haemonchus contortus: parasite problem no. 1 from tropics - polar circle. problems and prospects for control based on epidemiology.there is no doubt that on a global basis, haemonchus contortus is by far the most important parasite of small ruminants (sheep and goats). this is particularly more so now, with the development of high levels of resistance to both the broad and narrow spectrum anthelmintic drugs in h. contortus throughout the world. epidemiological studies describe the lower environmental limits for haemonchosis to occur in sheep, as being a mean monthly temperature of 18c and approximately 50mm rainfall. thus i ...200516883278
[evaluation of nematode predacious fungus duddingtonia flagrans on infective haemonchus contortus and strongyloides papillosus larvae of goats].one brazilian isolate of nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans ac 001 was evaluated regarding the capacity of supporting passage through the gastrointestinal tract of goats without losing the ability to entrap infective haemonchus contortus and strongyloides papillosus larvae (l3). ten saneen goats of eight months old, males and infected naturally were divided in two groups of five animals. in the group 1, the animals received orally 20 g of pellets of the d. flagrans. in the group 2 (c ...200616834900
global patterns reveal strong population structure in haemonchus contortus, a nematode parasite of domesticated ruminants.we have examined the global population genetic structure of haemonchus contortus. the genetic variability was studied using both amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) and nad4 sequences of the mitochondrial genome. to examine the performance and information content of the two different marker systems, comparative assessment of population genetic diversity was undertaken in 19 isolates of h. contortus, a parasitic nematode of small ruminants. a total of 150 individual adult worms represen ...200616950266
characterization of hc58cdna, a putative cysteine protease from the parasite haemonchus contortus.because of the complexity of the cathepsin b-like (cbl) family, an information on the biological and biochemical characteristics of individual cbl genes is lacking. in this study, we investigated the degradative effects of the recombinant hc58 protein isolated from haemonchus contortus parasites on protein substrates over a broad ph range in vitro. this protein, which hydrolyzed the synthetic peptide substrates z-fr-amc and z-rr-amc, had characteristics of the cysteine protease class of proteins ...200616871019
gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants: life cycle, anthelmintics, and diagnosis.strongylid gastrointestinal nematodes are an important cause of disease and economic loss in small ruminants. these parasites are particularly important in the eastern united states where the bloodsucking parasite haemonchus contortus is the predominant species. sheep and goats are infected with gastrointestinal nematodes while grazing and the biology of the infective larvae on the pastures is important in planning effective control programs. fecal egg counts can be used to monitor control progr ...200617071351
anthelmintic action of eprinomectin in lactating anglo-nubian goats in brazil.eprinomectin is the only avermectin approved for use to control gastrointestinal nematodes in lactating cows. some studies in the usa and europe have also demonstrated that this drug is highly effective in small ruminants. the aim of the present work was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of pour-on eprinomectin in anglo-nubian goats at the end of lactation. twenty-four goats were used, naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, and divided into two groups: control and treated with e ...200717031697
[experiences with the famacha-eye-colour-chart for identifying sheep and goats for targeted anthelmintic treatment].the bloodsuckling abomasal parasite haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic worm in sheep and goats. high prevalences of anthelmintic-resistant isolates make h. contortus difficult to control. detecting the most anaemic animals could support a targeted selective treatment approach. leaving the rest of the flock untreated would generate a refuge for anthelmintic-sensitive parasites. south-african researchers tried the famacha-eye-colour-chart for anaemic sheep and goats with good success. fie ...200617007472
avermectin-resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of boer goats and dorper sheep in switzerland.anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes among small ruminants is widespread in south africa and dorper sheep and boer goats have been imported into switzerland from this country on a number of occasions. therefore, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of avermectin (avm) resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) in these breeds in switzerland. a total of 24 boer goat farms and 12 dorper sheep farms participated in the study. according to the faecal egg count reduction te ...200717088023
[a new control method for haemonchus contortus: famacha].famacha is a method that has been developed against haemonchus contortus which causes anemia in sheep and goats especially in tropical and subtropical areas. the basic principle of the method is the detection of the color changes in the mucous membrane of the eye that is caused by anemia. according to the famacha anemia guide, (fag), the mucous membranes of the eyes of animals are inspected for color differences at two or three week intervals. the criteria are used for treating the animals. thus ...200617106855
a novel approach for combining the use of in vitro and in vivo data to measure and detect emerging moxidectin resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.ivermectin and moxidectin are closely related avermectin/milbemycin anthelmintics and available data suggest that side resistance occurs with these two drugs. however, moxidectin remains effective against many species of ivermectin-resistant worms due to its higher potency. the larval development assay (lda) is routinely used to diagnose ivermectin resistance in haemonchus contortus but laboratory diagnosis of moxidectin resistance is hampered by the lack of any validated in vitro tests. the obj ...200717307184
recombinant galectins of male and female haemonchus contortus do not hemagglutinate erythrocytes of their natural host.recombinant galectins of female and male adult worms of haemonchus contortus were expressed in escherichia coli and their hemagglutinating activities to human and different animal erythrocytes were analyzed. the results showed that female and male galectins could be highly expressed in e. coli using a temperature-sensitive plasmid, with the recombinant protein being mainly appeared in inclusion bodies. hemagglutinating activity assays showed that both of the galectins hemagglutinated human a, b, ...200717125929
