insecticidal activity of propoxur- and carbaryl-impregnated flea collars against ctenocephalides felis.ten dogs were fitted with 10% propoxur-(0-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) and 10 dogs were fitted with 16% carbaryl-(1-naphthyl-n-methylcarbamate) impregnated flea collars. ten cats were fitted with carbaryl-impregnated flea collars. there were 5 control animal for each trial. insecticidal activity against experimental infestations with the cat flea (ctenocephalides felis) was evaluated. the propoxur collars on dogs reduced the flea populations by 90% within 2 days of infestation for at least ...1977407819
[infestation of the buildings of a large city with cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis felis bouche]. 1977604747
spectrophotometric method of quantifying adult cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) flea, ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché), feces are an essential part of larval nutrition under natural conditions. the mass values of adult flea feces can be measured by dissolving samples of flea feces in drabkin's reagent, filtering, centrifuging, and measuring absorbance spectrophotometrically at 540 nm. either flea feces or air-dried host blood can be used to generate the standard curve used to convert absorbance (optical density) values into mass values. debris collected from flea-in ...19921495033
susceptibility of the cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) to cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché), from two laboratory colonies (one originating in california and one from florida) were exposed to residues of eight pyrethroids to compare their susceptibilities. the florida strain was more tolerant than the california strain, with 6.8-, 5.2-, and 4.8-fold tolerance to cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fluvalinate, respectively. the florida strain showed less than 3-fold tolerance to the other five insecticides (permethrin, tralomethrin, d-phen ...19892754097
flea species from dogs and cats in north-central florida.fleas were identified after removal from 100 dogs and 60 cats following routine presentation at a veterinary hospital in gainesville, fl. ctenocephalides felis comprised 92.4% and 99.8% of the fleas taken from dogs and cats respectively. pulex irritans accounted for 7.5% of the fleas found on dogs and for 0.2% of those found on cats. echidnophagia gallinacia was found on one dog. of the 100 dogs, 80 were infested with c. felis alone, one with p. irritans alone, and 18 carried a mixed infestation ...19873564340
airborne insecticide residues after broadcast application for cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) control.airborne residues of chlorpyrifos, propetamphos, and permethrin were measured up to 50 h after broadcast treatment for cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), control in residences. type of insecticide, time after treatment, ventilation regime, and height above floor significantly affected airborne residues. before spraying chlorpyrifos, residues were low or undetected. in nonventilated residences, chlorpyrifos residues peaked 0-6 h after treatment at 38 ng/liter, then slowly declined through ...19958537544
mass flea outbreak at a child care facility: case fleas, ctenocephalides felis bouchet, were collected at a mississippi child care facility after reports of large numbers of adult fleas occurring on children and personnel. one building yielded 161 (99 percent) of the fleas collected. urticarial lesions due to flea bites occurred on the legs of six children. flea presence was due to cats occupying the crawl space. fleas were eradicated by eliminating entry of cats and using residual insecticides throughout the facility.19912003633
diel patterns of cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) egg and fecal deposition.the quantity of eggs and feces deposited by replicate populations of cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), from domestic house cats. felis catus, were recorded at 1-h intervals over a 24-h period, in a photoperiod of 12:12 (l:d) (photophase, 0600-1800 hours [est]). egg production averaged 23.96 +/- 0.83 eggs per female per day and was greatest from 2400 to 0300 hours and lowest from 0700 to 0900 hours and from 1700 to 1900 hours. daily fecal deposition was 0.77 +/- 0.03 mg feces per flea an ...19921495030
severe flea infestation in dairy investigation was conducted of a severe flea infestation in holstein dairy calves. inspection of the dairy revealed hundreds of cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis, on 23 calves, and thousands of fleas in the barn where the calves were housed. during the investigation, > 92,000 fleas were collected from the barn. the barn also was inhabited by 30 to 35 flea-infested domesticated and feral cats. several calves appeared emaciated, and analysis of blood samples from 10 calves revealed that 8 were a ...19938276708
reproductive strategies of the cat flea (siphonaptera:pulicidae): parthenogenesis and autogeny?the objective of this study was to determine if there is evidence of parthenogenesis or autogenous reproduction in the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouché). to examine parthenogenesis, 400 newly eclosed virgin female fleas were collected from a laboratory colony and 100 were placed into each of 4 feeding cages and fed bovine blood through a parafilm membrane. three of the feeding cages were monitored for egg production for 7 d and each group of 100 virgin female fleas produced an average 1,1 ...19968667386
allergenicity of the cat flea (ctenocephalides felis felis)adult fleas, spent and unspent culture media were extracted and the radio-allergosorbent test (rast) performed with sera of 48 cat flea skin test-positive individuals from the tampa bay area of florida. sixteen sera (33.6%) had a positive rast to the cat flea extract prepared in our laboratory [1.7-11.4% of the total counts (tc) added]. six of the 16 sera (12.5%) also contained specific ige to allergens in the spent medium (0.8-3.3% tc). the allergen composition and strength were studied by rast ...19938334536
[domestic cats as a source of human flea infestations in towns].during the summer and autumn periods of 1990-1992 a periodic massive incidence, infestation as well as parasitization of humans with flea ctenocephalides felis were recorded in the basements of flat blocks in the central area of kosice. the urban population of domestic cats served as a source of the infestation. the dark field examination of fleas for the presence of borrelias revealed negative results.19938306402
salivary antigens of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis.the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis, is the major cause of flea bite hypersensitivity (fbh) in dogs and cats, yet little progress has been reported on identifying the antigens responsible. we obtained flea salivary antigens by washing secretions from containers probed by the mouthparts of fleas, and by extracting whole flea salivary glands. mice were exposed to feeding fleas to generate antibodies to salivary antigens injected in vivo. the sera were tested for antibodies against the saliva ...19979121836
