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the transovarial transmission of babesia caballi by hyalomma truncatum.babesia caballi, isolated from a horse that originated from south west africa/namibia, was transmitted transovarially by adult hyalomma truncatum. b. caballi proved to be highly infective for adult h. truncatum. forty-five per cent of ticks feeding on a reacting animal with an extremely low parasitaemia became infected. in spite of a low parasitaemia, the ticks were severely affected by the parasite. seventy per cent of the infected ticks either died during oviposition or after laying only a few ...19902339004
prevalence of piroplasmosis in equines in the colombian province of cordoba.eighty-two equine sera from 13 farms in northern colombia were examined for antibodies to babesia caballi and b. equi using the complement fixation (cf) and the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test. seroreactors to both piroplasms were present on all farms. the ifa test indicated a prevalence of 90% for b. caballi and 94% for b. equi. the cf test detected antibodies to b. caballi in 41% and to b. equi in 65% of the animals. the prevalence of seroreactors in different age groups revealed a si ...19883041656
equine piroplasmosis: indirect fluorescent antibody test for babesia caballi. 19684865734
some effects of parasitism by babesia caballi on the tropical horse tick, dermacentro (=anocentor) nitens. 19704986167
equine piroplasmosis: complement-fixation titers of horses infected with babesia caballi. 19695813666
a comparison of the complement fixation and immunofluorescent antibody tests in a survey of the prevalence of babesia equi and babesia caballi in horses in the sultanate of oman.the incidence of antibodies to babesia equi and b. caballi in horses in the royal stables of his majesty the sultan of oman was assessed by complement fixation (cf) and immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) tests. two series of samples taken with a 2-year interval, mainly from animals reared in oman, indicated a stable but high prevalence of antibodies. on the 2 occasions 94.6 and 97.7% respectively were positive to b. equi by ifa and 76.8 and 75.0% were positive by cf. for b. caballi the correspondi ...19806989066
identification of diagnostic antigens for south american babesia caballi infections.sera from 60 horses held in breeding herd in brazil were examined monthly by elisa, immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) and western blot. all foals had maternal antibodies detectable by elisa and ifat, and sero-conversion took place between the 2nd and 5th month of age. the 48 and 50 kda antigens were recognized first in the course of infection. of 79 sera taken after sero-conversion 78 reacted with the 48 kda antigen, 76 with the 50 kda, 50 with the 70 kda, 54 with the 112 kda, 72 with the ...19948026903
monoclonal antibody against babesia equi: characterization and potential application of antigen for serodiagnosis.monoclonal antibody (mab) beg3 was produced against babesia equi parasites to define a species-specific antigen for diagnostic use. the mab reacted with single, paired, and maltese cross forms of b. equi, and no reaction was observed with this mab on acetone-fixed babesia caballi, babesia ovata, or babesia microti parasites in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. confocal laser and immunoelectron microscopic studies showed that the antigen which was recognized by this mab was located on ...19989650921
detection of equine antibodies to babesia caballi by recombinant b. caballi rhoptry-associated protein 1 in a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) was developed for detection of equine antibodies specific for babesia caballi. the assay used recombinant b. caballi rhoptry-associated protein 1 (rap-1) and monoclonal antibody (mab) 79/17.18.5, which is reactive with a peptide epitope of a native 60-kda b. caballi antigen. the gene encoding the recombinant antigen was sequenced, and database analysis revealed that the gene product is a rhoptry-associated protein. cloning and e ...199910364599
molecular detection of babesia equi and babesia caballi in horse blood by pcr amplification of part of the 16s rrna gene.babesia equi and babesia caballi are tick-borne haemoparasites that may cause babesiosis of equidae. in southern europe b. equi is enzootic and infections may occur asymptomatically and more frequently than those due to b. caballi. complement fixation test (cft) is the official serological test for the diagnosis of equine babesiosis, but it has low sensitivity during early and latent stages of the disease. with the aim of developing more sensitive and rapid direct diagnostic alternatives, pcr sy ...199910435792
procedurally similar competitive immunoassay systems for the serodiagnosis of babesia equi, babesia caballi, trypanosoma equiperdum, and burkholderia mallei infection in horses.procedurally similar competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (celisa) methods were developed for the serodiagnosis of babesia equi and babesia caballi (piroplasmosis), trypanosoma equiperdum (dourine), and burkholderia mallei (glanders) infections in horses. apparent test specificities for the b. equi, b. caballi, t. equiperdum, and b. mallei celisas were 99.2%, 99.5%, 98.9%, and 98.9%, respectively. concordances and kappa values between the complement fixation (cf) and the celisa procedures for t ...200010690775
