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mitochondrial and herpesvirus-specific deoxypyrimidine kinases.to characterize and compare the thymidine (tdr) and deoxycytidine (cdr) kinase isozymes of uninfected and herpesvirus-infected cells: (i) the subcellular distribution of the isozymes has been studied; (ii) a specific assay for cdr kinase has been devised; (iii) the tdr kinase isozymes have been partially purified; and (iv) the purified enzymes have been analyzed by disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and glycerol gradient centrifugation and by substrate competition and ...1975169387
virus-induced abortion. studies of equine herpesvirus 1 (abortion virus) in hamsters.a hamster-adapted strain of equine herpesvirus-1 (equine abortion virus) caused severe hepatic degeneration in both pregnant and nonpregnant hamsters and, in addition, regularly induced abortion in pregnant hamsters inoculated at midgestation. in nonpregnant hamsters, the only consistently affected organ was the liver despite a prolonged viremia. newborn animals usually died 1 to 2 days after inoculation; adults died 5 to 9 days after inoculation. in pregnant hamsters, the virus had a tropism fo ...1975171478
experimental studies on equine herpesvirus type 1 infections.the ehv-1 viruses of fetal origin grew better and had a wider tissue culture host range than those isolated from horses with respiratory diseases. comparisons of a fetal isolate (f/304) and a respiratory disease isolate (r/nm-3) in partly immune horses showed that the f/304 virus infected horses more readily, grew better in the nasopharynx, was more likely to cause abortion, and was excreted to a greater extent into the environment.1975173849
equine herpesvirus in vivo: cyclic production of a dna density variant with repetitive sequences. 1976176793
effects of crude extracts of various plants on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-plaque production.extracts of 28 plants were tested without demonstable antiviral activity in an agar-overlay plaque-reduction antiviral assay system, using infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and bovine endocardial cell cultures. ethanolic extract of narcissus tazetta l bulb elicited antiviral activity by inhibition of viral plaque formation. antiviral activity was demonstrated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses. narcissus tazetta l bulb did not directly inactivate ...1976176907
abortion associated with mixed leptospira/equid herpesvirus 1 infection. 1976178087
immunity to equine herpesvirus type 1 (rhinopneumonitis): in vitro lymphocyte response.twenty-two ponies were examined for serum-neutralizing (sn) antibody to equine herpesvirus type 1 and for in vitro lymphocyte transformation in the presence of viral antigen. six ponies had undetectable levels of neutralizing antibody (titer less than 1:2) and had lymphocytes which did not respond in culture with viral antigen (stimulation index less than 2.0). four ponies which had sn antibody to equine herpesvirus type 1 did not manifest lymphocyte transformation in vitro. the 12 remaining ser ...1976179451
disseminated necrotizing myeloencephalitis: a herpes-associated neurological disease of horses.equine viral rhinopneumonitis type i virus was isolated from spinal cord and brain of a paraparetic horse with disseminated necrotizing myeloencephalitis. necrotic arteriolitis,nonsuppurative necrotizing myeloencephalitis and gasserian ganglioneuritis were present. on record were 12 more cases of horses with similar lesions. the horses had been ataxic or paretic for up to several weeks. a field survey indicated that 14 of 24 horses with acute myelitic signs developed them after recent exposure t ...1976180652
[combined vaccination plan against influenza, equine rhinopneumonitis and tetanus for thoroughbred horses]. 1976183944
failure to demonstrate equine rhinopneumonitis virus as a cause of abortion in mares in new zealand. 1976190568
equine herpesvirus 1 infection of horses: studies on the experimentally induced neurologic disease.experimental infection with equine herpesvirus 1 (rhinopneumonitis) resulted in neurologic disease in 8 of 15 inoculated horses. nonpregnant animals did not develop clinical disease, and microscopic examination of tissues revealed no changes. in all mares between 3 and 9 months of gestation, a neurologic syndrome appeared 6 to 8 days after inoculation. mares inoculated when 10 months pregnant did not develop neurologic disorders, but several aborted. the histopathologic change common to both seq ...1977195494
[several years of diagnostic studies on the ehv 1 abortion in thoroughbred studs following the introduction of vaccination]. 1977195571
respiratory disease in horses. 1977196170
effect of age and pregnancy on the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses of horses to equine herpesvirus 1.the cell-mediated immune response and antibody response of horses of varying ages and of pregnant horses to equine herpesvirus 1 antigen were examined. six to eight month old horses showed either no increase or slight increases in anti-equine herpesvirus 1 serum neutralizing antibody following vaccination and revaccination with a modified live equine herpesvirus 1 vaccine. however, these same horses showed a marked increase in the cell-mediated immune response to equine herpesvirus 1 as measured ...1977200320
the protective antigens of equine herpesvirus type 1.equine herpesvirus type 1 was cultivated in swine testis cell cultures and partially purified by differential centrifugation and centrifugation in a linear sucrose density gradient. the viral envelope was separated from the nucleocapsid by treatment with rexol 25j followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. the envelope and nucleocapsid preparations were then electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gel after solubilization with sodium dodecyl sulphate. hamsters were immunized with various preparation ...1978208736
