expression of two related viral early genes in epstein-barr virus-associated tumors.the transcription of two early "leftwardly" expressed genes carrying repetitive sequences, ir2 and ir4, has been studied for epstein-barr virus-associated tumors, and for established b-cell lines, using sequence-specific probes generated for this purpose. whereas the ir4 transcript was identified in every tumor and cell line assessed (except b95-8, with a deletion that removes the gene), expression of the ir2 gene was restricted to b lymphocytes. though the promoters for both transcripts lie wit ...200010684296
ataxia and paresis with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in a herd of riding school outbreak of neurologic disease associated with serologic evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection occurred in a herd of 46 riding school horses. ataxia and paresis were observed in 14 geldings and 5 barren mares. eight affected horses had distal limb edema, 1 horse had a head tilt, and 3 others had urinary incontinence. other clinical signs included fever, depression, and inappetance in 30 horses. seven horses with neurologic signs were treated with acyclovir. serum neutralizin ...200010772493
an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) abortion storm at a riding outbreak of ehv1 abortions occurred at a riding school in the netherlands in 1991. seven of twelve pregnant mares aborted, and another foal died at 8 days of age. six abortions occurred within 12 days in march after an initial abortion on 8 february. four mares delivered live foals. virological examination of four aborted foals revealed an ehv1 infection. serological results for paired sera from 17 horses suggested, that the initial abortion on 8 february was the index case, and probably caus ...200010789515
the catalytic subunit of herpes simplex virus type 1 dna polymerase contains a nuclear localization signal in the ul42-binding region.the herpes simplex virus type 1 dna polymerase consists of a catalytic subunit (pol or ul30) and a processivity factor (ul42). the pol/ul42 interaction, which occurs through the extreme c-terminus of pol, is essential for hsv-1 replication and thus represents a valid target for drug inhibition. we recently showed (a. loregian et al. (1999) proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 96, 5221-5226) that an oligopeptide corresponding to the 27 c-terminal amino acids of pol, when delivered into herpes simplex virus ...200010891416
immunization of balb/c mice with dna encoding equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d affords partial protection in a model of ehv-1-induced abortion.dna-mediated immunization was assessed in a murine model of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) abortion. whilst there are differences between the model and natural infection in the horse, literature suggests that ehv-1 infection of pregnant mice can be used to assess the potential ability of vaccine candidates to protect against abortion. female balb/c mice were inoculated twice, 4 weeks apart, with an expression vector encoding ehv-1 glycoprotein d (gd dna). they were mated 15 days after the second i ...200010973696
differences in determinants required for complex formation and transactivation in related vp16 proteins.vp16-h is an essential structural protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and is also a potent activator of virus immediate-early (ie) gene expression. current models of functional determinants within vp16-h indicate that it consists of two domains, an n-terminal domain involved in recruiting vp16-h to a multicomponent dna binding complex with two host proteins, oct-1 and host cell factor (hcf), and an acidic c-terminal domain exclusively involved in transactivation. vp16-e, from equine h ...200011024140
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul45 homolog encodes a glycosylated type ii transmembrane protein and is involved in virus egress.experiments to analyze the product of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul45 homolog were conducted. using an antiserum generated against the carboxylterminal 114 amino acids of the ehv-1 ul45 protein, proteins of m(r) 32,000, 40,000, and 43,000 were detected specifically in ehv-1-infected cells. neither form of the protein was located in purified virions of ehv-1 wild-type strain racl22 or the modified live vaccine strain rach, but ul45 was demonstrated to be expressed as a late (gamma-2) p ...200111145911
characterisation of ie and ul5 gene products of equine herpesvirus 1 using dna inoculation of mice.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a regulatory genes ie and ul5, encoding homologues of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) icp4 and icp27 respectively, were cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and the dna injected intramuscularly into mice. antibodies produced in this way detected the ie or ul5 gene products as diffuse material in nuclei of rk13 cells transfected with the individual genes but as discrete punctate or large aggregates in rk13 cells infected with ehv-1. western blotti ...200011205113
mapping the sequences that mediate interaction of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early protein and human tfiib.the sole immediate-early (ie) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a 1,487-amino-acid (aa) regulatory phosphoprotein that independently activates expression of early viral genes. coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the ie protein physically interacts with the general transcription factor tfiib. using a variety of protein-binding assays that employed a panel of ie truncation and deletion mutants expressed as in vitro-synthesized or glutathione s-transferase fusion proteins, we mapped a ...200111581390
u(s)3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus 1 blocks caspase 3 activation induced by the products of u(s)1.5 and u(l)13 genes and modulates expression of transduced u(s)1.5 open reading frame in a cell type-specific manner.the coding domain of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) alpha22 gene encodes two proteins, the 420-amino-acid infected-cell protein 22 (icp22) and u(s)1.5, a protein colinear with the carboxyl-terminal domain of icp22. in hsv-1-infected cells, icp22 and u(s)1.5 are extensively modified by the u(l)13 and u(s)3 viral protein kinases. in this report, we show that in contrast to other viral proteins defined by their properties as alpha proteins, u(s)1.5 becomes detectable and accumulated only a ...200211752164