involvement of dogs in plague epidemiology in tanzania. serological observations in domestic animals in lushoto district.venous blood was collected aseptically from clinically healthy domestic dogs, goats, sheep, cats and fowl in various plague-infected villages of lushoto district, tanzania, at the time when the disease was actively prevalent in the area. flea ectoparasites were collected from the animals, processed, identified and counted. serum samples were tested for specific plague antibodies, using the passive haemagglutination technique and checked by passive haemagglutination inhibition tests. altogether 3 ...19938248751
review of insecticide resistance in cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae).insecticide resistance often is blamed for failures of insecticides to control cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché). yet the genetics and adaptive advantage of resistance traits remain unexamined. lethal doses of insecticides that kill 50% of the population fluctuate 7-fold within a cat flea strain. many reports of flea resistance may be attributable to variable mortality from effects of solvents, substrates, humidities, temperatures, colonization, and ages of fleas. resistance ratios (rati ...19989701921
antifeeding effect of several insecticidal formulations against ctenocephalides felis on cats.evaluation of insecticidal activity of flea products is generally based on counting live fleas in the animal's coat 24 and 48 hours following artificial infestation. this approach, however, does not allow to specify whether the fleas have had the opportunity to bite and take a bloodmeal prior to their death. to address this question, 30 cats were alloted to six groups of five animals. each cat was housed in a separate cage. at day 0, each group of cats received a single treatment as follows: gro ...19989754302
molecular identification of rickettsia-like microorganisms associated with colonized cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis).cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) from eight commercial flea colonies from various regions of the usa were examined by selective pcr amplification, and subsequent restriction digest analysis and southern hybridization of pcr products, for the presence of a rickettsia-like organism (elb agent). these flea colonies were either started with fleas from one supplier (el labs), in which elb agent was first identified, or were started with fleas from stray cats and dogs and later came into contact with ...19948069413
evaluation of a single oral dose of lufenuron to control flea infestations in dogs.a single dose of lufenuron was administered to dogs to test its efficacy in controlling cat flea (ctenocephalides felis) infestations for at least 30 days. efficacy measurements revealed marked differences in the reproduction capability of fleas collected from dogs in the treatment vs the control group. essentially, all of the eggs collected from dogs treated with lufenuron were unable to develop into normal adult fleas. conversely, in the control group, 68.6% of the flea eggs developed into nor ...19947944022
oral toxicity of boric acid and other boron compounds to immature cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae).oral toxicity was characterized in first-instar cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché), feeding on dried blood treated with boric acid. lc50 values ranged from 2.11% after 24 h to 0.21% after 7 d. in carpet tests with five different boron compounds and a number of different formulations, significant mortality for first instars was observed in all cases. in similar tests with prepupae and cocoons, there was no significant effect on mortality. the importance of these results is discussed ...19947836612
species of flea found on cats and dogs in south west england: further evidence of their polyxenous state and implications for flea control.fleas were collected from 60 dogs and 32 cats living in south west england. ctenocephalides felis felis and ctenocephalides canis were found on both dogs and cats, with a marked preponderance of c felis felis on both species. more female fleas than males were found. there was no apparent tendency for c canis to be found more often in rural areas than in suburban areas. the survey confirmed the polyxenous nature of both species of flea. the significance of this state is discussed in relation to f ...19957610540
toxicity of six insecticides to the cat flea. 19685659017
toxicity of d-limonene, the major component of citrus peel oil, to all life stages of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae). 19863735346
ectoparasitic and phoretic arthropods of virginia opossums (didelphis virginiana) in central tennessee.thirteen species of ectoparasitic (12) or phoretic (1) arthropods were collected from 26 adult virginia opossums, didelphis virginiana, live-trapped from april through september 1987 in davidson county, tennessee. the cat flea ctenocephalides felis and the american dog tick dermacentor variabilis were the predominant species with respect to mean intensity and prevalence. the macronyssid mite ornithonyssus wernecki and the atopomelid mite didelphilichus serrifer, both specific parasites of this h ...19902380870
blood consumption by the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae).the volume of blood consumed by actively reproducing female cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), while feeding in confinement feeding chambers on cats for 3 h, was investigated using two radionuclide blood tags (51cr-erythrocyte and 125i-albumin) and the gravimetric method. female fleas consumed an average of 0.110 ml (+/- 0.026 ml) of blood per 100 females in 3 h as determined using the dual radionuclide system. the single 51cr-erythrocyte tag overestimated blood consumption by 11.3% and ...19911875365
efficacy of diflubenzuron in simulated household and yard conditions against the cat flea ctenocephalides felis (bouché) (siphonoptera: pulicidae).diflubenzuron-treated carpet inhibited egg-to-adult development of the cat flea for up to 12 mo even with weekly vacuuming of the carpet. the efficacy of diflubenzuron was similar in treated soils over a 6-mo test period except in the case of treated soil that remained outside. reduced efficacy is attributed to degradation of diflubenzuron by microorganisms and water.19938510122
avermectins and flea control: structure-activity relationships and the selection of selamectin for development as an endectocide for companion animals.evaluation of a wide range of avermectin derivatives for flea activity in an in vitro feeding screen using the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, revealed a narrow structure-activity relationship (sar) with activity surprisingly associated with monosaccharides and especially their c-5-oximes. we discovered commercially exploitable flea activity in a single compound, selamectin 33, which also possessed the necessary antiparasitic spectrum and margin of safety for development as a broad-spectrum com ...200011003146