combining the effects of supplementary feeding and copper oxide needles for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in browsing goats.the aim was to assess the benefits obtained from combining supplementary feeding and copper needles (cowp), compared to the use of both approaches independently, for the control of gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infections in browsing kids. forty-four nematode free criollo kids were exposed to natural parasite infection. the kids were divided into six experimental groups: not treated, supplemented (nt-s), not treated, not supplemented (nt-ns), moxidectin treated, supplemented (m-s), moxidectin ...200717400391
vaccination of goats with recombinant galectin antigen induces partial protection against haemonchus contortus infection.the efficacy of vaccination against haemonchus contortus infection with two recombinant proteins, rhco-gal-m and rhco-gal-f, was studied in 9-10-month-old goats. vaccination with 100 microg protein reduced faecal egg output and worm burdens by 37.25% and 41.1%, respectively. corresponding reductions with 200 microg protein were 48.03% and 46.19%. vaccinated groups had significantly higher igg levels than the negative and positive controls. significant negative correlations were detected between ...200717518950
effect of pelleting on efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats.resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) to anthelmintic treatment has increased pressure to find alternative, non-chemical control methods. feeding hay of the high condensed tannin (ct) forage sericea lespedeza [sl; lespedeza cuneata (dum-cours.) g. don.] to sheep and goats has reduced gin fecal egg count (fec) and worm numbers in the abomasum and small intestines. this effect has been reported with both unground (long) and ground hay. pelleting of ground hay increases ease of storage, tr ...200717383822
accuracy of the famacha system for on-farm use by sheep and goat producers in the southeastern united states.famacha is a practical on-farm system designed to provide small ruminant producers a tool for improving their management of haemonchus contortus infections. although this system has become very popular and widely accepted by small ruminant producers in many regions of the southern united states, there is very limited data reported on the effectiveness of the famacha system when performed by farmers. the objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the famacha system for on-farm use by ...200717482368
use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.the objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (cowp) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. two experiments were conducted during cooler months in georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in arkansas. ...200717565056
the effect of dietary protein supplementation on the pathophysiology of haemonchus contortus infection in west african dwarf goats.the effect of dietary protein on the pathophysiology of haemonchus contortus infection in reproducing first pregnancy west african dwarf (wad) goats was studied. eighteen 10-12-month-old pubertal female wad goats divided into two equal groups were used and confined separately. one group was maintained on high-protein diet (hpd) while the other was maintained on low-protein diet (lpd) from day 1 of pregnancy up to week 6 post-partum. each animal was infected with 600 infective larvae of h. contor ...200717689870
morphological characterization of haemonchus contortus in goats (capra hircus) and sheep (ovis aries) in penang, malaysia.the large stomach worm, haemonchus contortus is an important pathogen of goats (capra hircus) and sheep (ovis aries). this paper describes characteristics of surface cuticular ridges (synlophe) of h. contortus adults from the two hosts. there were more ridges in h. contortus from goats compared to that from sheep. total body length, vulvar morphology, spicule length and cervical papillae had been considered as markers of physical adaptation and were studied and described.200717568374
prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern ethiopia.a 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern ethiopia. during may 2003 to april 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and gi tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of haramaya, harar, dire dawa and jijiga in eastern ethiopia. all animals were raised in the farming areas ...200717969715
anthelmintic activity of croton zehntneri and lippia sidoides essential oils.because of the development of anthelmintic resistant populations, the search for new drugs is essential to maintain the productivity of small ruminants. the aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of croton zehntneri and lippia sidoides essential oils and their major constituents, anethole and thymol. the effects of these oils and their constituents were determined by in vitro assays with the eggs and larvae of the sheep gastrointestinal nematode haemonchus contortus. the two ...200717629623
identification of a 55 kda haemonchus contortus excretory/secretory glycoprotein as a neutrophil inhibitory factor.haemonchus contortus is an economically important gastric parasite infecting sheep and goats. the parasite survives the host immune attack by releasing protective molecules. in the present study, a 55 kda secretory glycoprotein (gp55) was identified that inhibited host neutrophils as judged by reduced h2o2 production by these cells. the binding of gp55 to neutrophils was confirmed by flow cytometry. this binding was mediated by cellular cd11b/cd18 integrin. the glycoprotein gp55 also bound to go ...200818086013
genetic and phenotypic differences between isolates of haemonchus contortus in australia.we believe this study is the first to consider the genetic and phenotypic divergence between isolates of haemonchus contortus in australia. microsatellite markers have been used to investigate genetic divergence, whilst phenotypic divergence has been considered through individual worm morphology, isolate life history traits and the effect of isolates upon the host. the results are discussed in the context of the likely introduction of h. contortus to australia, its recent isolation, and the char ...200818068173
haemonchus contortus calreticulin binds to c-reactive protein of its host, a novel survival strategy of the parasite.calreticulin (calr), a ca(2+) binding multifunctional protein, is secreted by the parasitic nematode haemonchus contortus. we have earlier observed binding of this protein to a 24-kda polypeptide (p24) present in an enriched preparation of prothrombin. in the present study, the identity of p24 was established as a c-reactive protein (crp) by several criteria. calr binding to crp is an elegant strategy devised by the parasite to survive in the host. the secreted calr may achieve this either by li ...200818422872
