dogs were transplanted into the subcutaneous tissue of uninfected dogs, cats, and rabbits. a mean of 45%, 61%, and 18% of the transplanted worms were recovered from the pulmonary arteries of dogs, cats, and rabbits, respectively, 1 and 3 mo later. the 5th-stage juvenile worms thus have the ability ...19968885898
feline heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection: detection of specific igg for the diagnosis of occult infections.sera from 54 cats, 53 asymptomatic and one symptomatic (chronic dyspnoea and coughing), living in a hyper-endemic area for canine heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection were studied to evaluate the reliability of two elisa-based antibody tests coupled with both somatic (elisasa) and excretory/secretory (elisae/s) antigens. all cats were examined by echocardiography and radiography. in addition, an elisa-based test to detect adult female heartworm circulating antigens and a modified knott test ...19979211646
a comparison of antibody responses to veterinary vaccine antigens potentiated by different adjuvants.six adjuvant formulations were compared for their ability to potentiate the primary and memory antibody responses in mice to three companion animal vaccine immunogens--feline leukemia virus (felv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and a recombinantly-derived heartworm antigen. the combination of a novel bacterial immunostimulator, gliding bacterial adjuvant (gba), either adsorbed onto an aluminum hydroxide gel (rehydragel hpa), or emulsified with a vehicle of polyalcohol and detergent, elici ...19979413100
pneumothorax secondary to dirofilaria immitis infection in two cats.dirofilariasis was diagnosed in 2 cats with spontaneous pneumothorax. one cat had a 3-week history of a cough, and the other had an 11-month history of vomiting and tachypnea. pneumothorax was managed in cats by thoracocentesis and supportive care. diagnosis of dirofilariasis was made on the basis of heartworm antigen and antibody test results and radiographic findings. clinical signs of heartworm infection improved after treatment with corticosteroids. cats had good extended outcomes. heartworm ...19989656031
antibody to the dirofilaria immitis aspartyl protease inhibitor homologue is a diagnostic marker for feline heartworm infections.feline heartworm disease, caused by the filarial nematode dirofilaria immitis, has been diagnosed with increased frequency in areas endemic for canine heartworm infection. the routine methods for determining the infection status of dogs, such as identification of circulating microfilariae in blood or identification of circulating antigen in serum, plasma or blood, have proven inadequate for screening cats. the inadequacies are due to the likelihood of single-sex infections and clinical disease d ...19989920319
heartworm infection in cats: 50 cases (1985-1997).to characterize risk factors, clinical findings, usefulness of diagnostic tests, and prognosis in cats with naturally occurring heartworm infection (hwi).200010935039
prevention of experimentally induced heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infections in dogs and cats with a single topical application of a series of six controlled studies (four in dogs, two in cats), heartworm-free dogs and cats were inoculated with dirofilaria immitis larvae (l(3)) prior to topical treatment with the novel avermectin selamectin or a negative control containing inert formulation ingredients (vehicle). selamectin and negative-control treatments were administered topically to the skin at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. in dogs, selamectin was applied topically at dosages of 3 or 6mgkg(-1) at 30 d ...200010940527
quantitative analysis of microfilarial periodicity of dirofilaria immitis in cats.microfilarial periodicity of dirofilaria immitis in the venous blood of infected cats was analyzed by a trigonometric model. cats were infected by subcutaneous transplantation with 120-day-old juvenile d. immitis. microfilariae in the blood were first observed 98 days after transplantation. blood was collected at 4h intervals for a 24h period, and examinations were repeated five times in two cats. the calculated periodicity index was 75.1 and 50.3 in these two cats. the estimated hour of peak mi ...200010962160
igg response against infective larvae of dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected cats.somatic antigens from third stage larvae of dirofilaria immitis (sl3) were used to detect igg response against heartworm infection in 8 experimentally infected cats. a moderate specific anti-sl3 igg response was found one month post-infection. afterwards, antibodies decreased reaching a basal level 4 months post-infection and remained at this level until the end of the study. 6 months post-infection. western blot analysis showed specific recognition of polypeptides of 79, 73, 60, 52, 40 and 39 k ...200111254182