the mucosal humoral immune response of the horse to infective challenge and vaccination with equine herpesvirus-1 antigens.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) remains a frequent cause of upper respiratory tract infection and abortion in horses worldwide. however, little is known about the local antibody response elicited in the upper airways of horses following exposure to ehv-1. this study analysed the mucosal humoral immune response of weanling foals following experimental infection with virulent ehv-1, or vaccination with either of 2 commercial vaccines. twenty weanlings were assigned to 5 groups and were inoculated wit ...200111770985
a study of the pathogenesis of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) abortion by dna in-situ hybridization.the polymerase chain reaction and dna in-situ hybridization were used to study sections of uterine tissue collected from mares near the time of abortion due to equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection. these techniques revealed viral nucleic acids in endothelial cells of endometrial arterioles, in accordance with previously published immunohistological data. in addition, however, they revealed nucleic acids in cellular debris within endometrial glands and diffusing across the placenta at sites of m ...200111798247
the gene 10 (ul49.5) product of equine herpesvirus 1 is necessary and sufficient for functional processing of glycoprotein m.the functional cooperation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein m (gm) and the gene 10 (ul49.5) product was analyzed. transient-transfection experiments using gm and ul49.5 expression plasmids as well as rk13 cell lines constitutively expressing ul49.5 (rk49.5) or gm (rkgm) demonstrated that the endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase h (endo h)-resistant mature form of gm was detectable only after coexpression of the two proteins. deletion of the ehv-1 ul49.5-homologous gene 10 in strain kya ...200211861861
increased susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to equine herpes virus type 1 infection upon mitogen stimulation: a role of the cell cycle and of cell-to-cell transmission of the virus.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is an important pathogen of horses, causing abortion and nervous system disorders, even in vaccinated animals. during the cell-associated viremia, ehv-1 is carried by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc), mainly lymphocytes. in vitro, monocytes are the most important fraction of pbmc in which ehv-1 replicates, however, mitogen stimulation prior to ehv-1 infection increases the percentage of infected lymphocytes. the role of the cell cycle in viral replication an ...200211888698
ehv-1 eicp22 protein sequences that mediate its physical interaction with the immediate-early protein are not sufficient to enhance the trans-activation activity of the ie protein.the early 293 amino acid eicp22 protein (eicp22p) of equine herpesvirus 1 localizes within the nucleus and functions as an accessory regulatory protein (j. virol. 68 (1994) 4329). transient transfection assays indicated that although the eicp22p by itself only minimally trans-activates ehv-1 promoters, the eicp22p functions synergistically with the immediate-early protein (iep) to enhance expression of ehv-1 early genes (j. virol. 71 (1997) 1004). we previously showed that the eicp22 protein enh ...200211900834
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) myeloencephalopathy: a case outbreak of neurological disease occurred in a well-managed riding school. ataxia and paresis were observed in several horses, five of which became recumbent and were euthanized. post-mortem analysis revealed scattered haemorrhages along the spinal cord, that were reflected by multiple haemorrhagic foci on formalin-fixed sections, with the thoracic and lumbar segments being the most affected. pathohistologically, perivascular mononuclear cuffing and axonal swelling, especially in the white ma ...200211911591
the c-terminal regions of the envelope glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 are antigenically distinct.the unusual mucin-like high molecular mass (mr) glycoprotein 2 (gp2) has only been described in the equid alphaherpesviruses, among which there is considerable antigenic cross-reactivity. equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gp2 is cleaved into a highly glycosylated n-terminal subunit and a 42 kda c-terminal cleavage product. in order to investigate their antigenic recognition by horses naturally infected with ehv-1 and/or equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4), the c-terminal cleavage product and high mr gp2 wer ...200211958459
identification of two nuclear import signals in the alpha-gene product icp22 of herpes simplex virus 1.the herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) infected cell protein 22 (icp22) is a multifunctional viral regulator that localizes in the nucleus of infected cells. icp22 is required for optimal virus replication in certain cell types and is subject to extensive posttranslational modification. to map the signals in icp22 which mediate its efficient nuclear localization, we investigated the nuclear import of fusion proteins comprising various fragments of icp22 fused to green fluorescent protein (gfp) or be ...200212033795
equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 infections: an update.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) are important ubiquitous equine viral pathogens, causing much damage to the horse industry. ehv1 strains are associated with respiratory disease, abortion, and paresis/paralysis, whereas ehv4 strains are predominantly associated with respiratory disease. in the past decades much research effort has been put into improving knowledge about these viruses. in this paper the current state of knowledge of these viruses and the most important ...200212095082
equid herpesvirus 1 infection of endothelial cells requires activation of putative adhesion molecules: an in vitro model.antisera to activated equine endothelial cells, which detected surface molecules of 116 kd, 97 kd, 42 kd and 38 kd, were made to investigate the role of endothelial adhesion molecules in equid herpes virus 1 infection. these putative adhesion molecules could be induced by 17-beta oestradiol, chorionic gonadotrophin, or il-2, as well as by lps and pwm. in an in vitro flow system, using equine veins or arteries, equid herpesvirus 1 in leucocytes was only transferred to infect endothelial cells if ...200212165084