equine rhinopneumonitis vaccine: immunogenicity and safety in foals. 1978215062
prevalence of antibodies to equine viruses in the netherlands.the prevalence of antibodies to various viruses was investigated in a series of serum samples collected from horses in the netherlands between 1963 and 1966 and from 1972 onwards. neutralizing antibodies to equine rhinopneumonitis virus, equine arteritis virus and to equine rhinovirus types 1 and 2 were detected in respectively 76%, 14%, 66% and 59% of the equine serum samples tested. the observed incidence of serum samples positive to equine adenovirus in the complement fixation test was 39%. p ...1979219560
oncogenic transformation of non-permissive murine cells by viable equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and ehv-1 dna.primary cultures of balb/c mouse embryo fibroblasts infected with as much as 100 pfu per cell of ehv-1 do not exhibit cytopathology or synthesize detectable amounts of ehv-1 specific rna, dna, or infectious virus. addition of 1--2 microgram of non-fragmented ehv-1 dna as a co-precipitate with calcium phosphate to monolayers of such non-permissive mouse cells resulted in the appearance, after 4--6 weeks, of foci of piled-up, morphologically altered cells. cell lines established from such transfor ...1978221355
vaccination against diseases associated with herpesvirus infections in animals: a review.an account is presented of the development and use of herpesvirus vaccines in domestic animals, with particular reference to those viruses causing cytolytic rather than oncogenic infections. the chief infections covered are aujeszky's disease (ad or pseudorabies), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) and equine rhinopneumonitis (equine abortion; ehv-1). others mentioned are feline viral rhinotracheitis and malignant catarrhal fever of cattle. both live-modified and inactivated vaccines are wi ...1978221416
differentiation of field strains and a vaccine strain of equine herpesvirus 1, using plaque characteristics. 1979223480
equine rhinopneumonitis: more deaths--warning issued. 1979224565
an outbreak of foal perinatal mortality due to equid herpesvirus type 1: pathological observations.twenty-nine cases of ehv1 infection occurred on a property, mainly in full term foals. some foals were stillborn, some were born alive but weak and soon died and others were healthy at birth, became ill and died within 3 days of birth. apart from voluminous, oedematous and atelectic lungs there were no gross lesions. microscopically the lungs showed oedema, pneumonitis and bronchiolitis with intranuclear inclusions and, in many of the foals that survived over 6 hours, there was also hyaline memb ...1979232044
replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 3: resistance to hydroxyurea and thymidine.the replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 3 (ehv-3) was unimpeded in three different cell types-equine epithelial cells, equine fibroblasts, and mouse fibroblasts-which had been blocked in their capacity to synthesize host dna by 2.5 mm hydroxyurea (hu) or 2 mm thymidine (tdr). the rate of dna synthesis in uninfected or equine herpesvirus-infected cells in the presence of hu or tdr was measured by pulse-labeling cell samples with a labeled dna precursor at different times aft ...1978563855
characterization of three species of nucleocapsids of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1). 19751167720
characterization of the regulatory functions of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early gene product.use of the translation-inhibiting drug cycloheximide has indicated that the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene, the sole ehv-1 ie gene, encodes a major viral regulatory protein since ie mrna translation is a prerequisite for all further viral gene expression (w.l. gray, r. p. baumann, a. t. robertson, g. b. caughman, d. j. o'callaghan, and j. staczek, virology 158:79-87, 1987). an ehv-1 ie gene expression vector (psvie) in combination with chimeric ehv-1 promoter-chlorampheni ...19921309921
reinfection and reactivation of equine herpesvirus-1 in the mouse.balb/c mice were inoculated with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by the intranasal (i.n.) route. mice developed respiratory signs; virus replication occurred in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected; some mice died. recovered mice were given a second inoculation with the same strain 5 months later. following the second infection no mice died, however, virus replication was again observed in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected once more. administration of an antiviral agent dur ...19921314054
the molecular epidemiology of equine herpesvirus 1 (equine abortion virus) in australasia 1975 to 1989.the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of 57 isolates of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1; equine abortion virus) from abortion, perinatal foal mortalities and encephalitis from 15 epidemics that occurred in australasia between 1975 and 1989 were examined using the enzymes bam hi, ecori and bgl ii. there was a remarkable degree of uniformity in the restriction patterns; mobility differences were observed in only 14 of 52 (27%) of the fragments. twelve of these 14 fragments were located within t ...19921320856