experimental murine typhus infection in the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae). 19846502625
survival and reproduction of artificially fed cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis bouché (siphonaptera: pulicidae). 19883392715
mortality in calves, lambs and kids caused by severe infestation with the cat flea ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché, 1835) in israel.heavy infestation of calves, lambs and kids with the cat flea ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché, 1835), accompanied by severe anaemia and mortality, is described. lambs and kids were affected more severely than calves. flea infestation was more widespread in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. the clinical findings are discussed in the light of the pertinent literature.19892728326
on-host viability and fecundity of ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae), using a novel chambered flea technique.the on-host viability and fecundity of cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), confined within a novel chambering system are described. using this system, all fleas and flea eggs are recovered from chambers after fleas have fed on cats. thus, accurate calculations of both adult flea survival and female flea fecundity can be made. the technique provides a microenvironment in which adult fleas exhibit > 90% survival over 14 d. female fleas lay an average of 9.5 eggs per day on the 2nd d of feed ...19968742530
cat flea (ctenocephalides felis) infestation in quarantined marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) populations.marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) were captured for a research program in brazil and maintained in quarantine stations. after 60 days, fleas were detected on animals and identified as ctenocephalides felis felis. elimination of the infestation was difficult. animal treatment with a fipronil-based compound was effective, and subsequently captured animals were treated prophylactically. some animals remained infested, and some died from the infestation.200011428409
experimental transmission of bartonella henselae by the cat flea.bartonella henselae is an emerging bacterial pathogen, causing cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis. cats bacteremic with b. henselae constitute a large reservoir from which humans become infected. prevention of human infection depends on elucidation of the natural history and means of feline infection. we studied 47 cattery cats in a private home for 12 months to determine the longitudinal prevalence of b. henselae bacteremia, the prevalence of b. henselae in the fleas infesting these ...19968818889
evaluation of flea control strategies using fipronil on cats in a controlled simulated home environment.three groups of six cats were kept in similar carpeted pens in which a self-replicating population of ctenocephalides felis had been established. one group was left untreated, but the other groups were treated every 28th day with 0.5 ml of a 10 per cent fipronil spot-on formulation, and the cats in one of the treated groups also wore a methoprene collar. no fleas were found on any of the treated cats, either during the first 13 weeks of the study, when heavy flea burdens were developing in the c ...19989587197
effect of temperature and the synergist piperonyl butoxide on imidacloprid toxicity to the cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae).the toxicity of imidacloprid to cat fleas on glass was investigated at 20, 26, 30, and 35 degrees c. imidacloprid was most toxic to adult cat fleas at 35 degrees c and to larvae at 20 degrees c. piperonyl butoxide (pbo), a synergist, increased the relative potency of imidacloprid (1:5 imidacloprid:pbo) 16-fold at 26 degrees c against adults, but had no effect at 35 degrees c. no synergism occurred in larvae at 20 degrees c, but addition of pbo (1:5 imidacloprid:pbo) doubled toxicity at 26 degree ...199910582048
larvicidal effects of boric acid and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate to cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae).borate products varied in efficacy against larval cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis felis bouché, with some effective at rates of 23 micrograms/cm2 when larvae were exposed to the compounds in sand. powdered boric acid, granular boric acid, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (polybor) at rates of 200 micrograms/cm2 produced < or = 90% mortality of larvae exposed in carpet for 96 h. lc50 values of larvae exposed in treated carpets for 96 h were 23 micrograms/cm2 for powdered boric acid, 40 micro ...19957650701
factors influencing sperm transfer and insemination in cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) fed on an artificial membrane system.sperm transfer through the epididymis, a prerequisite for insemination of cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché) was stimulated by exposure of unfed male fleas to juvenile hormone iii residues for 3 d at 25 degrees c or exposure of unfed fleas to 37 degrees c for 6 d. sperm transfer was completed at least three times faster in unfed males held at 37 degrees c than in those held at 25 degrees c. although percentage sperm transfer in fleas fed water or 0.15 m saline at 37 degrees c was not sign ...200212061443
interhost movement of adult cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae).adult cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), marked with orange-red or green fluorescent dye were released on one cat to study movement to another cat over a 7-d period. when the cats were separated, 3-8% of the marked fleas moved to the other cat. when the cats were allowed to remain together, 2-15% of the fleas moved. the percentage of fleas unaccounted for ranged from 8-47%. when both cats lived together, 8-15% movement occurred no matter which cat was infested. the percentage of female a ...19948057325
effects of larval nutrition on the postembryonic development of ctenocephalides felis felis (siphonaptera:pulicidae).dry blood from mammals and birds was used as larval diet for the development of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché), in the laboratory. diets that contained host blood and cornmeal heated at 40 degrees c for 30 min were inadequate for most larvae to form pupae. development time from 1st instar to adult ranged from 30 to 33 d. except for the diet containing mastomys blood, the diets that consisted of blood alone from other hosts air dried at room temperature contained sufficient nu ...19979220685