contribution of gene products encoded within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus 1 to virulence in a murine model.the pathogenesis of three equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) recombinants was assessed in a cba mouse model. sequences encoding the majority of glycoproteins i (gi) and e (ge) were deleted from the pathogenic ehv-1 strain racl11 (l11deltagideltage), and sequences comprising the 3859 bp deletion within the strain kya u(s) segment, which includes genes 73 (gi), 74 (ge), and 75 (putative 10 kda protein 75), were re-inserted into attenuated kya (kgi/ge/75). in addition, genes ge and 75 were inserted into ...200212457983
equid herpesvirus (ehv-1) live vaccine strain c147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following ehv types 1 and 4 challenges.the temperature sensitive and host range mutant clone 147 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was assessed for its ability to protect conventional, susceptible adult horses against respiratory infection by ehv-1 and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4). intranasal (in) vaccination with 5.2 log(10) tcid(50) did not cause adverse clinical reactions although a limited virus shedding and viraemia (leukocytes) was observed in 11 of 15 and 10 of 15 vaccinated horses respectively. all 15 vaccinated horses showed a ...200312488066
comparison of methods for the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection.the objective of the investigations was to study the occurrence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in aborted equine fetuses and in newborn foals and to compare the sensitivity of virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and histology in 101 cases and of fetal serology in 68 cases in the diagnosis of the infection. out of the 93 aborted equine fetuses and 8 weak foals, 15 (14.9%) (14 fetuses and 1 foal) proved to be ehv-1 infected by immunohistochemical and 13 (12.9%) by virological ...200312737042
multiple determinants contribute to the virulence of hsv ocular and cns infection and identification of serine 34 of the us1 gene as an ocular disease determinant.the virulence of any given strain of herpes simplex virus (hsv) is probably due to the effects of the constellation of genes in that strain and how they act in concert to promote disease. the goal of this work was to develop a system to identify and study the role of multiple genes in hsv disease.200312766070
detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in placental sections of naturally occurring ehv-1- and ehv-4-related abortions in the uk: use of the placenta in diagnosis.ehv-1 and ehv-4 abortion diagnosis is based upon detailed examination of the aborted fetus. however, in some cases, only the placenta is available for examination. furthermore, the contribution of lesions in the placenta to pathogenesis and diagnosis of ehv-1 and ehv-4 abortion has been neglected.200312875318
growth of recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) replaced with passage-induced mutant gene 1 and gene 71 derived from an attenuated ehv-1 in cell cultures and in the lungs of mice.the relationship of passage-induced mutant genes 1 and 71 of an attenuated equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) with virulence was analysed by constructing nine recombinant ehv-1 viruses by homologous recombination. gene 1 or/and gene 71 of a virulent ehv-1 strain, hh1, was replaced by a mutant gene 1 or/and 71 of an attenuated hh1 strain, bk343, respectively. the beta-galactosidase gene of escherichia coli was inserted within the gene 1 or 71 coding sequence of hh1 to inactivate the genes. virus replic ...200312935744
intrauterine and intrafetal inoculations with equine abortion virus in pregnant mares. 195313010086
cultivation of equine abortion virus in fetal horse tissue in vitro. 195313016787
cultivation of the equine influenza virus in suckling syrian hamsters. its similarity to the equine abortion virus. 195413127395
susceptibility in vitro of adult horse tissue to equine abortion virus; previously undescribed lesions. 195513268617
propagation of equine abortion virus in the embryonated chicken egg. 195613277328
changes in protein and nucleic acid content on hela cells infected with equine abortion virus. 195813614503
the nucleic acid content of equine abortion virus. 196314025123
some physicochemical characteristics of equine abortion virus nucleic acid. 196514319712
quantitation and morphology of equine abortion virus in hamsters. 196014445594
isolation of equine abortion virus from natural cases of equine abortion in horse kidney cell culture. 195914446011
pre-infection frequencies of equine herpesvirus-1 specific, cytotoxic t lymphocytes correlate with protection against abortion following experimental infection of pregnant general, vaccines containing inactivated equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) fail to prevent abortion in pregnant mares following infection with a virulent strain of ehv-1. we have tested the hypothesis that resistance to ehv-1-induced abortion in pregnant mares is associated with high frequencies of ehv-1 specific, major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) in the circulation. to test this theory, three groups of pregnant mares were assembled with varyi ...200314592733
intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (lfa-1) contribute to the elimination of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) from the lungs of intranasally infected balb/c mice.the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (lfa-1) on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in balb/c mice produced by intranasal inoculation was studied. infected mice were found to lose bodyweight (bw) during the acute phase of infection (i.e., within 1 week of inoculation) but to regain it during the convalescent phase. the intraperitoneal administration of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against icam-1 and lfa-1 one day before ehv-1 ...200415003474
seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in mares and foals on a large hunter valley stud farm in years pre- and examine the prevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 antibody in mares and foals on a large hunter valley thoroughbred stud farm in new south wales before and after the introduction of an inactivated whole virus vaccine.200315084039
detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 dna in unweaned thoroughbred foals from vaccinated mares on a large stud farm.a silent cycle of equine herpesvirus 1 infection has been described following epidemiological studies in unvaccinated mares and foals. in 1997, an inactivated whole virus ehv-1 and ehv-4 vaccine was released commercially in australia and used on many stud farms. however, it was not known what effect vaccination might have on the cycle of infection of ehv-1.200415163042
meningoencephalitis in mice infected with an equine herpesvirus 1 strain kya recombinant expressing glycoprotein i and glycoprotein of the consequences of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection in the natural host is a neurological disease that can lead to paralysis. the pathology associated with ehv-1-induced neurological disease includes vasculitis of the small blood vessels within the central nervous system and subsequent damage to the surrounding neural tissue. in a previous study, an ehv-1 recombinant kya virus (kgi/ge/75) was generated in which the sequences encoding glycoprotein i (gi) and glycoprotein e (ge) were ...200415215680
equine viral vaccines: the past, present and future.the increasing international movement of horses combined with the relaxation of veterinary regulations has resulted in an increased incidence of equine infectious diseases. vaccination, along with management measures, has become the primary method for the effective control of these diseases. traditionally modified live and inactivated vaccines have been used and these vaccines have proven to be very successful in preventing disease. however, there are a number of equine infectious diseases for w ...200415236675
efficacy of a live equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) strain c147 vaccine in foals with maternally-derived antibody: protection against ehv-1 infection.currently, there is no recommended immunoprophylaxis against febrile respiratory diseases due to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) and -4 (ehv-4) in horses below age 5-6 months. this is because of interference by maternally-derived antibody (mda) of vaccines.200415253088
argentine strain of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from an aborted foetus shows low virulence in mouse respiratory and abortion models.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was isolated in argentina from an aborted equine foetus in 1979. this virus (spv) has special restriction patterns (rp) in comparison with other argentine isolates. in addition, spv could be distinguished on the basis of its pathogenicity in baby mice inoculated intracerebrally. we studied the growth properties of the spv in cell culture and its effects in a mouse respiratory and abortion model. we observed that spv did not modify its capacity to grow in cell cul ...200415381260
the eicp27 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is recruited to viral promoters by its interaction with the immediate-early protein.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) eicp27 protein cooperates with either the immediate-early (ie) or the eicp0 protein to synergistically trans-activate viral promoters. gst-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the eicp27 protein's cooperation with the ie or the eicp0 protein involves its physical interaction with these viral proteins. in the case of the ie-eicp27 protein interaction, ie residues 424 to 826 and eicp27 residues 41 to 206 harbor the interactive domains. electroph ...200515708594
equine herpesvirus 1 utilizes a novel herpesvirus entry receptor.the well-described herpesvirus entry receptors hvea (tnfrsf14), hveb (nectin 2), and hvec (nectin 1) have been shown to mediate the entry of alphaherpesviruses. our findings showed that the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) efficiently entered and replicated in cho-k1 cells that lack the entry receptors hvea, hveb, and hvec, demonstrating that ehv-1 utilizes a unique entry receptor. as with other alphaherpesviruses, efficient ehv-1 entry was dependent on glycoprotein d and cell surfa ...200515709036
expression of the full-length form of gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) completely restores respiratory virulence to the attenuated ehv-1 strain kya in cba mice.wild-type equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strains express a large (250-kda) glycoprotein, gp2, that is encoded by eus4 (gene 71) located within the unique short region of the genome. dna sequence analysis revealed that eus4 of the pathogenic ehv-1 strain racl11 is an open reading frame of 2,376 bp that encodes a protein of 791 amino acids. the attenuated ehv-1 vaccine strain kya harbors an in-frame deletion of 1,242 bp from bp 222 to 1461 and expresses a truncated gp2 of 383 amino acids. to determi ...200515795295
iododeoxyuridine and herpesviral encephalitis: lack of inhibitory action against low-grade viral replication.equine herpesvirus 1 replicated in the brains of 2-week-old mice but did not produce fatal encephalitis; it thus simulated the majority of cases of herpes simplex encephalitis in man. this replication was not inhibited by iododeoxyuridine, although in tissue cultures the equine and human viruses were equally susceptible. the continued use of iododeoxyuridine for human encephalitis should be seriously questioned.197415825425
equine interferon gamma synthesis in lymphocytes after in vivo infection and in vitro stimulation with ehv-1.equine cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) responses to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) are well characterised but little is known about the cytokine response after infection or vaccination. ehv-1 is common in horses and infects lymphocytes in vivo. this virus was used as a model to measure the synthesis of interferon gamma (ifn-gamma) by equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) after in vivo infection and/or in vitro stimulation with ehv-1. both flow cytometry and elispot assays were used to quan ...200515913852
equine herpesviruses 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4)--epidemiology, disease and immunoprophylaxis: a brief review.this review concentrates on the epidemiology, latency and pathogenesis of, and the approaches taken to control infection of horses by equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4). although both viruses may cause febrile rhinopneumonitis, ehv-1 is the main cause of abortions, paresis and neonatal foal deaths. the lesion central to these three conditions is necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis resulting from lytic infection of endothelial cells lining blood capillaries. the initiation of infe ...200515993786