detection of babesia caballi infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant 48-kda merozoite rhoptry protein.the 48-kda babesia caballi merozoite rhoptry protein was expressed using a pgex4t expression vector in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase fusion protein (gst-bc48), and the expressed gst-bc48 was used in an elisa to detect specific antibodies in serum samples. no cross-reaction was observed with sera from horses experimentally infected with babesia equi. gst-bc48 elisa was a highly sensitive and specific test when compared with the cft. a total of 209 horse sera obtained from central ...200010779577
in vitro isolation of equine piroplasms derived from cape mountain zebra (equus zebra zebra) in south africa.twenty blood samples of zebras (equus zebra zebra) from the karoo national park and the bontebok national park in south africa, all seropositive for theileria equi, were subjected to in vitro culture to identify carrier animals and to isolate the parasites. sixteen animals had a detectable parasitaemia in giemsa-stained blood smears examined before culture initiation, the remaining four animals were identified as t. equi carriers by in vitro culture. cultures were initiated either in an oxygen-r ...200212356165
pharmacokinetics of imidocarb dipropionate in horses after intramuscular administration.the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic behaviour of imidocarb in horses following a single i.m. injection at the dose commonly administered to treat babesia caballi infections or to prevent babesiosis. eight horses were injected i.m. with a single dose of 2.4 mg imidocarb dipropionate/kg bwt and blood, faecal, urine and milk samples were collected. for imidocarb determination, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method (hplc) was used after weak cation-exchange so ...200212358005
seroepidemiologic studies on babesia equi and babesia caballi infections in horses in jilin province of china.the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis caused by babesia equi and babesia caballi in northeast china has remained unknown, although the people's republic of china is recognized as an endemic country for the diseases. in the present study, we investigated the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in jilin province, a part of northeast china. a total of 111 serum samples were taken from horses in eastern jilin, and examined for diagnosis of b. equi and b. caballi infections by the enzyme-linked immun ...200314532697
development of a single-round and multiplex pcr method for the simultaneous detection of babesia caballi and babesia equi in horse blood.with the aim of developing more simple diagnostic alternatives, a differential single-round and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method was designed for the simultaneous detection of babesia caballi and babesia equi, by targeting 18s ribosomal rna genes. the multiplex pcr amplified dna fragments of 540 and 392 bp from b. caballi and b. equi, respectively, in one reaction. the pcr method evaluated on 39 blood samples collected from domestic horses in mongolia yielded similar results to t ...200515817201
babesia caballi and babesia equi: implications of host sialic acids in erythrocyte infection.the present study investigated the involvement of host sialic acids in the erythrocyte infection by two equine babesia parasites, babesia equi and babesia caballi. we observed that the in vitro growth of both parasites is influenced by the removal of sialic acids from the surface of equine erythrocytes (rbc). when the parasites were cultured with neuraminidase (nm, ec 3.2.1.18)-treated rbc, in which alpha2-3-linked sialic acid residues were removed from four membrane proteins of the rbc, b. caba ...200515869756
new diseases and increased risk of diseases in companion animals and horses due to transport.dogs and horses are transported within the european union for a number of reasons. the transport per se may cause physical problems, exemplified by hyperthermia in dogs and pleuropneumonia in horses, and the stress may reactivate latent infections such as canine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-1. preventive treatments are vital to protect dogs from ticks and mosquitoes transmitting their potentially lethal infectious agents, such as leishmania donovani infantum, babesia canis, ehrlichia can ...200316429803
equine piroplasmoses at the reintroduction site of the przewalski's horse (equus ferus przewalskii) in mongolia.piroplasmosis has been identified as a possible cause of mortality in reintroduced przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii) in the dsungarian gobi (mongolia). a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study were conducted in a representative sample (n = 141) of the resident domestic horse population and in 23 przewalski's horses to assess the prevalence of theileria equi and babesia caballi. piroplasms were detected in blood by light microscopy in 6.7% (95% confidence interval [ci]: 3.6-12.2%) o ...200617092882
a serological study of babesia caballi and theileria equi in thoroughbreds in trinidad.ninety-three (93) horses were investigated for serum antibodies to theileria equi (t. equi) and babesia caballi (b. caballi) using the immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). seventy-seven (82.8%) horses were seropositive; 31 (33.3%) were positive to t. equi compared to 64 (68.8%) to b. caballi while 18 (19.4%) horses were seropositive to both parasites. no significant differences in antibody frequencies among females and males for either t. equi or b. caballi were noted. differences in seroposi ...200717118557