characterization of apyrase activity from the salivary glands of the cat flea ctenocephalides felis.apyrase activity (atp diphosphohydrolase, ec was detected in salivary glands of the cat flea ctenocephalides felis. whole extracts of salivary glands contain approximately 21 ng of protein, 145 u/mg adp'ase and 158 u/mg atp'ase activity; amp is not hydrolysed by salivary gland extracts. deae-sepharose cl-6b anion exchange chromatography, and cibacron blue affinity chromatography each give a single coincident peak of adp/atp'ase activity. biogel p-100 gel filtration of salivary gland hom ...19989887518
topical application as a method for comparing the effectiveness of insecticides against cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae).a topical (micro-droplet) bioassay is described for the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouche). key parameters are the short carbon dioxide anesthetization and the use of 0.1 ml of acetone per flea. the method was used to compare the effectiveness of 13 insecticides. ld95 values in nanograms per flea were nitenpyram 0.68, fipronil 0.69, deltamethrin 0.70, imidacloprid 0.81, cypermethrin 5.4, fenthion 8.0, diazinon 12, permethrin 19, malathion 29, bendiocarb 170, ddt 710, propoxur 1,300, carbar ...200111296822
egg production, larval development, and adult longevity of cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) exposed to cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché), on cats (felis catus) were exposed to emissions from an ultrasonic flea collar worn by the cat. no significant differences were found in total numbers of eggs produced per day (mean = 524 control, 614 treatment), in length of larval development time (mean = 7.7 d control, 7.7 d treatment), or in total daily pupal production (mean = 485 control, 445 treatment) between the treatment and the control groups. tests off the host were conducted to ...19902280050
effects of azadirachtin on ctenocephalides felis in the dog and the cat.azadirachtin-containing neem seed extract is a powerful insect growth regulator, a feeding deterrent and repellent with low toxicity. unfortunately, azadirachtin degrades rapidly in light, excessive heat or alkalinity. evaluations of azadirachtin on ectoparasites on animals have been scarce. the purpose of this work was to describe the effects of normal and potentiated azadirachtin on ctenocephalides felis in the dog or cat. groups of kennelled greyhounds and domestic cats infested with c. felis ...19989561713
notes on the cat flea in puerto rico. 195313040671
nolleria pulicis n. gen., n. sp. (microsporida: chytridiopsidae), a microsporidian parasite of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae).a new species of microsporidium, nolleria pulicis, is described and named here from the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis. the genus nolleria is created and placed within the family chytridiopsidae. the family is slightly modified to accommodate certain features of intracellular development seen in n. pulicis, which is otherwise very similar to other species in the family chytridiopsidae. sporulation is described from ultrastructural analysis of infected midgut epithelial cells of adult c. felis. ...19902319492
inhibition of immature ctenocephalides felis felis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) development in the immediate environment of cats treated with imidacloprid.the hypothesis that dermally applied imidacloprid may transfer from treated cats, felis catus l., to their immediate environment in quantities sufficient to have a significant effect on developing immature cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), was tested in a controlled experiment. flea eggs harvested from untreated donor cats were incubated on replicated samples from blankets used by treated or untreated cats under standardized conditions. as compared with controls, the percentage of adult ...200010730492
effects of juvenile hormone on eggs and adults of the cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae).juvenile hormone iii plays a major role in regulating feeding and reproduction in the adult cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouché). both blood consumption and egg production increased in a dose-dependent manner up to a maximum at 1,250 ppm when fleas were continuously exposed to concentrations up to 12,500 ppm juvenile hormone. histological studies demonstrated that juvenile hormone iii also stimulated cellular differentiation of salivary gland epithelia, midgut epithelia, and fat body cells, ...200111268696
prevalence of vectors of the spotted fever group rickettsiae and murine typhus in a bedouin town in israel.a survey of the vectors of spotted fever group rickettsiae and of murine typhus was carried out in rahat, a bedouin town in the negev desert, where the diseases are endemic. houses with known cases of spotted fever group rickettsiae or murine typhus were compared with those without reported clinical cases. a neighboring jewish community, lehavim, where no cases of spotted fever group rickettsiae and murine typhus were reported in recent years, was used as a control. in the houses of patients wit ...200111372975
[bartonellosis: emerging infection].the spectrum of bartonella infections in humans shows a constant increase. the number of bartonella species responsible of zoonoses has increased from one to 7 during the past ten years. in addition numerous orphan clinical manifestations are now associated to bartonella henselae infections. animals and particularly domestic cat are the main reservoirs of bartonella. cats are healthy carriers of b. henselae and b. clarridgeiae, and can be bacteremic for months to years. cat-to-cat transmission o ...200415673067
temephos collars for control of fleas on dogs and cats.efficacy of polyvinyl chloride collars containing temephos [0,0'-(thiodi-4,1-phenylene) 0,0,0',0'-tetramethyl bis-(phosphorothioate)] was elevaluated in dogs and cats against the cat flea (ctenocephalides felis). over a period of 42 weeks, collared (treated) and control dogs were experimentally infested with 100 fleas 23 times, and control and treated cats were similarly infested 20 times during a 41-week period. flea populations on treated dogs were reduced by 80% or more for at least 36 weeks. ...1977911087
the effects of flea egg consumption on larval cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) flea larvae feeding on the feces of adult fleas that were maintained on cats and were provided with frozen flea eggs ad libitum each consumed an average of 21.7 +/- 3.9 eggs and developed rapidly with 100% adult emergence. in contrast, 93.4% of larvae held individually and provided with only flea feces did not survive to the adult stage. developing larvae consumed eggs in the presence of yeast and rearing diet. in a second experiment, larvae provided with flea feces and eggs and maintained a ...200010925802
evaluation of experimental transmission of candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum and mycoplasma haemofelis by ctenocephalides felis to determine whether ctenocephalides felis can transmit mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum (mhm) through hematophagous activity between cats.200516008224