feline heartworm infection: serological survey of asymptomatic cats living in northern italy.heartworm infection is now recognized as a potential cause of serious disease in cats. epidemiological studies indicate that in locations where the infection is endemic in the dog, cats are at risk. the aim of this work was to carry out a serological survey for the presence of anti-dirofilaria immitis antibodies in privately owned, predominantly asymptomatic cats living in different areas of northern italy in order to determine the distribution of the parasite and the risk of infection in this s ...200211779654
does fertilization in the filarial nematode dirofilaria immitis occur through endocytosis of spermatozoa?information on the ultrastructural details of fertilization in filarial nematodes are still unavailable. here we report new data on this process in dirofilaria immits, the heartworm of dogs and cats. electron microscopy allowed us to observe oocytes engulfing spermatozoa through an endocytosis-like process. we also observed spermatozoa inside the oocytes which still possessed their plasma membrane and which were clearly enveloped by a further membrane, likely derived from the endocytosis process ...200211811805
systematic review of the distribution of the major vector-borne parasitic infections in dogs and cats in europe.on the basis of a systematic review of the literature, this paper provides the first evidence-based maps of the distribution of the major vector-borne parasitic infections of dogs and cats in europe. from an initial survey of 894 publications, data from 268 were analysed, summarised and collated. prevalence data were used to calculate the force of infection to provide distribution and incidence maps for canine infections with leishmania infantum, dirofilaria immitis, dirofilaria repens, babesia ...200312572938
feline advantage heart (imidacloprid and moxidectin) topical solution as monthly treatment for prevention of heartworm infection (dirofilaria immitis) and control of fleas (ctenocephalides felis) on cats. 200312928881
prevalence and risk factors for heartworm infection in cats from northern florida.necropsies were performed on 630 adult cats in northern florida to determine the prevalence and risk factors for heartworm infection in cats of this region. heartworms were identified in 4.9% of cats, and serological evidence of heartworm exposure was present in 17% of cats. not all cats from which heartworms were recovered were seropositive for heartworm antigen or antibody. there was no association between heartworm infection and co-infection with feline leukemia virus (felv) or feline immunod ...200314736717
exposure to feline and canine pathogens in bobcats and gray foxes in urban and rural zones of a national park in california.exposure of bobcats (lynx rufus) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) to a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of golden gate national recreation area, a national park in the san francisco bay area, (california, usa) from 1992 to 1995. testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus, leptospira interrogans, feline calicivirus (fcv), feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus, feline enteric co ...200415137484
an antigen detection assay for diagnosing this study we examined the diagnostic potential of monoclonal antibodies (mab) reactive to antigens of adult brugia malayi, their microfilariae and antigen of dirofilaria immitis. the mab of clone 17e10, which were of igm isotype, reacted to the inner cuticles and internal content of both male and female worms and also to the sheath and internal content of microfilariae in utero. however, these mab did not react to the sheath of blood circulating microfilariae. the mab 17e10 produced a smear ...200315198342
dirofilaria immitis: worm burden and pulmonary artery proliferation in dogs from michigan (united states).despite the ability to prevent heartworm disease, infection with dirofilaria immitis continues to be a major problem for domestic dogs. to determine worm burden in heartworm-positive dogs from three county animal shelters in the state of michigan in the united states and to assess the relationship between gross intimal proliferation and worm burden, necropsy was done on 176 heartworm-positive dogs. adult heartworms were found in the heart and pulmonary artery of 170 of the 176 (96.6%) dogs exami ...200415350667
specific igg antibody response against antigens of dirofilaria immitis and its wolbachia endosymbiont bacterium in cats with natural and experimental infections.sera from three groups of cats under different experimental conditions were studied by elisa to assess the host's immune response against synthetic peptides derived from dirofilaria immitis (dipp) and against the surface protein of its endosymbiont, wolbachia (wspr). in experimentally infected cats (group 1), an increase of igg antibody against both dipp and wspr was observed from 2 months post-infection until the end of the study, 6 months post-infection. in experimentally infected cats, treate ...200415482887
sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (felis catus linnaeus, 1758) in a zoological garden of rio de janeiro, brazil.the colony of urban stray cats living in the rio de janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. as many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals) and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. they were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. all animals had a blood sample drawn for cbc, platelet count, heartwor ...200415517031
