endemic eastern equine encephalomyelitis in florida: a twenty-year analysis, 1955-1974.research and surveillance programs relating to the circulation of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in florida between 1955 and 1974 are summarized. all available data suggest that eee virus is 1) endemic in many florida fresh water swamps and waterways, 2) active in a continuous cycle throughout the year with a peak between may and august, and 3) circulating in culiseta melanura. it has been isolated also from eight other mosquito species.197612669
host feeding patterns of connecticut mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).blood-engorged coquillettidia perturbans, psorophora ferox, culex, culiseta, and aedes mosquitoes were collected principally by sweep net from salt marsh and woodland habitats in connecticut. of the 570 mosquitoes tested, precipitin tests identified the origins of 517 blood meals and revealed distinct host feeding patterns. aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals; a. abserratus, a. cantator, and a. vexans showed selectivity for cattle and (or) horses. a. cantator also obtained blood from avian h ...197717310
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in experimentally infected bats.colonial bats (myotis supp. and eptesicus sp.) were infected with eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus by subcutaneous inoculation or by the bite of infected mosquitoes. bats were maintained in an environment simulating conditions encountered in hibernacula or in summer maternal colonies. virus was detected in the blood of hibernating bats at irregular intervals over a 42-day observation period; viremia perhaps was influenced by the amount of disturbance (arousal) involved in the blood samplin ...197941109
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and culiseta melanura activity at the patuxent wildlife research center, 1985-90.mosquito population densities, virus isolations and seroconversion in sentinel quail were used to monitor eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) activity at the patuxent wildlife research center, laurel, maryland, from 1985 through 1990. a dramatic increase in the number of culiseta melanura collected in 1989, as compared with the 3 previous years, was associated with virus isolations from this species (5/75 pools; n = 542 mosquitoes) and with seroconversion in sentinel quail (4/22 birds p ...19921357091
trajectory analysis of winds and eastern equine encephalitis in usa, 1980-5.backward trajectories of winds were determined to identify possible sources of eastern equine encephalitis virus associated with isolation of virus from mosquitoes or birds or outbreaks in horses between 1980 and 1985 in maryland, new jersey, new york and michigan, usa. the results of the trajectory analyses suggested that eastern equine encephalitis virus could have been carried by infected mosquitoes on surface winds at temperatures 13 degrees c or higher from north carolina north-eastwards al ...19901969804
eastern equine encephalitis in quebec and connecticut, 1972: introduction by infected mosquitoes on the wind?in 1972 there were outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis in the eastern townships, quebec, canada and in connecticut, usa. climatic data including northern hemisphere synoptic charts were examined. the findings indicate that the virus could have been brought to lac brome by infected mosquitoes carried on surface winds from meriden, connecticut, on the night of august 22-23, 1972. the distance of 400 km would have been covered in 14-16 h at a speed of 25-30 km h-1 and at a temperature of 15 de ...19892563337
effects of triturated culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) on recovery of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.experiments were done to determine the effect, if any, of larval and adult culiseta melanura (coquillett) suspensions on the recovery of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in baby hamster kidney (bhk) and vero cell cultures. although triturated pools of this mosquito reduced the titer of eee virus added to suspensions, suspensions prepared from as many as 100 cs. melanura larvae or adults did not reduce titers of virus to undetectable levels. similarly, the titer of eee virus in orally ...19892570154
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in relation to the avian community of a coastal cedar swamp.eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) is perpetuated in eastern north america in a mosquito-wild bird maintenance cycle that involves culiseta melanura (coquillett) as the principal enzootic vector and passerine birds as the primary amplifying hosts. we examined the role of birds in the eeev cycle at a site in southern new jersey where eeev cycles annually at high levels. birds and mosquitoes were sampled during three epiornitics and one season of limited virus activity. we examined anti ...19947966175
evidence for multiple foci of eastern equine encephalitis virus (togaviridae:alphavirus) in central new york state.a regional surveillance system for eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus was established in central new york in 1984 after the 2nd human eee fatality occurred in 1983. extensive mosquito surveillance activities were coordinated with the rapid laboratory processing of mosquito specimens for eee virus. active surveillance for eee infections in humans and equines also was initiated. results of long-term surveillance detected the presence of multiple culiseta breeding swamps. a 6-yr interepizootic ...19968667390