host grooming efficiency for regulation of cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) populations.grooming efficiency was studied by infesting domestic short-hair cats, felis catus l., with known numbers of cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis felis bouché, then collecting the cat feces and extracting the fleas to determine how many had been groomed off, varying the infestation level. some hosts were found to be significantly more efficient at grooming fleas than others, with the best groomer removing 17.6% of its flea burden daily, compared with only 4.1% removed by the poorest groomer. cats we ...19989615545
dose selection of selamectin for efficacy against adult fleas (ctenocephalides felis felis) on dogs and cats.selamectin, a novel avermectin, was evaluated in two controlled studies (one in beagles, one in domestic shorthaired cats) to determine an appropriate topical dose for efficacy against adult ctenocephalides felis felis (c. felis) fleas on dogs and cats for 1 month. for each study, animals were allocated randomly to four treatments. one treatment consisted of the inert formulation ingredients (vehicle) administered as a negative control, and the other three treatments consisted of a single topica ...200010940520
efficacy of permethrin in controlling the australian paralysis tick ixodes holocyclus and the cat flea ctenocephalides felis on dogs. 19948198516
efficacy of selamectin in the treatment and prevention of flea (ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations on dogs and cats housed in simulated home environments.the efficacy of selamectin, a novel avermectin, in protecting dogs and cats against experimentally induced environmental flea (ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations, was evaluated in a series of controlled and masked studies. purpose-bred shorthaired cats and beagles were randomly allocated to treatment with either selamectin at a minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1) of body weight in the commercial formulation or the negative control treatment (vehicle only), and housed in controlled simulated home ...200010940523
evaluation of the comparative efficacy of selamectin against flea (ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations on dogs and cats in simulated home environments.the comparative efficacy of monthly administration of selamectin or lufenuron against ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs and cats was evaluated over a 5-month period in flea-infested environments. twenty-four dogs and 32 cats were randomly allocated to receiving a topical treatment with selamectin or an oral administration of tablets containing lufenuron/milbemycin oxime (for dogs) or lufenuron only (for cats). each product was administered in accordance with the manufacturer's label recommenda ...200212031818
attempted transmission of candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum and mycoplasma haemofelis by feeding cats infected ctenocephalides determine whether mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum (mhm) can be transmitted by ingestion of mycoplasma-infected ctenocephalides felis and by-products (feces, larvae, and eggs).200616506915
insecticide susceptibilities of cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) from several regions of the united states.eleven cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouchè), strains, seven field-collected and four laboratory-colonized, were assayed for susceptibilities to five insecticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, permethrin, and pyrethrin) with an insecticide-treated, horizontally-oriented, nylon 6,6 disk in a test tube. the pyrethrin was synergized using piperonyl butoxide (pbo). flea mortality at two doses was recorded after 4 and 24 h exposures. the field strains from texas and florida tolerated carbary ...200212349857
evaluation of imidacloprid for the treatment and prevention of cat flea (ctenocephalides felis felis) infestations on rabbits. 200111425257
insect allantoinase: cdna cloning, purification, and characterization of the native protein from the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis.allantoinase catalyses the hydrolysis of allantoin to allantoic acid. this reaction is a step in the purine degradation pathway, which produces nitrogenous waste for excretion. a cdna encoding full-length allantoinase was cloned from a ctenocephalides felis hindgut and malpighian tubule (hmt) cdna library. the cdna encoded a 483 amino acid protein that had 43% identity with the bullfrog rana catesbeiana allantoinase and contained the conserved histidine and aspartic acid residues required for zi ...200414871617
control of ctenocephalides felis on dogs and cats using the insect growth regulator (or chitin synthesis inhibitor) lufenuron program, in egypt.lufenuron, the chitin synthesis inhibitor (program, novartis-switzerland) was given orally at doses of 10-mg/kg b/w to dogs and 30-mg/kg b/w to cats every four weeks (monthly) for the treatment of experimental flea infestations. three to four weeks after the last infestation, lufenuron had effectively controlled the ct. felis infestation of dogs and cats as the drug prevented the development of the offspring of adult female fleas feeding on animals. flea populations were absent or very low and r ...200212049275
comparative evaluation of juvenoids for control of cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in topsoil.the efficacy of a photostable formulation of methoprene and two photostable juvenoids, fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen, and their residual activity in inhibiting the emergence of adult cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), was studied in topsoil. nursery pots composed of clay, peat, and plastic, and wooden flats were used to hold soil samples. treated soil samples were exposed to sunlight during the 63-d study period. methoprene was as effective as fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen against cat fleas ...200212495188
accumulation and persistence of flea larvicidal activity in the immediate environment of cats treated with investigate the persistence of flea larvicidal activity in the immediate environment of cats treated with imidacloprid, eggs of the cat flea ctenocephalides felis felis bouché (siphonaptera: pulicidae), from untreated donor cats, were incubated on samples of fleece blanket taken from the floor of cages used by treated or untreated cats for a total of 10 or 20 6-h periods over 2-4 weeks, respectively. sufficient imidacloprid accumulated during these periods to reduce the emergence of adult fle ...200111583454
identification, characterization, and cloning of an immunoglobulin degrading enzyme in the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis.the degradation of cat immunoglobulin g (igg) in blood-fed adult c. felis midguts was examined. sds-page analysis of dissected midgut extracts obtained from c. felis that had been blood fed for various times between 0 to 44 h revealed that by 24 h most of the high molecular weight proteins, including the heavy chain of igg, were digested. a 31-kda serine protease with igg degrading activity was purified from fed c. felis midguts by benzamidine affinity chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chr ...200212386841
