cell-mediated immunity evaluation in foals infected with virulent equine herpesvirus-1 by multi-parameter flow cytometry.the cell-mediated immune (cmi) response of foals to virulent equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection was evaluated by multi-parameter flow cytometry (fcm). ten 7-8-month-old ehv-1 seronegative foals were infected intranasally with virulent ehv-1 and 10 foals served as uninfected controls. blood samples were collected 6 and 7 weeks after infection to test for specific cmi responses to live heterologous ehv-1 recall antigen. the activation markers included major histocompatibility complex class ii ...201020116862
residue 752 in dna polymerase of equine herpesvirus type 1 is non-essential for virus growth in vitro.a single amino acid variation in the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) dna polymerase (pol) (d752/n752) determines its neuropathogenic potential. here, an ehv-1 strain racl11 mutant with a deletion of pol residue 752 was constructed. the deletion virus was then repaired to encode d752 or n752, respectively. the delta752 mutant virus replicated with kinetics indistinguishable from those of d752 and n752 viruses. in addition, we could demonstrate that the deletion mutant was significantly more res ...201020200193
glycoprotein c of equine herpesvirus 4 plays a role in viral binding to cell surface heparan sulfate.heparan sulfate moieties of cell surface proteoglycans serve as receptors for several herpesviruses. for herpes simplex virus 1, pseudorabies virus and equine herpesvirus 1, glycoprotein c (gc) homologues have been shown to mediate the binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. however, the role of gc in equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) infection has not yet been analyzed. using pull-down assay, we first determined that ehv-4 gc as well as gb are heparin-binding glycoproteins. to study the role of gc ...201020236610
the equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) ir3 transcript downregulates expression of the ie gene and the absence of ir3 gene expression alters ehv-1 biological properties and virulence.the ir3 transcript of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) harbors 117 nts antisense to the immediate-early (ie) mrna, suggesting it plays a regulatory role. here, we show that the ir3 transcript downregulates ie gene expression and that the absence of ir3 expression altered ehv-1 biological properties and virulence in mice. reporter assays revealed that the ir3/ie overlapping sequences [ir3(+226/+342)] and an additional ir3(+343/+433) region are necessary for the ir3 rna to downregulate ie expression. ...201020417949
neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants of equine herpesvirus 1 in france.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a common pathogen of the horse which may induce mild respiratory distress, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease. a single nucleotide polymorphism in the ehv-1 dna polymerase (orf30 a(2254) to g(2254)) has been associated with clinical signs of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (ehm). the aim of this work was to analyze the orf30 genomic region among a panel of ehv-1 dna extract in order to estimate the prevalence of the ehv-1 neuropathogenic genotype ...201020427133
molecular investigation of the viral kinetics of equine herpesvirus-1 in blood and nasal secretions of horses after corticosteroid-induced recrudescence of latent infection.recrudescence of latent equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) with subsequent viral shedding via nasal secretions is a potential source of infection for susceptible horses and has been implicated in outbreaks occurring in closed populations.201020584139
equus caballus major histocompatibility complex class i is an entry receptor for equine herpesvirus type this study, equus caballus major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i) was identified as a cellular entry receptor for the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). this novel ehv-1 receptor was discovered using a cdna library from equine macrophages. cdnas from this ehv-1-susceptible cell type were inserted into ehv-1-resistant b78h1 murine melanoma cells, these cells were infected with an ehv-1 lacz reporter virus, and cells that supported virus infection were identified by x ...201020610718
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
infection of central nervous system endothelial cells by cell-associated ehv-1.infection with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, late-term abortions and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (ehm). our understanding of ehm pathogenesis is limited except for the knowledge that ehv-1 infected, circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) transport virus to the central nervous system vasculature causing endothelial cell infection leading to development of ehm. our objective was to develop a model of cns endothelial cell infection using ehv-1 infe ...201020884134
relationship between equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy and viral genotype. 201021039794
induction of a th-1-biased igg subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 in horses previously infected with type 4 immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection was investigated in horses that were naïve to ehv-1/4 and those that had previously been exposed to ehv-4. the igg subclass response was determined by an elisa using ehv-1-specific recombinant gg protein as an antigen. in most horses naïve to ehv-1/4, igga, iggb, and igg(t) were induced after experimental infection with ehv-1. in contrast, a subclass response dominated by igga and iggb, with no appare ...201021139350
equine major histocompatibility complex class i molecules act as entry receptors that bind to equine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein d.the endotheliotropism of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) leads to encephalomyelitis secondary to vasculitis and thrombosis in the infected horse central nervous system (cns). to identify the host factors involved in ehv-1 infection of cns endothelial cells, we performed functional cloning using an equine brain microvascular endothelial cell cdna library. exogenous expression of equine major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i heavy chain genes conferred susceptibility to ehv-1 infection in mou ...201121306483