vector competence of mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) from massachusetts for a sympatric isolate of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.we tested susceptibility to per os infection and potential salivary transmission for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in aedes canadensis (theobald), aedes vexans (meigen), anopheles quadrimaculatus (say), anopheles punctipennis (say), coquillettidia perturbans (walker), and culex salinarius (coquillett). culiseta melanura (coquillett), the documented enzootic vector of eee virus, was our control. based on these estimates of laboratory vector competence and other behavioral and ecolo ...19979151501
impact of naled (dibrom 14) on the mosquito vectors of eastern equine encephalitis central new york, aerial mosquito adulticide applications have been used in response to eastern equine encephalitis (eee) outbreaks and have targeted the swamp habitats of the primary enzootic vector of eee virus, culiseta melanura (coquillett). the organophosphate insecticide naled (1, 2, dibromo-2, 2-dichloroethyl dimethyl phosphate) has been the insecticide of choice in this region. this study reports on analyses of 11 years (1984-94) of mosquito collection data from cicero and toad harbor ...19979474556
multiple isolations of eastern equine encephalitis and highlands j viruses from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) during a 1996 epizootic in southeastern connecticut.thirty-six isolations of eastern equine encephalitis virus were obtained from 8 species of mosquitoes collected from 5 september through 18 october 1996 during an epizootic in southeastern connecticut. these included culiseta melanura (coquillett) (19 isolates), culex pipiens l. (8), culiseta morsitans (theobald) (3), aedes sollicitans (walker) (2), aedes cantator (coquillett) (1), aedes trivittatus (coquillett) (1), aedes vexans (meigen) (1), and coquillettidia perturbans (walker) (1). isolatio ...19989615549
effect of temperature on the development of culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) and its impact on the amplification of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds.eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) is perpetuated in a maintenance cycle that involves culiseta melanura (coquillett) as the enzootic vector and passerine birds as the amplifying hosts. amplification of virus in any given year requires an influx of nulliparous cs. melanura in the presence of susceptible avian hosts. we conducted laboratory experiments at constant temperatures from 10 to 34 degrees c to develop thermal heat summation models to predict emergence in nature. embryonic deve ...19989835694
reduction of culiseta melanura fitness by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.the traditional view of interactions between arboviruses and their arthropod vectors is that vector hosts become increasingly resistant to parasites; parasite attenuation occurs; or through the process of coevolution, resistance and attenuation occur in concert. detrimental effects from arboviruses are only seen when vector and virus are not yet well adapted. results from this study indicate that eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus reduces survival and reproduction (fitness) of the mosq ...19989715958
arbovirus surveillance in south carolina, 1996-98.arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in south carolina (usa) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee), st. louis encephalitis virus (sle), flanders virus, tensaw virus (ten), and a variant of jamestown canyon virus (jc). mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 south carolina counties beginning in june 1996, and ending in october 1998, and tested for arboviruses. of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mo ...200111345423
experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by ochlerotatus j. japonicus (diptera: culicidae).we evaluated the potential for ochlerotatus j. japonicus (theobald), a newly recognized invasive mosquito species in the united states, to transmit eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus. aedes albopictus (skuse) and culex pipiens (l.) were similarly tested for comparison. ochlerotatus j. japonicus and ae. albopictus became infected and transmitted eee virus by bite after feeding on young chickens 1 d after they had been inoculated with eee virus (viremias ranging from 10(7.0-8.7) plaque-formin ...200212061444
isolation of eee virus from ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culiseta melanura in coastal south carolina.a 1-year arbovirus study was conducted at the wedge plantation located in coastal south carolina to determine the occurrence and level of arbovirus activity in mosquito species inhabiting the site. mosquito species composition and temporal abundance were also determined. a total of 45,051 mosquitoes representing 27 species in 9 genera was collected and identified during 130 trap-nights between august, 1997, and july, 1998. the most abundant species was culex salinarius (n = 20,954) followed by o ...200312674532