emergence, survival, and fecundity of adult cat fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) exposed as pupae to juvenile hormone flea, ctenocephalides felis felis (bouché), adults exposed to sprays of methoprene, pyriproxyfen, or fenoxycarb as cocooned pupae emerged approximately 1 d earlier than adults from water-treated control pupae. mortality of adult fleas, after exposure to juvenile hormone mimics as pupae, was increased over that of controls. females had higher mortality than males within the first 48 h of feeding. fecundity of females exposed as pupae to juvenile hormone mimics was not different from that of c ...199910593080
rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of são paulo, brazil.this study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of são paulo. eight flea species (adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, ctenocephalides felis felis, polygenis atopus, polygenis rimatus, polygenis roberti roberti, polygenis tripus, rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi), and five tick species (amblyomma aureolatum, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma dubitatum, ixodes loricatus, and rhipicephalus sanguineus) were ...200718094887
susceptibility to insect growth regulators and cuticle deposition of the cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) as a function of age.wandering larval, pharate pupal, pupal, and pharate adult stages of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), were identified by examination of cuticular cross sections via scanning electron microscopy. visible morphological characteristics of each stage were identified and described. various stages of the flea throughout metamorphosis were exposed to juvenile hormone mimics and insect developmental inhibitors. wandering larvae treated with juvenile hormone mimics were unable to pupate, wher ...199910593081
a comparative evaluation of the speed of kill and duration of efficacy against weekly infestations with fleas on cats treated with fipronil-(s)-methoprene or formulations of metaflumizone and a combination of fipronil-(s)-methoprene were evaluated in adult cats to determine the duration of 24- and 48-hour efficacy and short-term speed of kill against adult cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis felis. speed of kill efficacies (at 12, 18, 24, and 48 hours) were assessed against existing (day -1) infestations and against infestations at day 7, and efficacy was assessed 24 and 48 hours after weekly flea infestations through day 42. cats treated with f ...200818597248
rickettsia felis in fleas, germany.among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in germany, rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). r. helvetica was detected in 1 ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea).200818680660
ownership of cats or dogs does not increase exposure to rickettsia the united states, murine typhus (rickettsia typhi) is endemic in southern california and south texas. evidence indicates the natural host/vector system is the opossum and cat flea, the most common flea on both cats and dogs, and speculation suggests that pet contact may pose a risk for r typhi exposure. serum from 140 subjects was tested for rickettsial antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that used an r typhi antigen. each subject was asked about pet contact status and placed ...200212073903
effects of a new insect growth regulator, cga-255'728, on the different stages of the cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae).a new juvenile hormone mimic cca-255'728, developed by novartis, was tested for its efficacy on different life stages of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouché). the compound was mixed in bovine blood at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ppb and fed to adult fleas using an artificial membrane system. less than 7% of the eggs from fleas fed 10 and 100 ppb hatched, compared with >70% hatch in eggs laid by control fleas or fleas fed 1 ppb. histological studies demonstrated that approximately 50 ...200015218918
therapy and prevention of parasitic insects in veterinary medicine using imidacloprid.ectoparasitic insects play a major role in veterinary medicine. the flea, especially the cat flea (ctenocephalides felis felis bouch 1835) is the most important ectoparasite worldwide. the cat flea parasitizes not only on dogs and cats but also on other warm-blooded animals including humans. the veterinary importance of flea infestation are dermatological conditions due to allergic reactions to antigens in the flea saliva and the transmission of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses and helm ...200212052186
identification of two cdnas encoding synaptic vesicle protein 2 (sv2)-like proteins from epithelial tissues in the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis.two distinct cdnas that appear to encode proteins in the synaptic vesicle-2 (sv2) family were identified as expressed sequence tags from a ctenocephalides felis hindgut and malpighian tubule (hmt) cdna library. to date, sv2 proteins have been described only in vertebrates, and have been detected only in synaptic vesicles in neuronal and endocrine tissues, where they are thought to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. the cdnas for the c. felis sv2-like proteins svlp-1 and svlp-2 encode predicte ...200415157223
a survey of ectoparasitic arthropods on domestic animals in tak province, july 2008 a survey of ectoparasites on domestic animals was conducted in the royal thai army areas of operation along the thai-myanmar border, tak province, thailand. eleven different ectoparasites were collected: two species of hard ticks (ixodidae), three species of fleas (siphonaptera) and 6 species of sucking or chewing lice (2 species each in the suborders anoplura, ischnocera and amblycera) were collected. domestic dogs (canis lupusfamiliaris) (n = 94) were found infested with 2 species ...200919842427
efficacy of three dose volumes of topically applied 65% permethrin against ctenocephalides felis and rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs weighing 30 kg or more.twenty-five dogs were evenly and randomly allocated by weight to five treatment groups: untreated control, 2 ml 65% permethrin (dogs weighing 15 to 29 kg, "average dogs"), and 2, 3, or 4 ml 65% permethrin (dogs weighing > or = 30 kg, "big dogs"). each dog was infested with 125 unfed, adult cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis, and 50 unfed, adult brown dog ticks, rhipicephalus sanguineus, on days -3 (ticks only), -2 (fleas only), 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, 24, and 28. fleas and ticks were counted 1 and 3 or ...200212584681