the ul4 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is not essential for replication or pathogenesis and inhibits gene expression controlled by viral and heterologous promoters.defective interfering particles (dip) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) inhibit standard virus replication and mediate persistent infection. the dip genome is comprised of only three genes: ul3, ul4, and a hybrid gene composed of portions of the ir4 (eicp22) and ul5 (eicp27) genes. the hybrid gene is important for dip interference, but the function(s) of the ul3 and ul4 genes are unknown. here, we show that ul4 is an early gene activated solely by the immediate early protein. the ul4 protein (ul4p ...201121324502
equine alphaherpesviruses (ehv-1 and ehv-4) differ in their efficiency to infect mononuclear cells during early steps of infection in nasal mucosal explants.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replicates extensively in the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, after which it can spread throughout the body via a cell-associated viremia in mononuclear leukocytes reaching the pregnant uterus and central nervous system. in a previous study, we were able to mimic the in vivo situation in an in vitro respiratory mucosal explant system. a plaquewise spread of ehv-1 was observed in the epithelial cells, whereas in the connective tissue below the basement ...201121536394
direct detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 dna in nasal swabs by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp).we evaluated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) as a means of detecting equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) dna directly from nasal swabs. to increase the sensitivity, we added a step in which the samples were heat-treated to the original lamp procedure. the detection limit of the lamp assay with heat treatment was 10 times more sensitive than the original lamp assay even when the dna extraction step was omitted. in addition, the lamp assay with heat treatment was more sensitive than th ...201121551979
identification of functional domains of the ir2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) negative regulatory ir2 protein (ir2p), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1487-aa immediate-early protein (iep), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for iep activation functions but retains domains for binding dna, tfiib, and tbp and the nuclear localization signal. ir2p mutants of the n-terminal region which lack either dna-binding activity or tfiib-binding activity were unable to down-regulate ehv-1 promoters. in ehv-1-infected cells ...201121794889
structural and functional analysis of the tap-inhibiting ul49.5 proteins of varicelloviruses.viral infections are counteracted by virus-specific cytotoxic t cells that recognize the infected cell via mhc class i (mhc i) molecules presenting virus-derived peptides. the loading of the peptides onto mhc i molecules occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and is facilitated by the peptide loading complex. a key player in this complex is the transporter associated with antigen processing (tap), which translocates the viral peptides from the cytosol into the er. herpesviruses have developed ...201121764135
molecular data of ul24 homolog gene (orf37) from brazilian isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is associated with abortions, respiratory distress, and neurological disturbances in horses. the orf37 of ehv-1 encodes a protein homolog to ul24 gene product of human herpesvirus that has been associated with neurovirulence. in the present work, orf37 pcr fragments derived from two brazilian ehv-1 isolates, a german isolate and an american reference strain were sequenced and characterized by molecular phylogenetic analysis. this genomic region is highly conserv ...201121684566
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) mediated oncolysis of human glioblastoma multiforme cells.The cytolytic animal virus equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was evaluated for its oncolytic potential against five human glioblastoma cell lines. EHV-1 productively infected four of these cell lines and the degree of infection was positively correlated with glioma cell death. No human MHC-I was detected in the resistant glioma line, while infection of the susceptible glioma cell lines, which expressed human MHC-I, were blocked with antibody to MHC-I, indicating that human MHC-I acts as an EHV-1 ...201122205738
latent equine herpesvirus-1 in trigeminal ganglia and equine idiopathic headshaking.trigeminal neuralgia or neuropathic pain has been regarded as a putative cause of idiopathic headshaking in horses. equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection and resultant postherpetic pain have been suggested as a possible cause of such neuropathic pain.201222211434
a point mutation in a herpesvirus co-determines neuropathogenicity and viral shedding.a point mutation in the dna polymerase gene in equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is one determinant for the development of neurological disease in horses. three recently conducted infection experiments using domestic horses and ponies failed to detect statistically significant differences in viral shedding between the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants. these results were interpreted as suggesting the absence of a consistent selective advantage of the neuropathogenic variant and th ...201728075374
the common equine class i molecule eqca-1*00101 (ela-a3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and t cell epitope we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ela) class i allele eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of thoroughbred horses. we determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (pscl) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the c-terminus ...201526399241
long term stability and infectivity of herpesviruses in water.for viruses to utilize environmental vectors (hard surfaces, soil, water) for transmission, physical and chemical stability is a prerequisite. there are many factors including ph, salinity, temperature, and turbidity that are known to contribute to the ability of viruses to persist in water. equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) is a pathogenic alphaherpesvirus associated with domestic horses and wild equids. ehv-1 and recombinants of ehv-1 and ehv-9 are able to cause infections in non-equid animal ...201728429732
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
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