glycoprotein 60 of equine herpesvirus type 1 is a homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d and plays a major role in penetration of cells.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein 60 (gp60) and gp 17/18 (f3132 and 5h6 respectively) were found to react with the same protein, which was identified as a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 gd. mab f3132 strongly neutralized virus infectivity and inhibited the penetration of the virus into the cell. the effects on penetration were shared with three other mabs against this protein (p68, f3116 and f3129), but no effect on virus penetrati ...19921321875
a novel herpes simplex virus gene (ul49a) encodes a putative membrane protein with counterparts in other herpesviruses.comparative analysis of dna sequences located between the coding regions of genes ul49 and ul50 of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) has revealed a small open reading frame (orf) of 91 and 87 codons respectively with the characteristics of a genuine protein-coding region. the predicted protein products are clearly related and exhibit features of membrane-inserted proteins, with potential n-proximal signal peptides and c-proximal membrane anchor regions. counterparts are present i ...19921322965
the acyclic nucleoside analogue penciclovir is a potent inhibitor of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in tissue culture and in a murine model.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was sensitive to the nucleoside analogue penciclovir (pcv) when tested in tissue culture; the ed50 was 1.6 micrograms/ml. drug-resistant mutants were selected which were found to be tk-defective and approx. 45-fold less sensitive to pcv compared with the parental strain. pcv was compared with the phosphonyl derivative, hpmpa in mice infected with ehv-1. both drugs were shown to be effective in vivo, limiting wild-type virus replication in respiratory tissues, an ...19921329646
glycoprotein 300 is encoded by gene 28 of equine herpesvirus type 1: a new family of herpesvirus membrane proteins?a portion of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gene 28, which is homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 gene ul32, was expressed using a prokaryotic system to yield a fusion protein which reacted on western blots with p19, a monoclonal antibody (mab) that reacts with ehv-1 glycoprotein 300 (gp300), confirming that this gene encodes gp300. hydrophobicity analysis showed that gp300 is a glycoprotein with multiple hydrophobic domains that might interact with, or span, the membrane several times. ...19921331295
chorioretinopathy associated with neuropathology following infection with equine herpesvirus-1. 19921332242
serological evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) activity in polo horses in nigeria.serological evidence of equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) activity in polo horses in nigeria is reported for the first time. eighty-two percent of horses tested with known antigen had precipitating antibodies to ehv-1 while 43% of sera tested against antigen prepared from nasal discharges were positive suggesting that the virus was being excreted in the nasal discharges and probably acting as a source of infection for incontact animals as occurs in on-going acute infections. the result of this ...19921334303
immunokinetics of equine herpesvirus 1 in donkey mares: suppression of secondary cell-mediated response.to study the immunokinetics of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1), donkey mares were immunised with a laboratory strain of ehv1, or with recommended doses of pneumabort-k vaccine (ehv1 army 183 strain, formalin-inactivated, with an oil adjuvant) and a booster was given after three months. humoral immune responses were studied by employing a virus neutralisation (vn) test. a leucocyte migration inhibition test (lmit) was employed for the assay of cellular immune responses. the vn antibody titre reached ...19921335311
detection of equine herpesvirus and differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 from type 4 by the polymerase chain reaction.although both equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) can be associated with respiratory disease, epizootics caused by ehv-1 are much more serious because the virus can cause abortions and paralysis. it is, therefore, important to identify the type of ehv involved in an outbreak by a test that is quick, sensitive, and reliable. we have adapted the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect and distinguish between ehv-1 and ehv-4 in the same reaction. primers for pc ...19921335829
[causes of prenatal foal loss in switzerland].in switzerland during the foaling season 1988 and 1989 the cause of abortion in 60 foals was investigated. special attention was paid to infections with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1). diagnosis were based on post-mortem, histopathological, bacteriological and immunofluorescence investigation. the results confirm data from other countries, that ehv 1 is the most prevalent viral (20%) cause of abortion, followed by various bacterial agents (12%). other causes were umbilical torsion, twin pregnancy ...19921455212
equine herpesvirus 1 sequence near the left terminus codes for two open reading frames.we have previously reported the sequence of the equine herpesvirus one genomic termini that are homologous to the genomic termini of other herpesviruses. in this paper, we present the nucleotide sequence adjacent to the left terminus sequence (map units 0.0087 to 0.0237). this sequence codes for two open reading frames (orf) which are homologous to orf2 and orf3 of the varicella-zoster virus genome and are located at colinear positions. the l region sequence presented here also contains a segmen ...19911645901