detection of paragonimus heterotremus eggs in experimentally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure for the detection of paragonimus heterotremus eggs in stool samples was developed and compared with stoll's egg count method. the primers were designed on the basis of a previously constructed pph-13-specific dna probe, which produced an approximate 0.5-kb amplified product. this pcr method could detect as few as 5 eggs in 0.6 g of artificially inoculated feces of a healthy control cat or as little as 1 x 10(-4) ng of p. heterotremus genomic dna. the a ...200515856902
immunoblot analysis of specific antigen bands predictable for dirofilaria immitis infection in cats.serial sera from four mongrel cats experimentally inoculated with infectious larvae of dirofilaria immitis were analyzed by immunoblot patterns against a phosphate buffered saline-extract of d. immitis. antigen-specific protein bands detected indicate that the low molecular weight bands of 36, 32, 22, 19 and 14 kda, are predictable for positive adult worm infection, suggesting diagnostic usefulness for adult d. immitis infection in cats.200515964689
increased rat alveolar macrophage expression of functional inos induced by a dirofilaria immitis immunoglobulin superfamily protein.dirofilaria immitis is a worldwide filarial nematode causing heartworm disease in dogs and cats. several mosquito species, which are able to feed both on humans and animals, can transmit this parasite. inflammatory progression of host tissues induced by parasites are mediated by several molecules, including nitric oxide (no), which usually exerts deleterious effects on parasites and occasionally on the host. we analyze the in vitro effect of total d. immitis adult worm somatic antigens on naïve ...200516172008
epidemiology of heartworm: what is happening in south america and mexico?canine heartworm has been known to exist in the americas for more than 150 years (1847), and the first south american report was published approximately 30 years later (1875). the first human case was reported in 1887 and the first feline case in 1921. coincidently, these two reports were from brazil, where most surveys of the disease during the past two decades have been conducted in dogs. feline cases are seldom found in the south american literature, although feline heartworm disease has been ...200516198820
safety of imidacloprid plus moxidectin topical solution applied to cats heavily infected with adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis).a topically applied formulation containing 10% imidacloprid+1% moxidectin (advocate/advantage multi) has been developed for monthly application to cats for the prevention of feline heartworm (hw) disease caused by dirofilaria immitis; and for the treatment and control of flea infestations, ear mite infestations, and intestinal nematode infections. a study model was designed to evaluate the safety of this product in cats harboring adult d. immitis infections. eighty adult cats (40 males/40 female ...200516228278
the chronic effects of experimental dirofilaria immitis infection in cats. 19873423460
hematologic and radiographic changes in cats after inoculation with infective larvae of dirofilaria immitis.hematologic and radiographic findings in 15 domestic cats inoculated with 25, 100, or 200 to 400 infective larvae of dirofilaria immitis and in 5 uninoculated cats were compared. eosinophilia and leukocytosis developed 3 to 5 months after inoculation; packed cell volume and hemoglobin values were similar for inoculated cats and controls. changes detected in radiographs of inoculated cats were: (1) increased visualization of the pulmonary arteries; (2) right-side cardiac enlargement; and (3) diff ...1976130366
pulmonary arterial disease in cats seropositive for dirofilaria immitis but lacking adult heartworms in the heart and determine the prevalence and severity of pulmonary arterial lesions in cats seropositive for heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) but lacking adult heartworms in the heart and lungs during necropsy.200516261827
2005 guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection in cats. 200516267885
detection of filarial parasites in domestic cats by pcr-rflp of its1.lymphatic filariasis has been targeted by the world health organization (who) to be eliminated by the year 2020. in addition to chemotherapy and vector control, the control of reservoir hosts is necessary for the control program to succeed. malayan filariasis, caused by brugia malayi, is endemic in the south of thailand where domestic cats serve as the major reservoir host. however, in nature, domestic cats also carry b. pahangi, dirofilaria immitis and d. repens infections and it is difficult t ...200616713099
nematodes from raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) introduced recently on yakushima island, japan.nematodes were collected from 14 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) on yakushima island, kagoshima prefecture (kyushu), japan, that were the progeny of recently introduced animals to this world natural heritage area, probably within the last 2 decades. seven nematode species (toxocara tanuki, ancylostoma kusimaense, arthrostoma miyazakiense, strongyloides planiceps, trichuris vulpis, gongylonema sp., and dirofilaria immitis) were collected from the raccoon dogs. two nematode spec ...200616891782