rickettsia felis infection rates in an east texas population.murine typhus (rickettsia typhi), endemic in southern california and south texas, is maintained within a host-vector system consisting of the opossum and cat flea. in the early 1990s, a second rickettsial species, rickettsia felis, was also found to be maintained within the opossum-cat flea system and is, in fact, found more commonly than r. typhi in the opossum and cat flea. recognized as a human pathogen in 1994, r. felis causes an infection that produces symptoms indistinguishable from classi ...200516130886
disposition of 3h-selamectin and 3h-ivermectin in the brain of the cat flea ctenocephalides felis felis using micro-image addition to intrinsic potency and metabolic stability, the disposition of an antiparasitic drug within the target parasite plays a major role in determining drug activity. a novel technique that allows the disposition of radiolabelled drugs to be visualised within the body of the cat flea (ctenocephalides felis felis) is described. the concentrations of two macrocyclic lactones, (3)h-selamectin and (3)h-ivermectin, within the supra- and sub-oesophageal ganglia of the flea brain following in v ...200515941623
evidence of horizontal transmission of feline leukemia virus by the cat flea ( ctenocephalides felis).the feline leukemia virus (felv) is a naturally occurring and widespread retrovirus among domestic cats. the virus is mainly transmitted horizontally through saliva, blood and other body fluids by close contact between cats. vectors other than cats, e.g. blood-sucking parasites, have not been reported. this study tested the vector potential of the cat flea ( ctenocephalides felis) for felv. in a first feeding, fleas were fed for 24 h with blood from a felv-infected cat with persistent viremia. f ...200314557874
efficacy of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 1% (advocate/advantage multi) against fleas (ctenocephalides felis felis) on ferrets (mustela putorius furo).ferrets (mustela putorius furo) are becoming increasingly popular as pets and are kept in households with other pet animals such as dogs and cats, from which they may catch flea infestations with the predominant flea species ctenocephalides felis. in this study, the efficacy of imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on (advocate/advantage multi) was investigated in the therapy and prevention of flea infestation in ferrets. sixteen adult ferrets of varying weights and ages and of both sexes were included. ...200818386063
feline advantage heart (imidacloprid and moxidectin) topical solution as monthly treatment for prevention of heartworm infection (dirofilaria immitis) and control of fleas (ctenocephalides felis) on cats. 200312928881
what's eating you? cat flea (ctenocephalides felis), part 1: clinical features and role as a disease vector. 201020540412
new methods and strategies for monitoring susceptibility of fleas to current flea control products.a flea larval bioassay was developed by an international team of scientists to monitor the susceptibility of fleas (ctenocephalides felis) to imidacloprid (advantage, bayer healthcare). the assay was validated using laboratory and field isolates of c. felis. flea eggs representing different field isolates of c. felis were collected by veterinarians in the united states, united kingdom, and germany. of the 972 flea isolates obtained during the 5-year study, 768 contained sufficient numbers of egg ...200616871490
real-time and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reactions for the detection of bartonella henselae within cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, samples.bartonella henselae (rhizobiales: bartonellacae), the agent of cat-scratch disease, is an emerging bacterial pathogen which can be transmitted via infective faecal material of ctenocephalides felis bouché (siphonaptera: pulicidae). worldwide, b. henselae has been identified in 1-53% of felines and 2.9-17.4% of fleas. although culture is the routine method for detection, the procedure is time-consuming and is rarely used for isolation directly from flea vectors. the current study reports the deve ...201020704655
effect of pyriproxyfen in the blood diet of cat fleas on adult survival, egg viability, and larval development.the activity of pyriproxyfen in the blood diet was investigated for its efficacy against adult, egg, and larval stages of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouché). adult fleas were housed in plastic cages and fed treated bovine blood using an artificial membrane system that allows fleas to feed ad libitum through a parafilm membrane. control fleas received blood without pyriproxyfen. results showed that ingested pyriproxyfen was relatively nontoxic to adult fleas over a period of 10 d at con ...200010916290
the effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of a pyriprole 12.5% topical solution against brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) and cat flea (ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs.the efficacy of a single treatment with a 12.5% pyriprole spot-on formulation against induced infestations with r. sanguineus ticks and cat fleas (c. felis) as well as its persistence after repeated washing and shampooing was investigated in four separate studies. in a first study on r. sanguineus involving 32 beagle dogs, the efficacy at various time-points during the 30 days that followed treatment assessed 48 h after re-infestation ranged from 100% to 99.3%. no engorged ticks, alive or dead, ...200818061355
an insight into the sialome of the oriental rat flea, xenopsylla cheopis (rots).the salivary glands of hematophagous animals contain a complex cocktail that interferes with the host hemostasis and inflammation pathways, thus increasing feeding success. fleas represent a relatively recent group of insects that evolved hematophagy independently of other insect orders.200717437641
confirmation of the efficacy of a novel formulation of metaflumizone plus amitraz for the treatment and control of fleas and ticks on dogs.a novel spot-on formulation containing metaflumizone plus amitraz (promeris/promeris duo for dogs, fort dodge animal health, overland park, ks) was evaluated in four laboratory studies to confirm efficacy against fleas and ticks on dogs for 1 month. three different strains of cat flea (ctenocephalides felis felis) and four tick species were used. rhipicephalus sanguineus and dermacentor variabilis were evaluated concurrently in two studies and ixodes scapularis and amblyomma americanum in one st ...200717923330
detection and identification of bartonella sp. in fleas from carnivorous mammals in andalusia, spain.a total of 559 fleas representing four species (pulex irritans, ctenocephalides felis, ctenocephalides canis and spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five iberian lynx lynx pardinus, six european wildcat felis silvestris, 10 common genet genetta genetta, three eurasian badger meles meles, 22 red fox vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in andalusia, southern spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for bartonella infection in an assay ba ...200919941605