mechanisms of infection in the respiratory tract.related to its potential vulnerability the respiratory tract has a very complex and effective defence apparatus. the interaction between these defence mechanisms and certain characteristics of aetiological agents results in a pattern in which initial infections by these agents tend to occur at specific sites in the tract. infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the upper respiratory tract include bordetella bronchiseptica and haemophilus spp in pigs; pasteurella spp in cattle, shee ...198116030806
equine herpesvirus type 1 infection--a reply. 198616031308
equine respiratory viruses in foals in new identify the respiratory viruses that are present among foals in new zealand and to establish the age at which foals first become infected with these viruses.200216032260
[neurologic form of rhinopneumonia]. 200516276730
differential susceptibility of equine and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells to equine herpesvirus 1 infection.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) shows endotheliotropism in the central nervous system (cns) of infected horses. however, infection of endothelial cells has not been observed in the cns of infected mice. to explore the basis for this difference in endotheliotropism, we compared the susceptibility of equine brain microvascular endothelial cells (ebmecs) and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (mbmecs) to ehv-1 infection. the kinetics of viral growth in ebmecs was typical of a fully productive ...200616328147
new diseases and increased risk of diseases in companion animals and horses due to transport.dogs and horses are transported within the european union for a number of reasons. the transport per se may cause physical problems, exemplified by hyperthermia in dogs and pleuropneumonia in horses, and the stress may reactivate latent infections such as canine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-1. preventive treatments are vital to protect dogs from ticks and mosquitoes transmitting their potentially lethal infectious agents, such as leishmania donovani infantum, babesia canis, ehrlichia can ...200316429803
equine herpesvirus type 1 modified live virus vaccines: quo vaditis?infections of horses with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) have garnered new attention over the last few years. devastating outbreaks occurring worldwide, primarily of the neurologic form of the disease, have resulted in a reassessment of the control strategies, and particularly the prophylactic measures, that are necessary to keep the infection and spread of disease in check. most of the available ehv-1 vaccines are based on preparations of inactivated virus, which are applied monovalently for ...200616451114
detection of equine herpesvirus-specific effector and memory cytotoxic immunity in the equine upper respiratory tract.immunological protection of horses from equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection and disease depends on the cooperation of virus-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. ehv-specific mucosal immunity may be an important component of such immune responses. this study demonstrates the induction of anti-ehv cytotoxic cellular immune responses in various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues associated with the upper respiratory tract (urt) of the horse. four young horses (1-2 years of age) wer ...200616472871
cytokine responses to ehv-1 infection in immune and non-immune ponies.protecting equids against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection remains an elusive goal. repeated infection with ehv-1 leads to protective immunity against clinical respiratory disease, and a study was conducted to measure the regulatory cytokine response (ifn-gamma and il-4) in repeatedly infected immune ponies compared to non-immune ponies. two groups of four ponies were established. group 1 ponies had previously been infected on two occasions, and most recently 7 months before this study. gr ...200616473413
proceedings of the equine herpesvirus-1 havermeyer workshop. san gimignano, tuscany. june 2004. 200616481044
inoculation of mares and very young foals with ehv-1 glycoproteins d and b reduces virus shedding following respiratory challenge with ehv-1.we have previously demonstrated that intramuscular inoculation of ehv-1 glycoprotein d (gd) and glycoprotein b (gb) produced by a recombinant baculovirus and formulated with the adjuvant iscomatrix elicited virus-neutralizing antibody and gd- and gb-specific elisa antibody in adult horses. in this study, 14 mares and their very young foals were inoculated with a combination of baculovirus-expressed ehv-1 gd and ehv-1 gb (ehv-1 gdbr) and challenged with a respiratory strain of ehv-1. following ex ...200616504306
report of the equine herpesvirus-1 havermeyer workshop, san gimignano, tuscany, june 2004.amongst the infectious diseases that threaten equine health, herpesviral infections remain a world wide cause of serious morbidity and mortality. equine herpesvirus-1 infection is the most important pathogen, causing an array of disorders including epidemic respiratory disease abortion, neonatal foal death, myeloencephalopathy and chorioretinopathy. despite intense scientific investigation, extensive use of vaccination, and established codes of practice for control of disease outbreaks, infectio ...200616542736
analysis of equid herpesvirus 1 strain variation reveals a point mutation of the dna polymerase strongly associated with neuropathogenic versus nonneuropathogenic disease outbreaks.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) can cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from inapparent respiratory infection to the induction of abortion and, in extreme cases, neurological disease resulting in paralysis and ultimately death. it has been suggested that distinct strains of ehv-1 that differ in pathogenic capacity circulate in the field. in order to investigate this hypothesis, it was necessary to identify genetic markers that allow subgroups of related strains to be identified. we have determ ...200616571821
equine herpes myeloencephalopathy in a 12-year-old american quarter horse. 200616627115
equine herpesvirus neurologic disease: reflections from across the pond. 200616734076