serologic survey of domestic felids in the petén region of guatemala.blood samples were analyzed from 30 domestic cats (felis domesticus) from the petén region of guatemala to determine the seroprevalence of common pathogens that may pose a potential risk to native wild felids. eight of the cats had been vaccinated previously; however, owners were unable to fully describe the type of vaccine and date of administration. in addition, blood samples were obtained from two captive margays (leopardus wiedii). samples were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficienc ...200517315469
attraction of mosquitoes to domestic cats in a heartworm enzootic region.heartworm disease is caused by a mosquito-borne parasite that can affect many different mammalian species and has worldwide distribution. the agent, dirofilaria immitis (leidy 1856), infect mainly dogs but feline infection have been frequently reported in the last decade. feline heartworm infection is difficult to detect, therefore, low reported prevalence could reflect true low prevalence or poor diagnostic efficiency. as mosquitoes are known to be attracted differently by different mammalian s ...200717383920
changes in the levels of eicosanoids in cats naturally and experimentally infected with dirofilaria immitis.feline heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection is a severe, life-threatening disease. the eicosanoids are lipid mediators derived from the metabolism of the arachidonic acid, involved in the regulation of the immune response and of inflammatory reactions. in this study, naturally infected cats showed significant higher levels of prostaglandin e(2) (pge2), thromboxane b(2) (txb(2)) and leukotriene b(4) (ltb4) than uninfected cats. changes in the levels of eicosanoids during the infection were o ...200717544219
canine and feline dirofilariasis: life cycle, pathophysiology, and diagnosis.infection with the intravascular parasite dirofilaria immitis is an increasingly recognized problem in domestic dogs and cats. heartworm infection is preventable; however, once an animal is infected, heartworm disease and potentially life-threatening complications can develop. an understanding of the heartworm life cycle and transmission season, the limitations of testing methods, and the clinical signs of heartworm disease is necessary to provide clients with appropriate information regarding p ...200818409140
dirofilaria immitis in cats: diagnosis and management.imaging and laboratory studies can help with the diagnosis of heartworm disease in cats, but no test is definitive. furthermore, even when the diagnosis can be reliably established, therapy directed at the heartworms does little to help the cat. rather, management is directed at alleviating clinical signs, with an emphasis on prevention for all.200818825639
echocardiographic quantification of dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected cats.the safety of heartworm preventives in heartworm-positive cats has traditionally been evaluated using adult dirofilaria immitis removed from infected dogs and surgically implanted into the cats. an alternate study model uses infective larvae to establish adult infections in cats. unfortunately, the number of adult worms resulting from the latter method varies widely from none to more than 30, both unacceptable for studies of natural heartworm infection and for studies evaluating product safety i ...200818926638
climate and dirofilaria infection in europe.climatic changes, together with an increase in the movement of cats and dogs across europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of several vector borne parasites like dirofilaria, and in the risk of infection for animals and humans. the present paper reviews the effects of climate and other global drivers on dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens infections in europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes. in the last sev ...200919398159
[dirofilaria immitis (leidy, 1856) in the neighborhood of a feline case: a study about the transmission].dirofilaria immitis preferably infects canids and can, in lower frequency, be found in cats (felis catus linnaeus, 1758). the parasite may be transmitted by various culicidae species. motivated by an autochtone feline heartworm case diagnosed in the region of engenho novo - rj (s 22 degrees 90' e wo 43 degrees 27'), the following issues were surveyed: 1) the local culicidae fauna and; 2) the ocurrence of microfilaremic dogs. the mosquito study was conducted from april 2003 through may 2004, by p ...200920040185
canine and feline vector-borne diseases in italy: current situation and italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, dipylidium caninum, leishmania infantum, dirofilaria immitis, and dirofilaria repens) are of zoonotic concern. recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors ...201020145730