inheritance of faecal nematode egg count in barbari goats following natural haemonchus contortus infection.genetic parameters for faecal nematode egg count were estimated in naturally infected barbari goats maintained at the central institute for research on goats, makhdoom, mathura, india, over a period of 5 years (1999 through 2003). faecal egg count (fec) data on 891 records of barbari goats descended from 69 bucks and 241 does were used in this study. analyses were carried out by restricted maximum likelihood (reml), fitting an animal model and ignoring or including maternal genetic or permanent ...200818495346
anthelmintic acetogenin from annona squamosa l. seeds.annona squamosa seeds extracts showed anthelmintic activity against haemonchus contortus, the main nematode of sheep and goat in northeastern brazil. a compound 1 was isolated from ethyl acetate extract and inhibited the egg hatching of h. contortus at 25 mg ml(-1). the structure of 1 was determined as a c37 trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin based on spectroscopic analysis.200818506253
the effect of long-term feeding of fresh and ensiled cassava (manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.the benefit of long-term feeding of fresh or ensiled cassava foliage on gastrointestinal parasite in goats was evaluated. eighteen male goats (15.15 +/- 2.83 kg and between 4-6 months) were randomly allocated into three treatments supplemented with 200 g of wheat bran head(-1) day(-1). all groups were fed ad-libitum on either grass (co), fresh cassava (caf) or ensiled cassava foliage (cas). at the beginning of the trial, each goat was inoculated with 3000 l3 containing approximately 50% haemonch ...200918516697
interaction between the nematophagous fungus duddingtonia flagrans and infective larvae of haemonchus contortus (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea).the interaction between duddingtonia flagrans and infective larvae of haemonchus contortus was studied in vitro under optical and scanning electron microscopy. trap formation by the fungus started 9 hours after inoculation and first larvae were found 11 hours after larval inoculation on colonies grown on the surface of dialysis membranes. scanning electron micrographs were taken 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after larval predation. details of predation structures and fungus-larvae interaction are describe ...200818620628
experimental concurrent infection of afar breed goats with oestrus ovis (l1) and haemonchus contortus (l3): interaction between parasite populations, changes in parasitological and basic haematological parameters.the study was conducted to examine the occurrence and interaction between oestrus ovis and haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected ethiopian afar breed of goats. twenty goats were divided into four groups (o, oh, h, and c) of five animals each. each animal of groups o and oh received weekly infections for 5 weeks with 66 first instar larvae (l1) of o. ovis. then animals of groups oh and h were infected with a single dose of 5000 third stage larvae (l3) of h. contortus. goats of group c w ...200818691574
cellular phenotypes in the abomasal mucosa and abomasal lymph nodes of goats infected with haemonchus contortus.the distribution of t-cell subsets (cd2, cd4, cd8, and gammadelta) and b cells (igm) was examined at 3, 6, 10 and 13 days post-infection (dpi) in the abomasal mucosa and abomasal lymph nodes of goats primarily infected with haemonchus contortus. in the abomasal mucosa a mild (3 and 6 dpi) or marked (10 and 13 dpi) increase of t cells, particularly cd4+ and gammadelta+ lymphocytes, was observed, whereas the increase in cd8+ cells was less pronounced. b cells and igg+ plasma cells also showed a ma ...200818295783
eprinomectin 'pour-on' and the shedding of haemonchus contortus eggs in experimentally infected goats.the effect of eprinomectin on goats experimentally infected with the nematode haemonchus contortus was investigated. faecal analysis showed that a single dose of eprinomectin 'pour-on' delayed the onset of shedding of eggs for 10 to 17 days.200818959535
parasites of sheep and goats and their prevalence in bokova, a rural area of buea sub division, cameroon.small ruminant production in the south west province of cameroon is practised mostly by subsistence farmers in the rural areas on natural grass pastures which grow once the primary forest has been cleared. investigations revealed certain endo- and ectoparasites that were abundant and caused problems on the pastures to both animals and farmers. haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent species with a prevalence of 94.23%. the highest mean monthly intensity was obtained in august and there was a ...200818707810
relative economic benefits of tactical anthelmintic treatment and urea-molasses block supplementation of boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions at onderstepoort, pretoria, south africa.the potential economic benefits of combining tactical anthelmintic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes and nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks were examined in boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions in the summer rainfall area of south africa. eight groups of nine goats were monitored over a 12-month period from 1 october 2002 to 9 october 2003. ad libitum nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks was provided when the goats were housed at night, ...200819040138
effect of the consumption of lysiloma latisiliquum on the larval establishment of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.the consumption of tannin-rich (tr) forages has been associated with negative effects against gastrointestinal nematodes and with an improved host resilience. it has been hypothesized that tannins affect the capacity of infective larvae to establish in the mucosae of the host. in this study, we aimed at testing this hypothesis using lysiloma latisiliquum, a tropical tr tree. the objectives were: (i) to evaluate the effect of the consumption of l. latisiliquum on the establishment of nematode thi ...200818771854
serum antibody responses in creole kids experimentally infected with haemonchus contortus.the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of parasite-specific serum antibodies with the resistance status of creole kids. the average breeding values on egg output predicted in a context of natural infection at 11 months of age were distant of 1.07 genetic standard deviation between resistant and susceptible animals. after drenching the animals were maintained worm-free during 1 month until experimental infection with 10,000 haemonchus contortus infective larvae (l3). enzyme- ...200818995967
biotransformation of flubendazole and selected model xenobiotics in haemonchus contortus.haemonchus contortus is one of the most pathogenic parasites of small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goat). the treatment of haemonchosis is complicated because of frequent resistance of h. contortus to common anthelmintics. the development of resistance can be facilitated by the action of drug metabolizing enzymes of parasites that can deactivate anthelmintics and thus protect parasites against the toxic effect of the drug. the aim of this project was to investigate the phase i biotransformation of ...200818054171
prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern united determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern united states.200819072608
efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.a suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of hawassa university was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (fecrt), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (eha) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. the experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with in ...200919194779
intake and digestibility of naive kids differing in genetic resistance and experimentally parasitized (indoors) with haemonchus contortus in two successive challenges.we evaluated the effects of infection with haemonchus contortus on feed intake, digestibility, fecal egg count, circulating eosinophils, and packed cell volume in creole kids differing in genetic resistance (susceptible, s; resistant, r) to gastrointestinal parasitism and maintained on a similar level of nutrition. the experiment was carried out during 2 periods of 6 wk each differing in immunity development stage. in the first period (acquisition of immunity; period i), 22 naïve male kids (23.4 ...200919286820
ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of maesa lanceolata and plectranthus punctatus against haemonchus contortus.the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. in the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the e ...200919330920
the effect of dietary protein on the productivity of west african dwarf (wad) goats infected with haemonchus contortus.the effects of increased dietary protein on the performance of west african dwarf (wad) goats infected with haemonchus contortus were investigated. 28 pubertal 9-12-month-old female goats were divided into two equal groups a and b and fed on high and low protein diets, respectively, from day 1 of pregnancy (day of mating) to 6 weeks post-partum. each animal was trickle infected with a total of 2400 infective larvae of h. contortus over 4 weeks starting from day 1 of pregnancy and the prepatent p ...200919251364
is gastrointestinal strongyle faecal egg count influenced by hour of sample collection and worm burden in goats?gastrointestinal (gi) strongyle infections remain one of the main constraints to goat production worldwide. although several indicators of gi strongyle infections have been proposed, faecal egg count (fec) techniques are the most common approaches for the estimation of prevalence and intensity of these parasites. however, fec may be subjected to a within-individual variation due to factors such as weather, season, random day-to-day variation and phase of the parasitic infection. a longitudinal s ...200919414222
the potential to control haemonchus contortus in indigenous south african goats with copper oxide wire particles.the high prevalence of resistance of haemonchus contortus to all major anthelmintic groups has prompted investigations into alternative control methods in south africa, including the use of copper oxide wire particle (cowp) boluses. to assess the efficacy of cowp against h. contortus in indigenous south african goats, 18 male faecal egg-count-negative goats were each given ca.1200 infective larvae of h. contortus three times per week during weeks 1 and 2 of the experiment. these animals made up ...200919346076
[the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in hair goats of the sanliurfa region].the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in hair goats in sanliurfa region between november 2005 and november 2006. during this period, the alimentary canal from 1 or 2 goats was obtained from the municipal slaughterhouse each week. these were brought into the laboratory and examined for the presence of nematodes. gastro-intestinal tracts of 100 hair goats were examined. of these, 83 (83%) were found infected with nematodes. twenty nematode species wer ...200919367541
influence of earthworms on development of the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes in goat faeces.with the important infection of small ruminants by gastrointestinal nematodes, and in the face of reduced efficacy of anthelminthic treatments, a search for other biological options is necessary. the effect of earthworms on the free-living stages of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in faeces from goats naturally infected in tropical pastures was evaluated. two levels (0 vs 14 individuals per container) of indigenous earthworms (50% pontoscolex corethrus and 50% perionyx ex ...200919443123
resistance of different fungal structures of duddingtonia flagrans to the digestive process and predatory ability on larvae of haemonchus contortus and strongyloides papillosus in goat feces.the dynamics of the passage of conidia, chlamydospores, and mycelia of the fungus duddingtonia flagrans through the digestive tracts of goats was evaluated. four groups with five goats each were formed. in the group conidia, each animal received 1 x 10(6) d. flagrans conidia per kilogram of live weight. in the group chlamydospore, each animal received 1 x 10(6) chlamydospores per kilogram of live weight. in the group mycelia, each animal received 1 g of mycelium mass per kilogram of live weight. ...200919471967
in-vitro anthelminthic activity of crude aqueous extracts of aloe ferox, leonotis leonurus and elephantorrhiza elephantina against haemonchus contortus.aloe ferox (mill), leonotis leonurus (l) r. br; and elephantorrhiza elephantina (burch.) skeels are plants frequently used by resource-limited farmers in the eastern cape province to control gastrointestinal parasites in goats. a study was conducted to validate their anthelminthic activities in-vitro on the egg and larvae of the nematode parasite haemonchus contortus. the crude aqueous extracts of leaves of a. ferox and l. leonurus; and roots of e. elephantina were used. eggs and larvae of the p ...201019693685
multiple anthelmintic resistance and the possible contributory factors in beetal goats in an irrigated area (pakistan).this paper presents the first report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in the gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its possible contributory factors in an irrigated area (pakistan). a total of 18 privately owned beetal goat flocks were selected in order to determine the anthelmintic resistance against commonly used anthelmintics. forty to 48 animals from each flock were selected according to their weight and egg count. the three anthelmintics viz., oxfendazole, levamisole and ivermectin, we ...201019733870