sequence analysis of the 4.7-kb bamhi-ecori fragment of the equine herpesvirus type-1 short unique region.to localize gene that may encode immunogens potentially important for recombinant vaccine design, we have analysed a region of the equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) genome where a glycoprotein-encoding gene had previously been mapped. the 4707-bp bamhi-ecori fragment from the short unique region of the ehv-1 genome was sequenced. this sequence contains three entire open reading frames (orfs), and portions of two more. orf1 codes for 161 amino acids (aa), and represents the c terminus of a possib ...19911647359
a murine model for studying ehv-1-induced abortion.balb/c mice were infected with two abortigenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by intranasal inoculation. the inoculation of one strain produced subclinical disease while the other produced a disease characterised by weight loss, constitutional signs, and death in the most severely affected animals. when pregnant mice were infected by the same method of inoculation, one strain of virus produced premature parturition; both strains produced fetal abnormalities. in some cases, virus could b ...19911654586
evidence for allelic exclusion in chinese hamster ovary cells.earlier results suggested that the functional hemizygosity of genes in pseudodiploid chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells is due to the silencing of one allele by dna methylation. from this one could make a strong prediction that we have now been able to confirm by genetic experiments, using thymidine kinase (tk) alleles. tk- mutants induced by ethylmethane sulphonate (ems) were all revertible to tk+ at high frequency by the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-aza-cr). this revertibility was due t ...19901704254
translational control of equine herpesvirus type 1 gene expression.translational control mechanisms modulate gene expression in a variety of cellular and viral systems. using hypertonic conditions to block protein synthesis in vivo, we observed that the synthesis of several major equine herpesvirus type 1 proteins was selectively inhibited. although sensitivity to hypertonic conditions was graded across a continuum, messages coding for proteins of 203, 130.5, and 31.5 kda were significantly more resistant to higher salt concentrations in vivo than those coding ...19911845836
structure and physical map of the genome of parma wallaby herpesvirus.the dna of parma wallaby herpesvirus (macropodid herpesvirus 1; mhv-1) was analysed by restriction mapping and southern hybridizations, and clones of ecori and sali fragments were prepared which represented approximately 85% of the genome. it has a length of about 135 kbp consisting of a long unique sequence joined to a short unique sequence bounded by inverted repeat sequences, and occurs as 2 isomers. these findings place mhv-1 in the herpesvirus structural classification group d, along with e ...19901964521
genomic termini of equine herpesvirus 1.after cell infection with the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), the termini of the linear double-stranded dna genome fuse to form circular forms. to investigate the mechanisms in the generation and cleavage of such replicative-form dnas, the genomic termini, the fusion of termini from replicative-form molecules, and the junction between the short and long genome segments have been analyzed by restriction mapping, blot hybridizations, cloning, and sequencing. the data suggest that the genome ends are ...19902153249
coexpression by vaccinia virus recombinants of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gp13 and gp14 results in potentiated immunity.the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein 14 (ehv-1 gp14) gene was cloned, sequenced, and expressed by vaccinia virus recombinants. recombinant virus vp613 elicited the production of ehv-1-neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs and was effective in protecting hamsters from subsequent lethal ehv-1 challenge. coexpression of ehv-1 gp14 in vaccinia virus recombinant vp634 along with ehv-1 gp13 (p. guo, s. goebel, s. davis, m. e. perkus, b. languet, p. desmettre, g. allen, and e. paoletti, j. virol. 63: ...19902157895
one way protection between equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 in vivo.two groups each of six sibling ponies were exposed to sequential infections with equid herpesvirus 1 or 4 (ehv-1 or ehv-4) at four or five month intervals. two exposures to ehv-4 did not significantly reduce virus shedding or pyrexia when the ponies were subsequently exposed to ehv-1. however, two sequential infections with ehv-1 completely protected against challenge with ehv-4. virus neutralising antibody in each group did not increase until 21 days after primary exposure and was subtype speci ...19902159176
the pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the mouse: a new model for studying host responses to the infection.an infection was established in adult balb/c mice by means of intranasal inoculation of the ab4 strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). the acute infection was confined to the respiratory tract and blood. virus was shown to replicate in the nasal mucosa, trachea and lung for several days producing clinical signs of disease. viraemia was also detected and a small proportion of peripheral blood cells contained virus at the peak of the infection. histological and electron microscopic evidence ...19902161048