identification of immunoreactive proteins of dirofilaria immitis and d. repens recognized by sera from patients with pulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilariosis.human pulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are worldwide diagnosed with increasing frequency. these species are responsible for the development of benign pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules, respectively, that can be confused with lung or cutaneous cancer. the aim of the present work was to identify d. immitis and d. repens proteins differentially recognized by serum samples from individuals with human pulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilari ...201020197111
heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection in a leopard (panthera pardus pardus) housed in a zoological park in north-eastern italy.abstract: canine heartworm (chw) disease is now recognised as potential cause of serious disease in cats and other felids, especially in endemic areas. in march 2009, a 23-years-old male african leopard (panthera pardus pardus) housed in a zoological park located in the province of padova (veneto region), a chw endemic area of the north-eastern italy, died and was immediately necropsied. a cloth completely occluding the pyloric lumen was considered the presumptive cause of death. during necropsy ...201020377859
production of monoclonal antibody against toxocara cati second-stage larvae and its application for the detection of circulating antigens.toxocariasis is an important zoonotic disease caused by the second-stage larvae of toxocara species. human toxocariasis is usually diagnosed by serological methods. we prepared monoclonal antibody specific for toxocara cati (t. cati) and performed the following experiments using this antibody to increase the sensitivity of our capture elisa for antigen detection. the isotype of monoclonal antibody was igg3. using this monoclonal antibody, a capture elisa was developed. the produced monoclonal an ...201020568996
the emerging role of wolbachia species in heartworm disease.heartworm disease was first recognized in dogs more than 100 years ago and is still prevalent among dogs and found in cats worldwide. the complications of heartworm disease can be devastating, and treatment carries risks. wolbachia spp are gram-negative bacteria that infect filarial nematodes, including dirofilaria immitis, and elicit an inflammatory response in cats and dogs. antimicrobial therapy directed against these bacteria has resulted in decreased microfilarial loads, inhibition of the d ...201020949416
understanding feline heartworm infection: disease, diagnosis, and treatment.feline heartworm disease is a very different clinical entity from canine heartworm disease. in cats, the arrival and death of immature heartworms in the pulmonary arteries can cause coughing and dyspnea as early as 3 months postinfection. adult heartworms suppress the function of pulmonary intravascular macrophages and thus reduce clinical disease in chronic feline heartworm infection. approximately 80% of asymptomatic cats self-cure. median survival time for symptomatic cats is 1.5 years, or 4 ...201021147476
prevalence of infectious diseases in cats and dogs rescued following hurricane determine the prevalence of infectious diseases of animal and zoonotic importance in cats and dogs rescued and transferred from the gulf coast region following hurricane katrina.201121281213
geographical information systems as a tool in the control of heartworm infections in dogs and cats.geospatial tools (e.g., geographical information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems, and virtual globes) are very useful for the simultaneous visualization of health data with environmental data, which holds promise to understand environmental-health linkages and to generate new hypotheses to be tested in future research. current epidemiological studies clearly show that the distribution patterns of vector-borne infections are changing; for example, in europe, heartworm infectio ...201121292404
structural and ultrastructural changes in the lungs of cats felis catus (linnaeus, 1758) experimentally infected with d. immitis (leidy, 1856).clinical signs are seldom observed in feline heartworm disease, and the pathophysiological changes in the lungs of infected animals remain undefined. the goal of this study was to evaluate the structural and ultrastructural changes in the lungs of cats experimentally infected with dirofilaria immitis. six healthy cats were each infected with two adult heartworms by intravenous transplantation (receptor group, rg). the control group consisted of two uninfected animals kept under the same conditio ...201121324593
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and dirofilaria immitis infections in egyptian cats.abstract toxoplasma gondii and bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus and human leukemia virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. in the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii , bartonella spp., fiv, as well as felv and dirofilaria immitis antigens was determined in sera from feral cats ( felis catus ) from cairo, egypt. using a modified ...201121506874