immunoproteomic analysis of whole proteins from male and female adult haemonchus contortus.whole proteins of male and female adult haemonchus contortus were analysed by immunoproteomic techniques. approximately 662 and 680 spots were detected on proteome maps of male and female nematodes, respectively, stained with coomassie brilliant blue g-250. there were 609 shared spots. approximately 193 and 196 spots were recognised on western blot maps of male and female nematodes, respectively, using antiserum from naturally infected goats as the source of primary antibodies. there were 129 ge ...201019560953
genetic variability of haemonchus contortus (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) in alpine ruminant host species.genetic variability of the ovine parasite haemonchus contortus from the alpine area was investigated using mitochondrial dna (nd4 gene), internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and microsatellites, in order to assess whether cross-transmission between domestic and wild ruminants occurs. the dataset was composed of 78 individual adult male h. contortus collected from chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), domestic goat (capra hircus) and shee ...201019889245
elucidating ants in worms using genomic and bioinformatic tools--biotechnological prospects?adenine nucleotide translocators (ants) belong to the mitochondrial carrier family (mcf) of proteins. atp production and consumption are tightly linked to ants, the kinetics of which have been proposed to play a key regulatory role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. ants are also recognized as a central component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore associated with apoptosis. although ants have been investigated in a range of vertebrates, including human, mouse and cattle, ...201019770033
anthelminthic resistance of haemonchus contortus in small ruminants in switzerland and southern germany.two goat and two sheep flocks have been found to be suspicious of a clinically evident reduced anthelmintic efficacy, i.e. lacking improvement of gastrointestinal disorders, insufficient weight gain and continuing inappetence after anthelmintic treatments. in order to conduct an appropriate evaluation of the efficacy the following trials were performed: the faecal egg count reduction test on the studied goats of the two herds revealed a reduction of the egg-excretion after the eprinomectin-treat ...200919915817
gastro-intestinal nematode infections in goats relative to season, host sex and age from the kashmir valley, india.the present study aimed to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes (gins) of goats with respect to sex and age of the host in the kashmir valley from 1 february 2005 to 31 january 2007. a total of 1267 goats were examined [faecal examination: 938 (year 1: 470; year 2: 468); gastro-intestinal (git) examination: 329 (year 1: 175; year 2: 154)]. the overall prevalence of gin infection in these animals was 54.3% (year 1: 54.8%; year 2: 53.8%; p = 0.842). th ...201019627625
[ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of eucalyptus globulus essential oils on haemonchus contortus].the objective of this work was to evaluate ovicidal and larvicidal effects of eucalyptus globulus essential oil (egeo) on haemonchus contortus. the chemical composition determination of egeo was through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. egg hatch test (eht) was performed in concentrations 21.75; 17.4; 8.7; 5.43 e 2.71 mg x ml(-1). in larval development test (ldt) were used the concentrations 43.5; 21.75; 10.87; 5.43 e 2.71 mg x ml(-1). each trial was conducted by negative control with tw ...200919772778
anthelmintic activity of some mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.the anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. the present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 mediterranean plants on haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (pvpp) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. significant inhibition was shown in vitro ...201019961649
chemical and biological stability of artemisinin in bovine rumen fluid and its kinetics in goats (capra hircus).there is a pressing need to develop alternative, natural anthelmintics to control widespread drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants, such as haemonchus contortus. artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are widely used against drug-resistant plasmodium falciparum, but their role in veterinary medicine is only emerging. artemisinin may be useful in controlling gastrointestinal parasites including haemonchus. however, no ruminant studies involving artemisinin have been repor ...200820059827
contrasting genetic structures of two parasitic nematodes, determined on the basis of neutral microsatellite markers and selected anthelmintic resistance markers.for the first time, the neutral genetic relatedness of natural populations of trichostrongylid nematodes was investigated in relation to polymorphism of the beta-tubulin gene, which is selected for anthelminthic treatments. the aim of the study was to assess the contribution of several evolutionary processes: migration and genetic drift by neutral genetic markers and selection by anthelminthic treatments on the presence of resistance alleles at beta-tubulin. we studied two nematode species (tela ...200919900171
efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats.profitable sheep and goat production in the usa is severely limited by gastrointestinal nematode (gin) parasitism, particularly by haemonchus contortus. copper oxide wire particles (cowp) have anti-parasitic properties in the diet of small ruminants, but efficacy of cowp may differ between sheep and goats. in a study with weaned kids (kiko x spanish cross, 6 months old) and lambs (katahdin or dorper x blackface crosses, 5 months old), grazing the same pasture area in central georgia, 2g of cowp ...201019931291
administration of copper oxide wire particles in a capsule or feed for gastrointestinal nematode control in goats.widespread anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants has necessitated alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (gin) control. the objective was to determine the effectiveness of copper oxide wire particles (cowp) administered as a gelatin capsule or in a feed supplement to control gin in goats. in four separate experiments, peri-parturient does (n=36), yearling does (n=25), weaned kids (n=72), and yearling bucks (n=16) were randomly assigned to remain untreated or administered 2g cowp in ...201019945224
modification and further evaluation of a fluorescein-labeled peanut agglutinin test for identification of haemonchus contortus eggs.gastrointestinal nematodes of the family trichostrongylidae are the most important parasites of sheep, goats and other ruminants worldwide. of this group, haemonchus contortus is usually the most damaging species, particularly in warmer climates or during the summer. it is therefore useful to be able to rapidly differentiate infections with this nematode from other, less pathogenic, species. however, aside from nematodirus spp., there are only subtle differences between the egg morphology within ...201020060646
ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of melia azedarach against haemonchus contortus (strongylida).the rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. the aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of melia azedarach l. (meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicid ...201020177909
effect of repeated wattle tannin drenches on worm burdens, faecal egg counts and egg hatchability during naturally acquired nematode infections in sheep and vivo and in vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of repeated wattle tannin (wt) drenches on faecal egg counts (fec), worm burdens and egg hatchability during a naturally acquired worm infection in sheep and goats. for the in vivo experiment, nematode-infected sheep and goats were orally drenched with wt at a dose of 1.3g and 1.6gwt/kg bodyweight per day for three consecutive days respectively while a control group received a placebo. fec and other worm infection parame ...201020083356
in vitro anthelmintic activity of combretum molle (r. br. ex g. don) (combretaceae) against haemonchus contortus ova and larvae.parasitic nematodes, especially haemonchus contortus (rudolphi), are among the most common and economically important causes of disease in sheep and goats owned by pastoralists and small holder farmers in africa. the control of these infections relies mainly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. however, herbal preparations are widely used by pastoralists and small holder farmers for the treatment of their livestock against helminth parasites. the anthelmintic effect of acetone leaf extract and frac ...201020097010
the accuracy of the famacha-method in detecting anaemia and haemonchosis in goat flocks in switzerland under field this study, goats from six farms in central switzerland were examined for the evaluation of the famacha-method under middle european conditions. individual faecal egg counts were determined at a 4-week interval for a period of 6 months and the gastrointestinal nematode (gin) genera were differentiated using larval culture. simultaneously, the goats were bled for packed cell volume (pcv) determination and scored for anaemia of the conjunctiva according to the famacha-method. the three methods ...201020188478
resistance and resilience of west african dwarf goats of the nigerian savanna zone exposed to experimental escalating primary and challenge infections with haemonchus contortus.we assessed the resilience and resistance to infection with haemonchus contortus of savanna west african dwarf (wad) goats from northern nigeria. adult male goats (n=32) were given an escalating immunizing infection, comprising 5 weekly infections with increasing numbers of larvae. on day (d) 56 they were segregated into low (lfec) and high (hfec) faecal egg count phenotypes, and within each phenotype 7 goats were treated with anthelmintic and seven received no treatment. four goats were culled ...201020378252
vertical migration of haemonchus contortus infective larvae on cynodon dactylon and paspalum notatum pastures in response to climatic conditions.observations were made on vertical migration patterns of haemonchus contortus infective larvae on cynodon dactylon (bermudagrass) and paspalum notatum (bahiagrass) pastures under summer climatic conditions typical of east texas. ten thousand h. contortus infective larvae (l3) were introduced to 100 cm(2) subplots of each pasture species within a plot area of 1m(2). subplots were inoculated with larvae by applying them in an aqueous medium to the soil or mat beneath the vegetation. herbage from t ...201020149541
growth and meat quality of kids of indigenous greek goats (capra prisca) as influenced by dietary protein and gastrointestinal nematode challenge.the effect of dietary protein and gastrointestinal nematode (gin) parasitism on growth and meat quality of growing kids was assessed using sixty (60) kids in three groups (n=20); a: control, b: regularly treated with albendazole((r)) and c: supplemented with dietary protein. the kids grazed in a pasture contaminated with l3 larvae of gin. growth and condition score were assessed at 21-day intervals. after 86days all kids were slaughtered. carcasses were assessed for conformation, fatness, ultima ...200920416724
haemonchus contortus: cloning and characterization of serpin.the serpin gene of haemonchus contortus (hc-serpin) was cloned and characterized in this study. specific primers for rapid amplification cdna ends (race) were designed based on the expression sequence tag (est, bm173953) to amplify the 3'- and 5'-ends of hc-serpin. the full length of the cdna of this gene was obtained by overlapping the sequences of 3'- and 5'-extremities and amplification by reverse transcription-pcr. the biochemical activities of the recombinant protein (rhc-serpin), which was ...201020214897
maternal transference of passive humoral immunity to haemonchus contortus in goats.this study evaluated the transference of maternal-specific antibodies against haemonchus contortus and the humoral immune response of 32 goat kids to natural infection by the parasite, from birth to 5 months of age. all serum samples collected immediately after birth and before colostrum ingestion were negative for h. contortus antibodies, as demonstrated by elisa. however, 30 and 60 days after colostrum and milk ingestion, antibody detection was positive and faecal egg count (fec) was negative, ...201020236709
gastrointestinal helminthiasis: prevalence and associated determinants in domestic ruminants of district toba tek singh, punjab, pakistan.the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated determinants (e.g., sex, age, on-farm management and husbandry) of gastrointestinal (gi) helminths in the domestic animals of district toba tek singh, punjab, pakistan. for this purpose, 1,140 cattle, 1,140 buffaloes, 660 goats, 840 sheep, and 156 camels were randomly selected and their fecal samples were screened every other week for a year using a modified floatation technique. the samples positive for strongyle- ...201020532913
anthelmintic effect of eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil against goat gastrointestinal nematodes.the aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil (eseo). the in vitro effects of eseo were determined through the egg hatching test and the inhibition of larval development of haemonchus contortus. the oil was subjected to acute and subacute toxicity rodents. the in vivo effects were determined through fecal egg count reduction test in goats. 1.35 and 5.4 mgml(-1) eseo inhibited 99.27 and 99.20% h. contortus egg hatching and larval developme ...201020609526