evaluation of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus during vector surveillance.a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was evaluated for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev). eeev was detected by amplification of a 416-bp pcr product from within the e2 gene. internal restriction endonuclease digestion and hybridizations to eeev rna demonstrated that the pcr product was amplified from eeev. pcr amplifications from serial dilutions of an eeev isolate identified by a neutralization test and titered by an infectious assay in c ...19968667394
experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by strains of aedes albopictus and a. taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae).the vector competence of aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) and four strains of aedes albopictus (skuse) was assessed for eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus isolated from ae. albopictus collected in polk county, florida. both species became infected with and transmitted eee virus by bite after feeding on 1-d-old chicks that had been inoculated with eee virus (viremia = 10(10.1) plaque-forming units [pfu] per ml of blood). however, when fed on an older chick with a lower viremia (viremia = 10( ...19948189419
mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997-2002 in a wetland in northeastern mississippi.the species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near iuka, ms, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a pcr-based method that allows identification of the host to species. culex erraticus (dyar & knab) composed 51.9% of the population during the 6-yr period with 295 f ...200415185956
rapid infection of salivary glands in culiseta melanura with eastern equine encephalitis virus: an electron microscopic study.transmission electron microscopy was used to determine if eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus infects and replicates in the salivary glands of culiseta melanura after 3 days of extrinsic incubation (ei). the cs. melanura studied were from a colony strain, were orally infected, and had ei periods of 55-69 hours. both naked nucleocapsids and enveloped virions were present in aggregates, suggestive of viral replication, within salivary gland acinar cells. nucleocapsids were present in the cytop ...19846148898
the distribution and development of eastern equine encephalitis virus in its enzootic mosquito vector, culiseta melanura.the timing and sequence of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus replication was studied in the organs from a colony strain of orally infected culiseta melanura. three methods of virus assay were used: fluorescent antibody (fa) staining of dissected organs; virus titration in cell culture of whole mosquitoes, dissected organs, hemolymph, and egg rafts; and transmission electron microscopy (tem) of infected hindguts. eee virus replicated rapidly in cs. melanura, first in the posterior midgut, a ...19846143511
phenology of trophic amd gonobiologic states in culiseta morsitans and culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae). 19846141295
epizootiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in upstate new york, usa. ii. population dynamics and vector potential of adult culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) in relation to distance from breeding site. 19806106718
infection and transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus with colonized culiseta melanura (coquillett). 19744150912
cotton rats and house sparrows as hosts for north and south american strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev; family togaviridae, genus alphavirus) is an arbovirus that causes severe disease in humans in north america and in equids throughout the americas. the enzootic transmission cycle of eeev in north america involves passerine birds and the ornithophilic mosquito vector, culiseta melanura, in freshwater swamp habitats. however, the ecology of eeev in south america is not well understood. culex (melanoconion) spp. mosquitoes are considered the principal vector ...201020735920
mortality of captive whooping cranes caused by eastern equine encephalitis virus.of 39 captive whooping cranes (grus americana), 7 died during a 7-week period (sept 17 through nov 4, 1984) at the patuxent wildlife research center, laurel, md. before their deaths, 4 cranes did not develop clinical signs, whereas the other 3 cranes were lethargic and ataxic, with high aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lactic acid dehydrogenase activities, and high uric acid concentrations. necropsies indicated that the birds had ascites, intestinal mucosal discoloration, ...19863505915
a prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of culiseta melanura.a prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (eia) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. a total of 10,811 adult female culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in maryland. eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in african green monkey kidney and ...19872904960
host associations of mosquitoes at eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in connecticut, usa.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus, with active transmission foci in freshwater hardwood swamps in eastern north america, where enzootic transmission is maintained between the ornithophilic mosquito, culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds. the role of other locally abundant mosquito species in virus transmission and their associations with vertebrate hosts as sources of blood meals within these foci are largely unknown but are of importa ...201627577939