effective chemotherapy of equine herpesvirus 1 by phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivatives of adenine demonstrated in a novel murine model for the disease.equine herpesvirus 1 was established in adult mice by means of intranasal inoculation. a disease developed that showed several features closely resembling the infection in the natural host. these included the restriction of virus replication to the respiratory tract and blood, the replication of virus in ciliated mucosa, and development of viremia for several days during the acute phase of the infection. infected mice were treated with the antiviral agent (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxyprop ...19902163242
characterization of the high mr glycoprotein (gp300) of equine herpesvirus type 1 as a novel glycoprotein with extensive o-linked carbohydrate.the high mr glycoprotein (gp300) of equine herpesvirus type 1 was found to have an mr, estimated by sds-page, of over 400,000 and was confirmed as being a surface glycoprotein by 125i-labelling. in contrast to [3h]glucosamine, gp300 showed very low levels of [3h]glucosamine, gp300 showed very low levels of [3h]mannose incorporation. the mr of gp300 showed no detectable change upon treatment of purified virus with n-glycanase, and showed only a small change in virus-infected cells treated with tu ...19902172454
organization and function of the oris sequence in the genome of ehv-1 di particles.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) cultures enriched for defective interfering particles (dip) mediate oncogenic transformation and persistent infection in permissive hamster embryo fibroblasts. we have recently demonstrated that an origin of replication (ori) is located within the central portion (map units 0.828 and 0.948) of the inverted repeat sequence (irs) of the short region of the standard ehv-1 genome. in the generation of the genome of ehv-1 di particles, sequences from this internal po ...19902173265
antiviral activity of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanine against equine herpesvirus type 1 hh-1 strain and pseudorabies virus ys-81 strain. 19902177802
infarction of the pons and medulla oblongata caused by arteriolar thrombosis in a horse.infarction of the pons and rostral medulla secondary to arteriolar thrombosis was documented histologically in a 17-year-old mixed-arabian female horse. clinically, the animal experienced a sudden onset of a head tilt and subsequent non-controllable seizures. there was no historical, clinical or histological evidence to suggest the presence of infection of equine herpesvirus-1 or the feeding of corn contaminated by fusarium moniliforme.19902364707
innate immunity during equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection.intrinsic phagocytosis and killing of c. albicans by equine monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmn) was examined during equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) (subtypes 1 or 2) and adenovirus infections. monocyte function increased during ehv-1 subtype 2 and adenovirus infection. conversely, there was an impairment of monocyte ingestion during ehv-1 subtype 1 infection which was ascribed to virus replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. pmn phagocytosis was not decreased in any of the in ...19862431815
equine rhinopneumonitis. 19892543118
identification of the gb homologues of equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 as disulphide-linked heterodimers and their characterization using monoclonal antibodies.equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) labelled with [14c]glucosamine were purified from infected cell culture medium and profiles of their structural proteins were obtained that enabled identification of the major glycoproteins. nine glycosylated polypeptides were identified for each virus. preparations of the purified viruses each contained a glycoprotein which was linked by disulphide bonds, as determined by diagonal gel electrophoresis under reducing/non-reducing conditions. high ...19892543773
equine herpesvirus. 19892546317
expression in recombinant vaccinia virus of the equine herpesvirus 1 gene encoding glycoprotein gp13 and protection of immunized animals.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene encoding glycoprotein 13 (gp13) was cloned into the hemagglutinin (ha) locus of vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain). expression of the gp13 gene was driven by the early/late vaccinia virus h6 promoter. metabolically radiolabeled polypeptides of approximately 47 and 44 kilodaltons and 90 kilodaltons (glycosylated form) were precipitated with both polyclonal and gp13-specific monoclonal antibodies. presentation of gp13 on the cytoplasmic membrane of cells infec ...19892550665
mapping the termini and intron of the spliced immediate-early transcript of equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has been shown to synthesize a 6.0-kilobase (kb) species of immediate-early (ie) mrna in productively infected cells. this ie gene region maps within the outer portion (map units 0.79 to 0.83 and 0.96 to 1.00) of the two inverted repeat segments of the short genomic region, and elucidation of its dna sequence has revealed multiple potential open reading frames (orfs), including a major orf of 4,461 nucleotides (f. j. grundy, r. p. baumann, and d. j. o'callaghan, viro ...19892555546
towards a vaccine against equine herpesvirus 1. 19892559691