age-dependent dynamics of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in southwest mongolia based on ifat and/or pcr prevalence data from domestic horses and ticks.epidemiological factors of tick-borne equine piroplasmoses, caused by theileria equi and babesia caballi, were investigated using logistic regression (glm) and general additive models (gam) based on the prevalences determined in 510 domestic horses and in ticks in s.w. mongolia by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) and/or multiplex pcr. prevalences of t. equi and b. caballi in horses were 66.5% (95% ci: 62.1-70.7) and 19.1% (15.6-22.9), respectively by pcr and 78.8% (74.9-82.3) and ...200717306055
pathologic findings in reintroduced przewalski's horses (equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern mongolia.the przewalski's horse (equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. the species has survived because of captive breeding only. the takhin tal reintroduction project is run by the international takhi group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in mongolia. in 1997 the first harem group was released. the first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. currently, 63 przewalski's horses live in takhin tal. little information exists on causes ...200517323569
[detection of babesia caballi (nuttall, 1910) and theileria equi (syn. babesia equi , laveran, 1901) by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in show and sport horses in the region of ankara].the aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis of babesia caballi and theileria equi by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and microscopic examination of blood specimens collected from show and sport horses in the region of ankara in 2004. the blood specimens were collected from randomly selected 200 show and sport horses in the region of ankara during the tick season as well as before and after the tick season for pcr testing. at the same time, giemsa stained peripheral blood smears were e ...200717594644
seroprevalence of equine babesiosis in the black sea region of turkey.the prevalence of theileria equi and babesia caballi was determined in equid blood samples in five provinces of the black sea region of turkey by using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). of 153 samples, 53 (34.6%) and 33 (21.5%) were seropositive to b. caballi and t. equi, respectively. in addition, 8 (5.2%) of samples were seropositive to both t. equi and b. caballi. anti t. equi and b. caballi antibodies were detected in all five regions. the prevalence of b. caballi was higher tha ...200818234550
serological evidence for babesia canis infection of horses and an endemic focus of b. caballi in hungary.in order to evaluate the seroconversion of horses to babesia caballi and b. canis in hungary, blood samples were collected from 371 animals on 23 different locations of the country. the presence of antibodies to b. caballi was screened with a competitive elisa. all 29 positive samples came from one region (the hortobágy). the prevalence of infection did not show correlation with sexes, and reached 100% in the age group of 2-5 years. babesia canis-specific antibodies were demonstrated by ifat in ...200718277708
prevalence of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern free state province, south africa.the prevalence of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern free state province of south africa was determined by examination of thin and thick giemsa-stained blood smears, ifat and pcr. no parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study sites, qwaqwa, kestell, harrismith, vrede and warden. of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5%), 20/21 (95.2%) and 42/42 (100%) were positive by ifat for t. equi infections in harrismith, kestell and ...200818788207
anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks: a preliminary survey of central italy.anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, affects several species of wild and domesticated mammals, including horses. in this work we compared direct and indirect methods to evaluate a. phagocytophilum presence in central italy: 135 sera were screened by ifa for a. phagocytophilum and other haemopathogens (theileria equi and babesia caballi). each horse was also tested for a. phagocytophilum 16s rrna with a nested-pcr technique. in order to examine the risk of ...201018805584
sequence heterogeneity in the 18s rrna gene within theileria equi and babesia caballi from horses in south africa.a molecular epidemiological survey of the protozoal parasites that cause equine piroplasmosis was conducted using samples collected from horses and zebra from different geographical locations in south africa. a total of 488 samples were tested for the presence of theileria equi and/or babesia caballi using the reverse line blot hybridization assay. ten percent of the samples hybridized to the theileria/babesia genus-specific probe and not to the b. caballi or t. equi species-specific probes, sug ...200919019541
prevalence and diagnosis of babesia and theileria infections in horses in italy: a preliminary study.babesia caballi and theileria equi are the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis. in this preliminary epidemiological study, 412 horses reared in central and northern italy were sampled and three diagnostic methods compared, namely, the microscopy, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) and a pcr. possible risk factors (such as area, season, breed, activity, sex, age, and grazing) associated with serological positivity were evaluated. a seroprevalence of 68.4% was found: 12.4% of the a ...201019394253