insights into the recent emergence and expansion of eastern equine encephalitis virus in a new focus in the northern new england usa.eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds in freshwater hardwood swamps in the northeastern u.s. epidemic/epizootic transmission to humans/equines typically occurs towards the end of the transmission season and is generally assumed to be mediated by locally abundant and contiguous mammalophagic "bridge vector" mosquitoes.201526453283
vector-host interactions of culiseta melanura in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in southeastern virginia.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern usa. culiseta (cs.) melanura is the primary vector of eeev in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-atlantic region. the objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in ...201526327226
ecology of culiseta melanura and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from walton county, fl, during winter period 2013-2014.winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) in northern florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic eeev winter transmission. light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (november-april) of 2013 and 2014 in walton county, fl. overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the st ...201526336227
togavirus-associated pathologic changes in the midgut of a natural mosquito vector.arthropod-borne viruses were not previously believed to cause discernible pathologic changes in their natural mosquito vectors. we report cytopathologic lesions in the midgut of the mosquito, culiseta melanura, 2 to 5 days after oral infection with eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. sloughing of densely staining, heavily infected epithelial cells into the midgut lumen was observed by light and transmission electron microscopy, along with degeneration of cells within the epithelium. patholog ...19882896802
risk of exposure to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus increases with the density of northern cardinals.for a variety of infectious diseases, the richness of the community of potential host species has emerged as an important factor in pathogen transmission, whereby a higher richness of host species is associated with a lowered disease risk. the proposed mechanism driving this pattern is an increased likelihood in species-rich communities that infectious individuals will encounter dead-end hosts. mosquito-borne pathogen systems potentially are exceptions to such "dilution effects" because mosquito ...201323469095
isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from aedes sollicitans during an epizootic in southern new jersey.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee) was isolated from the salt marsh mosquito, aedes sollicitans, collected from coastal areas of new jersey on 3 occasions during the late summer and fall of 1982. the isolations were made at a time when local culiseta melanura were either undergoing a population increase or exhibiting high levels of eee virus. although no human cases were reported during the epizootic period, the data lend support to the hypothesis that ae. sollicitans is capable of function ...19862853203
habitat associations of eastern equine encephalitis transmission in walton county florida.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev; family togaviridae, genus alphavirus) a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne virus is endemic to eastern north america. the ecology of eeev in florida differs from that in other parts of the united states; eeev in the northeastern united states is historically associated with freshwater wetlands. no formal test of habitat associations of eeev in florida has been reported. geographical information sciences (gis) was used in conjunction with sentinel chicken ee ...022679885
duration of alphavirus neutralizing antibody in naturally infected birds.native birds, mostly passerine species, ecologically associated with culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis and highlands j viruses in the eastern united states, were examined over a 12-year period in southeastern massachusetts. these studies concentrated on those individual birds known, by banding returns, to be residents of large wooded swamps where both eastern equine encephalomyelitis and highlands j viruses were known to be enzootic. of 8,417 birds sample ...19882829638
mark-recapture studies on the culiseta (diptera: culicidae) vectors of eastern equine encephalitis virus.natural populations of culiseta melanura (coquillett) and cs. morsitans (theobald) were marked and released at three sites associated with the toad harbor-big bay swamp eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus focus in central new york. collections of culiseta from surveillance sites within 12.8 km of the release sites were screened for marked specimens. a total of 172 marked specimens were recaptured. the majority of recaptured mosquitoes were collected at sites associated with the swamp complex ...19892566686