nucleocapsid mass and capsomer protein stoichiometry in equine herpesvirus 1: scanning transmission electron microscopic study.the brookhaven scanning transmission electron microscope was employed to measure the masses of two nucleocapsid species (of light and intermediate densities) of equine herpesvirus 1. these were found to be 196.7 +/- 9.2 and 229.0 +/- 9.5 megadaltons (mda), respectively. biochemical assays showed that neither nucleocapsid contained any significant amount of dna (less than 0.2% [wt/wt]). taking into account data on protein composition, we conclude that the difference between their masses is essent ...19892760983
serological and virological investigations of an equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) abortion storm on a stud farm in 1985.an extensive outbreak of ehv-1 abortions occurred on a stud farm in england in 1985. of the 67 pregnant mares present on the stud farm, 31 were challenged with ehv-1, resulting in the loss of 22 fetuses or foals. laboratory investigations revealed that the spread of the virus closely followed movement of apparently healthy mares (during the incubation period of the infection). during the outbreak mares were challenged 1-4 months before the expected foaling date. there was no relationship between ...19872824770
characterization of two equine herpesvirus (ehv) isolates associated with neurological disorders in horses. 19872829471
foetal and neonatal foal losses on equine herpesvirus type 1(ehv-1) infected farms before and after ehv-1 vaccination was introduced.on 6 farms with a history of ehv-1 abortions the overall prevalence of losses due to abortion, stillbirth and neonatal foal mortality during 5 foaling seasons preceding the introduction of vaccination against ehv-1 were compared with corresponding data for 8 subsequent seasons in which all horses were immunized with a modified live ehv-1 vaccine. although both sporadic and epizootic ehv-1 abortions occurred in immunized mares, the numbers of foetal and neonatal foal losses decreased significantl ...19862830601
demonstration of equine herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) in histological sections and tissue cultures by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique. 19872830744
neuropathogenicity for suckling mice of equine herpesvirus 1 from the lipizzan outbreak 1983 and of selected other ehv 1 strains. 19872830747
[new observations in the diagnosis of ehv (equine herpes virus) abortions].over the last years the percentage of foals lost by ehv at term or close to term seems to be higher than in former years. furthermore, the pathological findings seem to shift from liver to lung. so far there has been no explanation for this phenomenon.19872831640
a suspected case of equine herpesvirus 1 encephalomyelitis. 19872833882
agents of equine viral encephalomyelitis: correlation of serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies.a survey was conducted by testing 115 paired equine serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples by hemagglutination-inhibition for antibodies to powassan and snowshoe hare viruses, and by virus neutralization for antibodies to equine herpesvirus type 1. twenty-five samples were from horses with spontaneous neurological disease and the remainder from horses euthanized because of various nonneurological disorders. all sera and cerebrospinal fluids were negative for antibodies to powassan virus. fifty-on ...19882836046
isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against an attenuated vaccine strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1).the production and differentiation of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the rac-h strain of ehv-1 used as an attenuated live vaccine to prevent rhinopneumonitis and abortion is described. seven different antigenic sites were detected by the 15 mabs produced. ehv-1 specific mabs as well as ehv-1 and -4 common mabs could be established, allowing easy typing of ehv isolates. one mab recognized the vaccine strain only. this reaction was used to investigate a possible involvement of the vaccine st ...19882847404
abortion and perinatal foal mortality associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 in a herd of grevy's zebra. 19862851577
antigenic and biochemical analysis of gb of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and of cross-reacting glycoproteins induced by bovine mammillitis virus and equine herpesvirus type 1.an antiserum was produced to the oligomeric form of glycoprotein b (gb) induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17. this antiserum gave a single common precipitin line in agar gel immunodiffusion with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus (bmv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). it also neutralized hsv-1, hsv-2 and bmv but not ehv-1. absorption of the antiserum with excess hsv-2 or bmv antigen resulted in an hsv-1-specific neutralizing antiserum. in immunoprecipitation, two pr ...19852981966
equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) latency: more questions than answers. 19852996877
neurologic diseases.the responses of apparently healthy newborn foals to neurologic testing differ significantly from those of adult horses. these responses and the diagnostic techniques pertinent to neurologic problems are reviewed as a basis for evaluation of the compromised neonatal foal. the more frequently encountered neurologic diseases are discussed in a problem-oriented format. these clinical problems include behavioral abnormalities, convulsions, changes in consciousness, blindness, ataxia without loss of ...19853000543
equine herpesvirus type 1 abortion in an onager and suspected herpesvirus myelitis in a zebra. 19853001004
isolation of equine herpesvirus 1 from the brain of a horse affected with paresis. 19853002312