canine and feline infections by cardiopulmonary nematodes in central and southern italy.capillaria aerophila, aelurostrongylus abstrusus, angiostrongylus vasorum and dirofilaria immitis are cardiopulmonary nematodes affecting dogs and cats and presently emerging in several countries. the results obtained in 2009 - 2010 during a study aiming to investigate the occurrence of these nematodes in regions from central (marche and abruzzo regions - sites a and b, respectively) and southern (apulia - site c) italy are here reported. a total of 534 and 436 individual faecal samples collecte ...201121739378
prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in costa estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in san isidro de el general, costa rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for giardia and cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (ifa). giardia and cryptosporidium ifa positive samples were genotyped after pcr amplification of specific ...201121846585
survey of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from albania.albania is a country on the western part of the balkan peninsula. the mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in albania. however, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in albania is scarce.201424517118
a high resolution melting real time pcr for mapping of filaria infection in domestic cats living in brugian filariosis-endemic areas.we present here a real time pcr with high resolution melting (hrm) analysis for determining the prevalence and distribution of filarial species in domestic cats residing in brugian filariosis endemic areas of narathiwat province, thailand. filarial species can be clearly distinguished in a single well using a single pair of primers. blood samples were taken from a total of 2039 domestic cats living in endemic areas. microfilariae were detected in 5.7% of the sample, while the overall prevalence ...201424462253
rapid detection and identification of brugia malayi, b. pahangi, and dirofilaria immitis by high-resolution melting assay.human lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial worms such as brugia malayi for which the major reservoir is domestic cats. however, domestic cats or dogs also carry nonhuman filaria such as brugia pahangi and dirofilaria immitis. we have developed a single-tube, real-time pcr with a high-resolution melting (hrm) analysis assay for detection and identification of b. malayi, b. pahangi, and d. immitis in blood samples. the designated primer pair in the pcr can amplify a 114-bp region of mitochon ...201323199268
exposure to selected pathogens in to selected pathogens in geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central argentina.wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 geoffroy's cats (leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central argentina (lihué calel national park, la pampa, and campos del tuyú national park, buenos aires), as well as five domestic ca ...201223060491
pulmonary artery dissection causing haemothorax in a cat: potential role of dirofilaria immitis infection and literature review.a 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat suddenly died. gross examination revealed severe right-sided haemothorax with blood clots, four adult filarial nematodes in the blood clots and the caudal vena cava and haemorrhage dissecting into the tunica media of the right pulmonary artery. histopathological investigation showed fibrosis of the tunica intima and disorganization/fragmentation of the elastic fibres accompanied by fibrous tissue deposition in the tunica media of both branche ...201727780697
toxoplasma gondii, dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and feline leukemia virus (felv) infections in stray and pet cats (felis catus) in northwest china: co-infections and risk factors.this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasma gondii, dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and feline leukemia virus (felv) infections among stray and pet cats in lanzhou, northwest china, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. t. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (mat). the circulating antigens of d. immitis and felv and specific antibodies to fiv were examined using kits ...201626362646
seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and heartworm infection among owned cats in tropical mexico.several infectious agents may be distributed within a healthy population of cats where diverse risk factors predispose them to come into contact with pathogens. blood samples from 227 owned cats in merida, mexico, were collected with the objective of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of feline leukemia virus (felv) and dirofilaria immitis antigen, and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibody. serological detection of felv and d immitis antigens, and fiv antibodies wa ...201424196568
road killed carnivores illustrate the status of zoonotic helminthes in caspian sea littoral of iran.carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. the current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of guilan province north of iran.201728761483
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