patterns of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae).infection of the mosquito culiseta melanura (coquillett) by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was examined using transmission electron microscopy (tem) of whole tagmata and fluorescent antibody assay (fa) and infectious assay (ia) of dissected tissues. following infectious blood meals from chicks circulating different virus titers, mosquitoes were examined after extrinsic incubation intervals of 1-22 d. virus was first detected by fa and ia in midguts and nonalimentary tissues 24 h after in ...19901977915
the relationship between size and parity status of field collected culiseta melanura.the relationship between body size and parity status of adult female culiseta melanura collected from 3 locations in northeastern united states was studied by measuring wing lengths and examining ovaries of individual mosquitoes. virus isolation was attempted from cs. melanura collected in maryland and in new jersey. at all 3 locations, the size of cs. melanura collected varied from large in the spring, to small in the summer. in new jersey and maryland mosquitoes collected in the fall were agai ...19901977877
detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus deposition in culiseta melanura following ingestion of radiolabeled virus in blood meals.we examined deposition of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) in the alimentary tract of its enzootic mosquito vector, culiseta melanura, to detect potential sites of initial infection. artificial viremias were created by injecting purified [3h]uridine-labeled eeev intravenously into one-day-old chicks. mosquitoes were allowed to engorge, incubated 1-2 hr, fixed, and whole abdomens and thoraces of 25 specimens embedded. tagmata were sectioned, mounted on slides and coated with autoradi ...19911674647
eastern equine encephalitis in tennessee: 2002-2008.human and equine outbreaks caused by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) typically occur in north america adjacent to coastal wetlands associated with the presence of culiseta melanura (coquillet) mosquitoes. eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) is an emerging disease in tennessee, as the first records of equine disease began in 2002. in 2006 we trapped and tested mosquitoes for eeev at hardwood swamps in western tennessee that were at the epicenter of a multi-equine outbreak in fall ...201222679883
pathologic changes in the midgut of culex tarsalis following infection with western equine encephalomyelitis virus.midguts of two strains of the mosquito vector culex tarsalis were examined by light and electron microscopy following infection with western equine encephalomyelitis virus. infection of the highly susceptible knight's landing strain with high-titered blood meals resulted in pathologic changes in the midgut epithelium after 2-4 days of incubation; lesions included sloughing of epithelial cells into the lumen and necrosis of cells in situ. infection of knight's landing strain mosquitoes with low-t ...19921449210
pheasant susceptibility at different ages to eastern encephalitis virus from various sources in massachusetts.thirteen isolates of eastern encephalitis (ee) virus recovered from various hosts in massachusetts differed significantly in pathogenicity for pheasants, 21 days old or older, inoculated subcutaneously with graded doses of virus. among the least pathogenic were two isolates from culiseta melanura mosquitoes, and among the most pathogenic isolates was one of pheasant origin. nine-day-old pheasant chicks were highly susceptible to ee virus. mortality did not appear to be totally dose-related, for ...1978697655
an evaluation of the hypothesis of transovarial transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus by culiseta melanura.evidence for and against the hypothesis of transovarial transmission by culiseta melanura was obtained during an ongoing eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) surveillance and control program. evidence inconsistent with transovarial transmission included failure to isolated virus from 1,047 larvae, from 2,140 first-brood adults, or from 8,919 males collected at the same time as 3,977 nonblooded females which yielded 12 eee isolates. evidence supporting the hypothesis was the isolation of virus ...197831804
eastern equine encephalomyelitis in upstate new york: studies of a 1976 epizootic by a modified serologic technique, hemagglutination reduction, for rapid detection of virus extensive outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) occurred in upstate new york during the summer of 1976, with 37 cases confirmed in horses by isolation of virus and/or by serologic examination. other specimens collected in the affected area yielded 16 further isolates: 9 from 818 pools of 33,365 mosquitoes, 5 from tissues of 64 birds and 2 from 4 sentinel pheasants with serologic conversions. eee antibodies were also detected in 81 of 499 wild birds tested. our data implicate spar ...197831803
interrupted blood-feeding by culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae) on european determine whether culiseta melanura (coquillett) mosquitoes tend to take multiple blood meals when birds of certain species serve as hosts, we compared the frequencies with which such mosquitoes fed upon caged starlings and robins and determined whether similar volumes of blood were imbibed from each. the blood of robins (turdus migratorius) and european starlings (sturnus vulgaris) was marked contrastingly by injecting birds with rubidium or cesium salts. caged birds were placed together in ...200111268693