genomic and antigenic comparison of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) isolate from the 1983 lippizan abortion storm with ehv 1 reference strains.an ehv 1 isolate from the lippizan stud at piber, which caused the abortion and paresis outbreak in 1983, was investigated using 3 known subtype 1 and 2 subtype 2 strains for comparison. broad-scale restriction enzyme analysis as well as cross-neutralization with hyperimmune sera produced in rabbits were performed, and sds-page of infected cell proteins was conducted on a limited scale. the piber isolate was clearly classified as a subtype 1 strain of ehv 1, and showed closest resemblance in its ...19863012290
equine herpesvirus genomes: heterogeneity of naturally occurring type 4 isolates and of a type 1 isolate after heterologous cell passage.the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of 20 low passage, epidemiologically unrelated isolates of equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) showed considerable heterogeneity in certain fragments, the positions of which were assigned to quite restricted positions on the 141 kilobase (kb) genome. we note that the heterogeneity observed in the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of ehv 1 (equine abortion virus) and of pseudorabies virus also tend to map to these same restric ...19863022687
segmental atresia of the transverse colon in a foal with concurrent equine herpes virus-1 infection.segmental atresia of the transverse colon was observed at necropsy in a neonatal foal. the dorsal and ventral components of the large colon were fused, and ended blindly. the small colon was collapsed and completely closed at its cranial end. the right and left dorsal and ventral colons were fused into one blind-ended tube. histologically, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies demonstrative of equine rhinopneumonitis were present in the thymus.19873032513
[infectious course of equine herpesvirus 1 infection in a riding stable]. 19873032556
[application of the passive hemagglutination test to the study of equine rhinopneumonitis. ii. serologic study in horses]. 19863035677
use of lambda gt11 and monoclonal antibodies to map the genes for the six major glycoproteins of equine herpesvirus 1.to localize the genes for the major glycoproteins of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), a library of the ehv-1 genome was constructed in the lambda gt11 expression vector. recombinant bacteriophage expressing ehv-1 glycoprotein epitopes as fusion products with beta-galactosidase were detected by immunoscreening with monoclonal antibodies specific for each of six ehv-1 glycoproteins. seventy-four recombinant lambda gt11 clones reactive with ehv-1 monoclonal antibodies were detected among 4 x 10(5) pha ...19873037108
heat-inactivated frog virus 3 selectively inhibits equine herpesvirus type 1 translation in a temporal class-dependent manner.superinfection of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-infected rabbit kidney cells with heat-inactivated frog virus 3 (delta fv3) differentially blocked ehv-1 protein synthesis. the extent of inhibition varied with the specific ehv-1 message, but in general late protein synthesis was inhibited more than early and immediate early translation. since fv3 has been shown to block heterologous rna and protein synthesis, it was necessary to determine whether the observed reduction in herpesvirus protein ...19863727402
evidence for a relationship between equine abortion (herpes) virus deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and the s phase of the kb cell mitotic cycle.autoradiographic analyses of deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) synthesis in randomly growing kb cell cultures infected with equine abortion virus (eav) suggested that viral dna synthesis was initiated only at times that coincided with the entry of noninfected control cells into the s phase of the cell cycle. synchronized cultures of kb cells were infected at different stages of the cell cycle, and rates of synthesis of cellular and viral dna were measured. when cells were infected at different times w ...19714254680
on immunity to disease caused by equine herpesvirus 1. 19694307796
effect of antiviral agents in equine abortion virus-infected hamsters.equine abortion virus, a member of the herpesvirus group, produces a lethal infection in hamsters. with this system, the protective effect of certain inhibitors of deoxyribonucleic acid viruses, inducers of interferon and exogenous interferon, was evaluated. of the various agents studied, 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine markedly suppressed mortality, and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, distamycin a, and n-ethylisatin beta-thiosemicarbazone were inactive. of the inducers tested, statolon, ultraviolet-ir ...19724376907
comparison of four horse herpesviruses.four equine herpesviruses (equine abortion virus, equine herpesvirus types 2 and 3, and equine cytomegalovirus) were compared. the equine abortion virus did not cross-neutralize with any of the other viruses, but the other three did show varying degrees of cross-neutralization among themselves. equine abortion virus grew more quickly in tissue cultures than did the others, and attained higher titers of infectivity in the culture fluid; it also formed plaques in a wider range of tissue culture sp ...19694982831
[research into the inactivation effect of surface-active substances on the rhinopneumonitis virus in horses (equine abortion virus)]. 19685683868