transcription of the rickettsia felis ompa gene in naturally infected fleas.rickettsia felis is maintained transovarially in ctenocephalides felis fleas in a widespread geographic distribution and is transmitted to humans and animals, including opossums. this rickettsia is phylogenetically a member of the spotted fever group, most closely related to rickettsia akari and r. australis. an unusual feature of this rickettsia is that the gene for the outer membrane protein a (ompa) is interrupted by stop codons. to determine if this putatively dying gene is expressed, mrna w ...200516222005
ectoparasites of dogs and cats in hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around tirana, albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. the dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (december-february), spring (march-may), and summer (june-august); the cats were examined in late autumn (november). in addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. the arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick spe ...200919690887
fleatickrisk: a meteorological model developed to monitor and predict the activity and density of three tick species and the cat flea in europe.mathematical modelling is quite a recent tool in epidemiology. geographical information system (gis) combined with remote sensing (data collection and analysis) provide valuable models, but the integration of climatologic models in parasitology and epidemiology is less common. the aim of our model, called "fleatickrisk", was to use meteorological data and forecasts to monitor the activity and density of some arthropods. our parasitological model uses the weather research and forecasting (wrf) me ...200919908193
experimental quantification of the feline leukaemia virus in the cat flea (ctenocephalides felis) and its fleas (ctenocephalides felis) were fed via artificial membranes and infected with the feline leukaemia virus (felv) from cell cultures. after removing the fleas from the blood source, the quantity of virus in the flea and its faeces was measured over a defined period of time. the virus was detectable in the fleas for up to 30 h at room temperature and up to 115 h at 4 degrees c. in the faeces, the amount of virus decreased much more slowly--after 2 weeks half of the initial amount of virus c ...200516228264
identification of candidate proteins for the diagnosis of bartonella henselae infections using an immunoproteomic approach.bartonella henselae is an emerging gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen transmitted via ctenocephalides felis (cat fleas) or cat scratches. bartonellosis is present mainly in the form of cat scratch disease (csd), bacillary angiomatosis and infective endocarditis (ie). the methods used to diagnose b. henselae rely on culturing, immunofluorescent assays and molecular techniques. the objective of the present study was to identify candidate proteins for the serodiagnosis of bartonellosi ...201020695898
parasites of stray cats (felis domesticus l., 1758) on st. kitts, west indies.during 2005-2006, 100 stray cats on st. kitts were examined using standard parasitological methods. eggs identified were those of hookworms (88%), trichuris spp. (71%), eucoleus aerophillus (16%), mammomonogamus spp. (45%), physaloptera spp. (18%), toxocara spp. (4%), platynosomum spp. (81%) and taeniids (30%). coccidian oocysts were found in 12% of the cats and ctenocephalides felis found on 26%. when the direct fecal smear, benchtop flotation, modified double centrifugation, fecal sedimentatio ...201020537465
rickettsia felis in cat fleas in taiwan.we describe the first detection of rickettsia felis in cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) in taiwan. natural infections of r. felis in cat fleas were isolated and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and an immunofluorescence assay. the infection rate in individual fleas and the minimum infection rate in pooled fleas detected by the pcr method were found to be 18.8% (13/69) and 8.2% (8/97), respectively. partial sequences of the plasmid prf, 17-kda antigen, and outer membrane protein a ...200919125661
discovery of ectoparasiticidal hydrazonotrifluoromethanesulfonanilides.a series of hydrazonotrifluorosulfonanilide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro activity against the ectoparasites ctenocephalides felis and rhipicephalus sanguineus. some compounds with excellent activity against tick were identified.201019962303
qualitative and quantitative observations on the flea population dynamics of dogs and cats in several areas of germany.from an ongoing country-wide study on the spectrum, the epidemiology and the population dynamics of flea infestations in dogs and cats, important preliminary results from the three areas of karlsruhe, nuernberg and leipzig are presented. a total of 1922 dogs and 1838 cats from 12 different veterinary practices or clinics in three areas of germany were systematically examined between july 2003 and june 2004. all dogs and cats appearing for a clinical veterinary consultation on one regular working ...200616442233
large-scale monitoring of imidacloprid susceptibility in the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis.although on-animal topical treatment with compounds such as imidacloprid has revolutionized the control of the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis (bouché) (siphonaptera: pulicidae), the development of insecticide resistance is a continuing threat. as part of a highly co-ordinated and unprecedented resistance monitoring programme for c. felis, 1437 flea isolates were collected by veterinary clinics in australia, germany, france, the u.k. and 29 states in the u.s.a. from 2002 to 2009. about 65% of th ...201021138459
acquisition of rickettsia felis by cat fleas during feeding.evidence for horizontal routes of transmission for rickettsia felis has come from detection of r. felis infection in vertebrates and multiple blood-feeding arthropods; however, infection of cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis, during blood feeding has not been demonstrated. in this study, the ability of cat fleas to acquire r. felis through an infectious blood meal with subsequent vertical transmission was examined. utilizing an artificial feeding system, rickettsia-naive fleas were exposed to r. f ...201121214386
ecology of rickettsia felis: a has been two decades since the first description of rickettsia felis, and although a nearly cosmopolitan distribution is now apparent, much of the ecology of this unique microorganism remains unresolved. the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, is currently the only known biological vector of r. felis; however, molecular evidence of r. felis in other species of fleas as well as in ticks and mites suggests a variety of arthropod hosts. studies examining the transmission of r. felis using colonized ...200919645274
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