evaluation of the in vitro growth-inhibitory effect of epoxomicin on babesia parasites.epoxomicin potently and irreversibly inhibits the catalytic activity of proteasomal subunits. treatment of proliferating cells with epoxomicin results in cell death through accumulation of ubiquinated proteins. thus, epoxomicin has been proposed as a potential anti-cancer drug. in the present study, the inhibitory effects of epoxomicin on the in vitro growth of bovine and equine babesia parasites were evaluated. the inhibitory effect of epoxomicin on the in vivo growth of babesia microti was als ...201019896277
prevalence of equine piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the state of são paulo, brazil.serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the state of são paulo and tick (acari: ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (cft) and a competitive inhibition elisa (celisa) for babesia caballi and theileria equi. logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for b. caballi or t. equi) as a function of the independent ...200920040201
seroprevalence of babesia caballi and theileria equi in the swiss horse population.in switzerland, the prevalence and incidence of equine piroplasma parasite (epp) infections are unknown. in order to obtain a first insight into the prevalence, a representative sample of 689 sera of horses from switzerland was serologically tested for the presence of antibodies directed against t. equi and b. caballi using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat). a total of 50 (7.3%) horses were seropositive for epp: overall, the seroprevalence of t. equi was significantly higher than th ...201020178863
molecular detection of theileria equi and babesia caballi in the bone marrow of asymptomatic horses.equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, the aetiological agents of which are either theileria equi or babesia caballi parasites. piroplasmosis is commonly encountered in acute or sub-acute clinical forms although clinically recovered horses may remain asymptomatic but infected for several years. the clinical detection of such apparently healthy carrier horses (that serve as a host for subsequent infecting ticks), remains a worldwide challenge for controlling the spread of the disease. the ...201020185243
[an indirect elisa for the detection of babesia caballi in equine animals].to clone and express bc48 gene of babesia caballi, and to establish an indirect elisa for the diagnosis of b. caballi in equine animals.201020806504
serological prevalence of babesia caballi and theileria equi in horses of lara state, venezuela.the main objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (ep) in horses of lara state, venezuela, and to correlate it with the factors host's sex and age in order to know the epidemiology of this disease at the venezuelan centroccidental region. antibody levels to babesia caballi and theileria equi were assessed in 360 equine serum samples, collected from 9 municipalities of lara state, using an elisa technique with recombinant antigens and monoclonal antibodies ...201121273001
seroprevalence of equine piroplasms in the republic of korea.equine piroplasms include two tick-borne protozoan parasites, babesia caballi and theileria equi. although no clinical equine piroplasmosis has been reported in the republic of korea, the possible existence of the disease has been proposed due to a nationwide distribution of the vector ticks. to determine if the antibodies against b. caballi and t. equi were present, 184 sera of horses (equus caballus) raised in the republic of korea from 2007 to 2010 were assessed using celisa kits. two (1.1%) ...201121429670
failure of the amblyomma cajennense nymph to become infected by theileria equi after feeding on acute or chronically infected horses.tick-borne diseases in horses are caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites theileria equi and babesia caballi. although t. equi is highly endemic in latin america, the new world vector of this important parasite is controversial. the aim of this study was to test the ability of nymph amblyomma cajennense ticks acquire infection by t. equi following feeding on infected horses. three experiments were performed: tick acquisition of t. equi from an experimentally infected horse, tick acqu ...201121501609
prevalence of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis in the south west of the netherlands and the identification of two autochthonous clinical theileria equi infections.equine piroplasmosis (ep) has not been considered indigenous in the netherlands. however, following the detection of an apparently indigenous subclinical babesia caballi infection in a horse on schouwen-duiveland (an island in the zeeland province), a survey was undertaken between may and september 2010 to assess the prevalence of the causative agents of ep in the south-west of the netherlands. blood samples from 300 randomly selected horses were tested for specific antibodies against theileria ...201222266019
problems in the protection of reintroduced przewalski's horses (equus ferus przewalskii) caused by piroplasmosis.the objectives of our research on equine piroplasmosis were to clarify the prevalence of the piroplasms babesia caballi and theileria equi among reintroduced przewalski's horses (takhi, equus ferus przewalskii) in comparison with horses (equus caballus) of nomads from around hustai national park in mongolia and to determine the mortality among takhi during 2012 to 2015. the prevalence of t. equi was high in 2014 at 80% among nomadic horses and 84% among takhi. we found no evidence of b. caballi ...201728700320
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