effects of initial dose on eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus dependent mortality in intrathoracically inoculated culiseta melanura (diptera: culicidae).viral growth characteristics that favor rapid and prodigious virion production may increase virus transmission but be detrimental to infected hosts. several arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, negatively affect the survival of their infected mosquito vectors. to test the hypothesis that the mosquito virulent properties of eee virus are caused by the presence of intrinsic viral growth properties, we investigated the effects of infecting dose on the survival of int ...200011126535
application of geographic information technology in determining risk of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission.geographic information system (gis) technology and remote sensing were used to identify landscape features determining risk of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) transmission as defined by the abundance of culiseta melanura (the enzootic vector) and 6 putative epidemic-epizootic vectors in massachusetts. landsat thematic mapper data combined with aerial videography data were used to generate a map of landscape elements at epidemic-epizootic foci in southeastern massachusetts. geographi ...200010757488
eastern equine encephalitis virus in birds: relative competence of european starlings (sturnus vulgaris).to determine whether eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus infection in starlings may be more fulminant than in various native candidate reservoir birds, we compared their respective intensities and durations of viremia. viremias are more intense and longer lasting in starlings than in robins and other birds. starlings frequently die as their viremia begins to wane; other birds generally survive. various aedes as well as culiseta melanura mosquitoes can acquire eee viral infection from infecte ...199910466964
transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central alabama.a site near tuskegee, alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in 2001. more than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, culiseta melanura, aedes vexans, coquillettidia perturbans, culex erraticus, and uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for eee virus. each species was infected at vario ...200312875303
isolations of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus from mosquitoes (culiseta melanura) collected in new jersey, 1953. 195413237273
seroprevalence of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in birds and larval survey of culiseta melanura coquillett during an interepizootic period in central ohio.from june through august in 1999 and 2000, we conducted an avian serosurvey for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus at killbuck marsh wildlife area (kmwa), a focus of infection in central ohio. we also monitored abundance of the suspected enzootic vector, culiseta melanura coquillett, in brown's lake bog, an adjacent wetland. of the 363 birds of 30 species sampled in 1999, three gray catbirds (dumetella carolinensis) were positive for antibodies to eee virus, representing 1.2% of the av ...200415266743
eastern equine encephalitis--new hampshire and massachusetts, august-september 2005.during august-september 2005, the new hampshire department of health and human services reported seven cases of human eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) disease, the first laboratory-confirmed, locally acquired cases of human eeev disease reported from new hampshire in 41 years of national surveillance. also during august--september 2005, the massachusetts department of public health reported four cases of human eeev disease, five times the annual average of 0.8 cases reported from massach ...200616810146
molecular identification of blood-meal sources in culiseta melanura and culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in new york.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus perpetuates in an enzootic cycle involving ornithophilic mosquito vectors, principally culiseta melanura (coquillett) and avian amplification hosts. to better understand the role of cs. melanura and culiseta morsitans (theobald) in the epizootiology of eee virus, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between 31 may and 15 october 2004 at two sites associated with an eee virus focus in central new york and identified the source of vertebrate blood by nucleotide ...200617172382
human eastern equine encephalitis in massachusetts: predictive indicators from mosquitoes collected at 10 long-term trap sites, 1979-2004.human eastern equine encephalitis (eee) is a life-threatening mosquito-borne disease. to determine whether mosquito abundance and eee virus infection rates are associated with human eee disease, we evaluated retrospectively a total of 592,637 mosquitoes and onset dates for 20 confirmed human cases over 26 years in massachusetts. annual culiseta melanura populations at 10 defined sites decreased over the study period (p = 0.002). weekly infection rates and number of infected culiseta melanura cap ...200717297037
comparative analysis of distribution and abundance of west nile and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus vectors in suffolk county, new york, using human population density and land use/cover data.five years of cdc light trap data from suffolk county, ny, were analyzed to compare the applicability of human population density (hpd) and land use/cover (luc) classification systems to describe mosquito abundance and to determine whether certain mosquito species of medical importance tend to be more common in urban (defined by hpd) or residential (defined by luc) areas. eleven study sites were categorized as urban or rural using u.s. census bureau data and by luc types using geographic informa ...200818533453
eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. to evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit eeev, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in connecticut, usa, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quant ...201021122215
a multi-year study of mosquito feeding patterns on avian hosts in a southeastern focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus.abstract. eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that cycles in birds but also causes severe disease in humans and horses. we examined patterns of avian host use by vectors of eeev in alabama from 2001 to 2009 using blood-meal analysis of field-collected mosquitoes and avian abundance surveys. the northern cardinal (cardinalis cardinalis) was the only preferred host (fed on significantly more than expected based on abundance) of culiseta melanura, the enzootic vect ...201121540380
field investigations of winter transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus in florida.studies investigating winter transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) were conducted in hillsborough county, florida. the virus was detected in culiseta melanura and anopheles quadrimaculatus in february 2012 and 2013, respectively. during the winter months, herons were the most important avian hosts for all mosquito species encountered. in collections carried out in the summer of 2011, blood meals taken from herons were still common, but less frequently encountered than in winte ...201425070997
an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis virus, maine, usa in 2009: outbreak description and entomological studies.from july to september, 2009, an outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) occurred in five counties in maine. the virus was isolated from 15 horses, 1 llama, and pheasants in three separate captive flocks. one wild turkey, screened before translocation, also showed exposure to the virus in january 2010. two pools of culiseta melanura (coquillett) tested positive for eeev during routine seasonal surveillance in york county in september, but none of the mosquitoes collected during rapi ...201223208877
dynamics of vector-host interactions in avian communities in four eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in the northeastern u.s.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus (togaviridae, alphavirus) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for occasional outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality and neurological impairment in most survivors. in the past, human disease outbreaks in the northeastern u.s. have occurred intermittently with no apparent pattern; however, during the last decade we have witnessed recurring annual emergence where eee virus activity had bee ...201626751704
seasonal patterns in eastern equine encephalitis virus antibody in songbirds in southern maine.the intent of this study was to assess passerine eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) seroprevalence during the breeding season in southern maine by testing songbird species identified in the literature as amplifying hosts of this virus. in 2013 and 2014, we collected serum samples from songbirds at a mainland site and an offshore island migratory stopover site, and screened samples for eeev antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. we compared seasonal changes in eeev antibody ...201728287934
culex tarsalis mosquitoes as vectors of highlands j virus.highlands j virus (hjv) is an alphavirus closely related to western equine encephalitis virus (weev) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev). hjv is an avian pathogen with the potential for disruption of poultry operations, but is not known to cause human or equine disease. hjv has only been identified in the eastern united states and is thought to have a transmission cycle similar to that of eeev involving culiseta melanura mosquitoes and birds. however, hjv is more genetically similar to ...201627248005
vector competence and capacity of culex erraticus (diptera: culicidae) for eastern equine encephalitis virus in the southeastern united states.field studies of the ecology of eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev; family togaviridae, genus alphavirus) in the southeastern united states have demonstrated that culex erraticus (dyar and knab) is the most common mosquito at many enzootic sites and is often infected with the virus. however, the competence of cx. erraticus for eeev has not been explored in detail. culex erraticus females were collected from the field and fed upon eeev-infected chicks. the infected mosquitoes were provided h ...201626659606
vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in massachusetts.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. in the northeastern united states, eee virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, culiseta melanura (coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. to evaluate the role of cs. melanura and culiseta morsitan ...201323473221
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