pharmacokinetics of acyclovir after single intravenous and oral administration to adult horses.the purpose of the study reported here was to describe the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of acyclovir after intravenous and oral administration to horses. six healthy adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over study with a 3 x 3 latin square design. three treatments were administered to each horse: 10 mg of injectable acyclovir/kg of body weight in 1 l of normal saline delivered as an infusion over 15 minutes; 10 mg of acyclovir/kg in tablets by nasogastric intubation; and 20 mg of ...200616734094
equine herpesvirus type 1-associated myeloencephalopathy in the netherlands: a four-year retrospective study (1999-2003).equine herpesvirus type 1(ehv-1)-associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a rare disease affecting the central nervous system and, in particular, the spinal cord of horses. epidemiologic data are limited, and usually are restricted to the description of a single outbreak. during an observational period of 4 years, we evaluated 9 outbreaks of ehm in the netherlands. a risk factor analysis was done on the data from 6 outbreaks. findings were: regular appearance of ehm outbreaks in the netherlands ( ...200616734096
in vitro transposon mutagenesis of an equine herpesvirus 1 genome cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome.the 150-kbp genome of the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (ehv-1 bac), with mini f plasmid sequences inserted between genes 62 and 63. transfection of ehv-1 bac dna purified from e. coli gave rise to progeny virus that had a similar growth rate and yield in mammalian cell culture to those of parental wild-type ehv-1. using in vitro mutagenesis with a mu transposon, a large library of ehv-1 bac mutants was generated, and ...200616855811
genetic relatedness and pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from onager, zebra and gazelle.equine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from an onager in 1985, a zebra in 1986 and a thomson's gazelle in 1996 in usa. the genetic relatedness and pathogenicity of these three viruses were investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein g (gg) gene, experimental infection in hamsters, and comparison with horse isolates. the gg gene sequences of ehv-1 from onager and zebra were identical. the gg gene sequences of the gazelle isolate showed 99.5% identity to those of onager and zebra ...200717051419
pathogenicity and immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 mutants defective in either gi or ge gene in murine and hamster develop a live vaccine for equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), two ehv-1 mutants containing no heterogeneous dna, deltagi and deltage, were constructed with deletions in the open reading frame of either glycoprotein i (gi) or e (ge), respectively. in equine cell culture, deletion mutants formed smaller plaques than the parental and revertant viruses, but the one-step growth patterns of the deletion mutants and the parental strain were approximately the same. these results suggest that both gi ...200617085880
in vitro and in vivo characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) mutants devoid of the viral chemokine-binding glycoprotein g (gg).glycoprotein g (gg) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), a structural component of virions and secreted from virus-infected cells, was shown to bind to a variety of different chemokines and as such might be involved in immune modulation. little is known, however, about its role in the replication cycle and infection of ehv-1 in vivo. here we report on the function of gg in context of virus infection in vitro and in vivo. a gg deletion mutant of pathogenic ehv-1 strain racl11 (vl11deltagg) was c ...200717250864
molecular characterization of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) isolated from cattle indicating no specific mutations associated with the interspecies transmission.interspecies trasmission of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) from horse to cattle was shown by crandell et al. (1988). specific mutations related to the transmission were studied by comparison of five ehv-1 isolates in cattle (bh1247, 3m20-3, g118, g1753, and 9bsv4) using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with added sequencing. g118 and 3m20-3 were the genome type ehv-1 p, while g1753 was the genome type ehv-1 b. bh1247 and 9bsv4 might be other genome ty ...200717380051
antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid in the horse.neutralizing antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 16 horses and ponies from a closed herd both before and after vaccination with modified live equine herpesvirus 1. these titers were also measured in 22 neurologically normal and 15 neurologically abnormal horses at a teaching hospital. animals from the closed herd had prevaccination serum titers up to 1:8 and postvaccination serum titers up to 1:128. horses from the teaching hospital had serum ...198517422553
investigation of the molecular detection of vaccine-derived equine herpesvirus type 1 in blood and nasal secretions from horses following intramuscular vaccination.the objective of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular vaccination of healthy adult horses with a killed or a modified live equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine could induce transient positive pcr results in either blood or secretions collected on a nasopharyngeal swab. four horses in each group received either a single killed or a modified-live vaccine intramuscularly. two local commingled and 2 distant nonvaccinated controls were included for each group. all horses were obse ...200717459860
serum concentration of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and the copper/zinc ratio in horses with equine herpesvirus-1.the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and copper/zinc ratio were investigated in horses infected with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). nine horses were naturally infected with the virus and nine healthy horses served as controls. the concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt were determined spectrophotometrically in the blood serum of all horses. the results were (expressed in micrograms per deciliters) copper 2.80 +/- 0.34 vs 1.12 +/- 0.44, zinc 3.05 +/- 0.18 vs 0.83 +/ ...200717848729