mycoplasmal deoxyribonuclease activity in virus-infected l-cell cultures.cell-free extracts of mycoplasma hominis and medium from 72-hr broth cultures had deoxyribonuclease activity like that of deoxyribonuclease i. mg(++) stimulated activity, and the ph optimum was between 8.0 and 9.0. double-stranded or heatdenatured deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) served as a substrate, and oligonucleotides were produced. cell-free extracts of l cells infected with m. hominis or m. hominis plus equine abortion virus (equine herpes virus, eav) had greatly increased activity over that o ...19695782042
growth kinetics of equine respiratory tract viruses in cell and organ cultures.growth kinetics of equine influenza virus-a1, equine herpesvirus-1, and equine rhinovirus-1 were determined in susceptible cell monolayers and in organ cultures of equine fetal tracheal and nasal turbinate epithelium. equine influenza virus-a1 was replicated in cell and organ cultures and was released more readily and for longer periods from nasal turbinate epithelium than from tracheal epithelium. equine herpesvirus-1 was also replicated in cell and organ cultures. during the first 24 hours aft ...19846093640
the prospects for antiviral chemotherapy in veterinary medicine. 19816167058
antigenic and structural conservation of herpesvirus dna-binding proteins.previously, we have shown a common antigen of several herpesviruses (pseudorabies virus, equine abortion virus and bovine mammillitis virus) to be antigenically related to the major dna-binding proteins of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. in this study we have purified the cross-reacting polypeptide from cells infected with pseudorabies virus, equine abortion virus and bovine mammillitis virus and shown the cross-reacting protein to be a major dna-binding protein for each virus. tryptic pepti ...19816171613
immunologic relationships between equine herpesvirus type 1 (equine abortion virus) and type 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus).the specificity of selected immune responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) was examined in 3 colostrum-deprived specific-pathogen-free foals. single foals were vaccinated with inactivated ehv-1, inactivated ehv-4, or control cell lysate plus adjuvant followed by successive intranasal challenge exposures with ehv-1 and ehv-4 or with ehv-4 and ehv-1. vaccination with inactivated virus preparations elicited cellular immune responses and antibody which were augmented by sub ...19846208822
oncogenic transformation by equine herpesviruses (ehv). i. properties of hamster embryo cells transformed by ultraviolet-irradiated ehv-1. 19806244694
vaccination of pregnant ponies against equine rhinopneumonitis.bovine herpesvirus 1247 (one dose) was given subcutaneously to five pregnant pony mares between 227 and 319 days of their gestations. there were no adverse clinical reactions, and the virus was not recovered from nasal swabs collected during a 2-week period after vaccination. four ponies foaled full-term, live, healthy foals. the foal of the fifth mare (no. 1) was found dead, but on the basis of the pathologic and virologic examinations, the virus was not considered to be the cause of the death. ...19806254412
complement requirement for virus neutralization by antibody and reduced serum complement levels associated with experimental equine herpesvirus 1 infection.pony foals, negative for detectable serum-neutralizing antibody to equine herpesvirus 1 by the standard tube-culture virus neutralization test, were experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus 1. complement-requiring (cr) and non-complement-requiring (ncr) serum-neutralizing antibodies were evaluated in preinfection and postinfection sera by means of a complement-enhanced plaque reduction assay. low levels of cr antibodies were found in the preinfection sera of only group ii ponies. upon inf ...19816260672
herpesviral diseases affecting reproduction in the horse. 19806262988
infection of the central nervous system of horses with equine herpesvirus serotype 1.during the last 2 years different equine herpesviruses serotype 1 strains have been isolated from cases of paretic or paralytic disease among horses in the federal republic of germany. in this paper the available information is collated and briefly reviewed. a short description of the symptoms and the possible mechanism of the pathogenesis are given.19816273556
[comparative studies of the efficacy of paramunity inducer pind-avi, mitogen pha-p and rhinopneumonitis virus on peripheral leukocytes in the horse]. 19816275637
serologic and molecular comparisons of several equine herpesvirus type 1 strains.the molecular and serologic relatedness of 2 recent respiratory tract isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1, designated t1 and t2, were compared with the army 183, kentucky-a hamster-adapted (kya-ha), and l-m cell-adapted (kya-lm) strains. electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels revealed differences in virion structural proteins among 4 purified strains. seven envelope glycoproteins (molecular weight of 93,000, 65,000, 62,000, 60,000, 36,000, 20,000, and 18,000) corresponding to virion proteins 1 ...19816280520
equine influenza infections in great britain, 1979. 19826287694
variation in cellular tropism between isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 in foals.subtype-1 isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) from a quadriplegic horse and from an aborted foetus were compared with each other and with a subtype-2 respiratory isolate. all 3 isolates were detected in the epithelium and macrophages of the respiratory tract. both the paresis and foetal subtype-1 isolates replicated in the epithelium of the ileum and this correlated with the recovery of virus from faeces in vivo. the paresis subtype-1 isolate also had a predelection for vascular endothelial ...19826297429
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