prevalence of latent, neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus-1 in the thoroughbred broodmare population of central emerging problem of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection in horses in the usa is a high-mortality myeloencephalopathy that commonly occurs where large numbers of horses are stabled. ehv-1 isolates recovered from recent neurological outbreaks represent a mutant virus strain that possesses enhanced neuropathogenicity. a central question of ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy is the latency carriage rate for these mutants of ehv-1 in usa horse populations.200818089469
equine herpesvirus neurological disease. 200818302993
use of viral loads in blood and nasopharyngeal secretions for the diagnosis of ehv-1 infection in field cases. 200818515763
varicellovirus ul 49.5 proteins differentially affect the function of the transporter associated with antigen processing, tap.cytotoxic t-lymphocytes play an important role in the protection against viral infections, which they detect through the recognition of virus-derived peptides, presented in the context of mhc class i molecules at the surface of the infected cell. the transporter associated with antigen processing (tap) plays an essential role in mhc class i-restricted antigen presentation, as tap imports peptides into the er, where peptide loading of mhc class i molecules takes place. in this study, the ul 49.5 ...200818516302
nucleic acid extraction methods for detection of ehv-1 from blood and nasopharyngeal secretions. 200818587063
detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in nasal swabs of horses by quantitative real-time pcr.early identification of inhalation-transmitted equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infections has been facilitated by the availability of a number of real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) tests. a direct comparison between nasal swab qpcr and traditional virus isolation (vi) requires a method for normalizing the qpcr samples and controlling for pcr inhibitors present in some clinical samples.200818691363
evaluation of an air tester for the sampling of aerosolised equine herpesvirus type 1. 200818776179
equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy: a review of recent developments.equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (ehm), although a relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms or boarding stables. although outbreaks of ehm have been recognized for centuries in domestic horse populations, many aspects of this disease remained poorly characterized. in recent years, an improved understanding of ehm has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding scho ...200918805030
molecular phylogeny of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from onager, zebra and thomson's gazelle.viruses related to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) were isolated from an aborted fetus of an onager (equus hemionus) in 1984, an aborted fetus of grevy's zebra (equus grevyi) in 1984 and a thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsoni) with nonsuppurative encephalitis in 1996, all in the usa. the mother of the onager fetus and the gazelle were kept near plains zebras (equus burchelli). in phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequences of the genes for glycoproteins b (gb), i (gi), and e (ge), and ...200819002555
the ir4 auxiliary regulatory protein expands the in vitro host range of equine herpesvirus 1 and is essential for pathogenesis in the murine model.ir4, an early regulatory protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), is not a dna-binding protein, but interacts with the sole immediate-early protein (iep) to increase both iep site-specific dna-binding and iep-mediated trans-activation of ehv-1 promoters. to investigate the biological properties of ir4 and ascertain whether this regulatory protein is essential for virus growth, bacterial artificial chromosome methods were employed to generate an ir4-null ehv-1. the ir4 gene was dispensable for eh ...200919012943
development of a bead-based multiplex assay for simultaneous quantification of cytokines in horses.the detection and quantification of equine cytokines has been hampered by the lack of antibodies for many years. with the development of antibody pairs for equine cytokines during the past years, the quantification of these essential regulators of the immune response became possible. after being successfully tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), three of these anti-cytokine reagents were used here to establish the first cytokine multiplex assay for equine il-4, il-10 and ifn-alph ...200919027964
effective treatment of respiratory alphaherpesvirus infection using rna interference.background: equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), a member of the alphaherpesvirinae, is spread via nasal secretions and causes respiratory disease, neurological disorders and abortions. the virus is a significant equine pathogen, but current ehv-1 vaccines are only partially protective and effective metaphylactic and therapeutic agents are not available. small interfering rnas (sirna's), delivered intranasally, could prove a valuable alternative for infection control. sirna's against two essential ...200919122813
pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus-1 infection in the mouse model.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is a major equine pathogen causing respiratory diseases, abortions and severe neurological disorders. the basis of neurological disturbances is, as in other organs, infection of endothelial cells, followed by vasculitis, thrombosis and ischaemic damage of the parenchyma. here, a murine model was used to explore the mechanism of entry to, and spread within the brain, the cell affinity of the agent and the modulating role of the immune defence, which are all factors go ...200919161532
comparison of the pseudorabies virus us9 protein with homologs from other veterinary and human alphaherpesviruses.pseudorabies virus (prv) us9 is a small, tail-anchored (ta) membrane protein that is essential for axonal sorting of viral structural proteins and is highly conserved among other members of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. we cloned the us9 homologs from two human pathogens, varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), as well as two veterinary pathogens, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), and fused them to enhanced green fluorescent ...200919420087
equine herpesvirus-1, non-neurogenic pathotype, in a 9-year-old american saddlebred with neurological signs.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, and rarely, myeloencephalopathy. the neurovirulence of this virus is due to a point mutation in the dna polymerase gene. diagnosis by virus isolation has been replaced by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays that can detect strains, viral loads, and states; this may aid in control and management of the disease.200919436483
neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic genotypes of equid herpesvirus type 1 in argentina.infection with equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) leads to respiratory disease, abortion, and neurological disorders in horses. molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (a(2254)/g(2254)) in the genome region of the open reading frame 30 (orf30), which results in an amino acid variation (n(752)/d(752)) of the ehv-1 dna polymerase, is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of naturally occurring strains. in order to estimate the prev ...200919589651
multiple oral dosing of valacyclovir in horses and ponies.the aim of the current study was to investigate whether multiple oral dosing of valacyclovir could result in plasma concentrations exceeding the ec(50)-value of acyclovir against equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) during the majority of the treatment period. additionally, we wanted to determine the concentration of acyclovir in nasal mucus and cerebrospinal fluid (csf). valacyclovir was administered to four horses and two ponies, three times daily, at a dosage of 40 mg/kg, for four consecutive days. bl ...200919646083
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) utilizes microtubules, dynein, and rock1 to productively infect initiate infection, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) attaches to heparan sulfate on cell surfaces and then interacts with a putative glycoprotein d receptor(s). after attachment, virus entry occurs either by direct fusion of the virus envelope with the plasma membrane or via endocytosis followed by fusion between the virus envelope and an endosomal membrane. upon fusion, de-enveloped virus particles are deposited into the cytoplasm and travel to the nucleus for viral replication. in this rep ...201019713056
infectious entry of equine herpesvirus-1 into host cells through different endocytic pathways.we investigated the mechanism by which equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) enters primary cultured equine brain microvascular endothelial cells (ebmecs) and equine dermis (e. derm) cells. ehv-1 colocalized with caveolin in ebmecs and the infection was greatly reduced by the expression of a dominant negative form of equine caveolin-1 (ecavy14f), suggesting that ehv-1 enters ebmecs via caveolar endocytosis. ehv-1 entry into e. derm cells was significantly reduced by atp depletion and treatments with lyso ...200919720389
experimental infection with neuropathogenic equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in adult horses.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) may follow an infection with the virus in horses. this study tested three hypotheses: (1) a large inhaled dose of a neuropathogenic ehv-1 strain would induce a cell-associated viraemia in all infected horses; (2) neurological disease will only occur in viraemic horses, and (3) the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) composition following ehv-1 viraemia will be an indicator for ehm. four ehv-1 seronegative horses were inoculated with ehv ...201019726209
the increased prevalence of neuropathogenic strains of ehv-1 in equine abortions.a panel of 426 archived ehv-1 isolates collected (1951-2006) from equine abortions was analyzed using a real-time taq-man((r)) allelic discrimination pcr assay. based on previous findings, isolates possessing adenine at nucleotide position 2254 (a(2254)) in orf30 were classified as having a non-neuropathogenic genotype and those with guanine at 2254 (g(2254)) were designated as the neuropathogenic genotype. the resultant data demonstrated that viruses with the neuropathogenic genotype existed in ...201019733451
a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against ehv-1 and h3n8 equine influenza virus.vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine influenza virus (eiv). here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant ehv-1 modified live virus vaccine (mlv) based on a recent abortogenic ehv-1 strain, ny03. the immunogenicity and efficacy of the mlv was tested in horses in an ehv-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent ehv-1 strain oh03. induction of a robust ehv- ...201019897066
comparison of four methods to quantify equid herpesvirus 1 load by real-time polymerase chain reaction in nasal secretions of experimentally and naturally infected horses.the objective of the current study was to compare the performance of 4 methods to quantify equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in nasal secretions from experimentally and naturally infected horses. nasal secretions were collected on the challenge day and daily thereafter for 13 days from 4 experimentally infected horses. additional nasal swabs were collected from 30 horses with clinical signs consistent with natural ehv-1 infection. absolute quantitation of e ...200919901285
loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for detection of equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 and differentiating a gene-deleted candidate vaccine strain from wild-type equid herpesvirus 1 strains.loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) is a novel method for the rapid and sensitive detection of dna without the need for expensive equipment. in the present study, lamp assays were developed for the specific detection of equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4, respectively) and for the differentiation of glycoprotein e (ge)-deleted ehv-1 (deltage) strain, a candidate strain for a live vaccine, from field ehv-1 strains. specific primer sets were designed for the gc and ge genes of eh ...201020093679
comparison of the biological and biochemical activities of several members of the alphaherpesvirus icp0 family of proteins.immediate-early protein icp0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) is an e3 ubiquitin ligase of the ring finger class that is required for efficient lytic infection and reactivation from latency. other alphaherpesviruses also express icp0-related ring finger proteins, but these have limited homology outside the core ring domain. existing evidence indicates that icp0 family members have similar properties, but there has been no systematic comparison of the biochemical activities and biological f ...201020106921
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