intra-species variability in its-1 sequences of haemonchus contortus isolated from goats in west bengal, india.this study evaluated the existence of different genotypes of haemonchus contortus prevailing among goats in west bengal, india. these parasites were isolated from the abomasum of goat intestine and the molecular characterization was performed by comparing variation of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its-1) gene region. single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) analysis of its-1 amplified product showed the presence of three distinct conformations both in male and ...201020804642
antibodies from sheep immunized against haemonchus contortus with h-gal-gp inhibit the haemoglobinase activity of this protease complex.highly protective intestinal cell membrane antigens have been prepared from haemonchus contortus, an important blood feeding nematode which parasitizes sheep and goats. one such antigen, h-gal-gp, is a glycoprotein complex containing predominantly digestive proteases. this study showed that h-gal-gp readily digested ovine haemoglobin and albumin, the two most abundant proteins in the parasite's blood meal. it was found that adding protective antibodies from h-gal-gp immunized sheep to the h-gal- ...201021039613
a modified in vitro larvae migration inhibition assay using rumen fluid to evaluate haemonchus contortus viability.anthelmintic effects of plant secondary compounds may be occurring in the rumen, but in vitro larvae migration inhibition (lmi) methods using rumen fluid and forage material have not been widely used. forage material added to an in vitro system can affect rumen ph, ammonia n, and volatile fatty acids, which may affect larvae viability (lv). validating a lmi assay using rumen fluid and a known anthelmintic drug (ivermectin) and a known anthelmintic plant extract (quebracho tannins; qt) is importa ...201021109354
standardization of the larval migration inhibition test for the detection of resistance to ivermectin in gastro intestinal nematodes of ruminants.resistance to anthelmintics is an increasing problem in sheep, goat and cattle industries worldwide. for parasite management on farms reliable methods for the detection of resistance are required and it is important that tests give comparable, reproducible and reliable results in different laboratories. the ability of the larval migration inhibition test (lmit), to detect ivermectin resistance in cattle and sheep nematodes has been evaluated through ring testing in up to six different laboratori ...201020850930
cloning, expression and characterization of nad+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of adult haemonchus contortus†glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) regulates a wide range of biological processes, including pathogen evasion. in the present research, the gapdh gene of haemonchus contortus (hcgapdh) was cloned and characterized. specific primers for the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) were designed based on the expressed sequence tag (est, aw670737) to amplify the 3′ and 5′ ends of hcgapdh. the full length of cdna from this gene was obtained by overlapping the sequences of 3′ and 5 ...201021205411
effect of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal in goats experimentally infected with haemonchus contortus.effect of sericea lespedeza [sl; lespedeza cuneata (dum-cours.) g. don.] leaf meal feeding was evaluated in two experiments in indoor reared goats with experimental infection of haemonchus contortus larvae. in the first experiment, ten 8-10 month old male spanish and alpine cross kids pair matched for body weight and age were fed sl or bermudagrass [bg; cynodon dactylon (l.) pers.] hay one week before infection and were infected with 5000 h. contortus l(3). the animals were maintained on the sam ...201021232867
the unique resistance and resilience of the nigerian west african dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections.west african dwarf (wad) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of west africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. they have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat.201121291550
vaccination of goats with dna vaccines encoding h11 and il-2 induces partial protection against haemonchus contortus infection.dna vaccines expressing haemonchus contortus h11 antigen with or without interleukin (il)-2 were tested for protection against h. contortus infection in goats. sixteen goats (8-10months of age) were allocated into four trial groups. on days 0 and 14, group 1 was immunised with a dna vaccine expressing h11 and il-2 and group 2 was immunised with a dna vaccine expressing h11 only. group 3 was an unvaccinated positive control group challenged with h. contortus third stage larvae (l3). group 4 was a ...201121330170
in vivo anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract from sisal waste (agave sisalana perr.) against gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.the resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes (gins) of small ruminants to anthelmintics has required the investigation of new alternatives. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract from sisal waste (agave sisalana) (aesw) against gins in goats and to observe the animals for toxic effects. thirty animals that were naturally infected with gins were distributed into three groups: group i, was treated with daily doses of aesw (1.7 g/kg) for ...201021156340
a comparison of two integrated approaches of controlling nematode parasites in small ruminants.control of gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) in small ruminants in regions of the world where anthelmintic resistance is prevalent must rely on more than just chemical deworming strategies. the objective of this experiment was to compare two integrated treatment protocols for control of gin (primarily haemonchus contortus in this region) using anthelmintics, copper oxide wire particles (cowp) and famacha(©), compared to traditional anthelmintic use only. three separate trials were conducted on ma ...201121333450
direct immunization of the abomasum or rectum of goats induces local lymph node responses against haemonchus contortus mucosal antigens.we investigated several methods to immunize the abomasum (fourth and gastric stomach) of kid goats by direct (abomasal) or distal (rectal or nasal) routes utilizing mucosal antigens isolated from the abomasal parasite, haemonchus contortus. direct (ultrasound guided), immunization of the abomasal mucosa together with rectal immunization established lymphocyte proliferation responses in abomasal lymph nodes (alns), while distal methods, alone, produced equivocal results. the differential response ...201121333770
anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, haemonchus contortus.the source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. the egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, haemonchus contortus. the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethy ...201021161270
ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the crude extracts from phytolacca icosandra against haemonchus contortus.the development of anthelmintic resistance has impacted on the success of conventional anthelmintics (ah) for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing/browsing sheep and goats. medicinal plants from the traditional herbolary in mexico may provide new candidates that can be explored as alternative sources of ahs for ruminants. this study evaluated the leaf extracts derived from phytolacca icosandra against infective l(3) larvae and eggs from haemonchus contortus collected from sheep. ...201121439732
effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with haemonchus contortus in creole kids.the aim of the present study was to test the effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with haemonchus contortus in creole kids. one trial with three replicates involved a total of 154 female kids that were chosen from three successive cohorts of the creole flock of inra-gardel in 2007. the kids were placed into four treatments according to the amount of concentrate they received: g0 (no concentrate and a quality dichantium spp. hay ad libitum, hay), g1 (hay+100g ...201121349645
molecular cloning, expression and characterization of enolase from adult haemonchus contortus.enolase represents a multifunctional protein involved in basic energy metabolism. in the present research, the enolase gene of haemonchus contortus (hceno) was cloned and characterized. specific primers for the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) were designed based on the expression sequence tag (est, genbank accession no. bf422728) to amplify the 3'- and 5'-ends of hceno. the full length of cdna from this gene was obtained by overlapping the sequences of 3'- and 5'-extremities and amplific ...201121444098
dose titration of sericea lespedeza leaf meal on haemonchus contortus infection in lambs and kids.the objective of three experiments was to determine the impact of supplementing sericea lespedeza (lespedeza cuneata; sl) in three concentrations in a loose or pelleted diet on gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) in small ruminants. experiments on lambs were conducted at the usda, agricultural research service in booneville, ar (exp. 1) and at louisiana state university in baton rouge, la (exp. 2); an experiment on goat kids occurred at university of maryland-eastern shore (exp. 3). exp. 1 used cro ...201121621921
proteases in blood-feeding nematodes and their potential as vaccine candidates.parasitic nematodes express and secrete a variety of proteases which they use for many purposes including the penetration of host tissues, digestion of host protein for nutrients, evasion of host immune responses and for internal processes such as tissue catabolism and apoptosis. for these broad reasons they have been examined as possible parasite control targets. blood-feeding nematodes such as the barber-pole worm haemonchus contortus that infect sheep and goats and the hookworms, ancylostoma ...201121660664
ovicidal and larvicidal activity of cassia alata leaf acetone extract and fractions on haemonchus contortus: in vitro studies.the failure of modern anthelmintics to control nematode parasites of sheep and goats is a reality on many farms in the tropical/subtropical regions of the world. this necessitates chemotherapeutic control alternatives and plant secondary metabolite with activity is one of those potential solutions.201121501100
targeted treatment strategies for sustainable worm control in small ruminants.sustainable worm control strategies are based largely on ensuring that a source of worms not exposed to anthelmintics ("in refugia") remains after treatments are given, so that resistant worms do not become a dominant part of the total population. in environments with seasonally poor survival of worm larvae on pasture, this may require withholding treatments from a proportion of animals when the whole group would normally be treated. the "targeted treatment" approach involves using anthelmintics ...200818414373
glutamate-gated chloride channels of haemonchus contortus restore drug sensitivity to ivermectin resistant caenorhabditis elegans.anthelmintic resistance is a major problem in livestock farming, especially of small ruminants, but our understanding of it has been limited by the difficulty in carrying out functional genetic studies on parasitic nematodes. an important nematode infecting sheep and goats is haemonchus contortus; in many parts of the world this species is resistant to almost all the currently available drugs, including ivermectin. it is extremely polymorphic and to date it has proved impossible to relate any se ...201121818319
tactical treatment with copper oxide wire particles and symptomatic levamisole treatment using the famacha(©) system in indigenous goats in south africa.haemonchosis is considered to be the most economically important gastrointestinal disease of small ruminants in the tropics and subtropics. however, chemical anthelmintics, which were the mainstay of control, have been compromised by a high prevalence of resistance worldwide. copper oxide wire particles (cowp) have been shown to have anthelmintic effects, but few studies have examined their use under field conditions. the use of cowp was therefore evaluated as a tactical anthelmintic treatment i ...201121880430
vaccination of goats with a glutathione peroxidase dna vaccine induced partial protection against haemonchus contortus infection.due to their critical functions in worm physiology, glutathione peroxidases in haemonchus contortus are potential candidates for vaccine to control haemonchosis. however, information on the protection potential of these molecules is lacking. in this study, recombinant hc29 antigen was tested for protection against experimental h. contortus infections in goats. fifteen animals were allocated into three trial groups. the animals of hc29 group was vaccinated with a recombinant hc29 dna vaccine twic ...201121680097
cross-infection between tropical goats and heifers with haemonchus contortus.developing effective biological control without the systematic use of anthelmintics is necessary to reduce the impact of gastrointestinal nematodes on small ruminants. therefore, grazing management systems that use different host species to dilute nematodes in pasture appear to be promising for worm control. a trial was carried out to investigate the specificity of haemonchus contortus for goats and cattle and to evaluate cross-infection between ruminant species. the effect of an experimental in ...201121924553
evaluation of eucalyptus citriodora essential oil on goat gastrointestinal nematodes.phytotherapy may be an alternative strategy for controlling gastrointestinal parasites. this study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of eucalyptus citriodora essential oil (eceo). the in vitro effects of eceo were determined through testing the inhibition of egg hatching and larval development of haemonchus contortus. eceo was subjected to acute toxicity testing on mice, orally and intraperitoneally. the in vivo effects of eceo were determined by the fecal egg count reduction test (fecrt) in g ...201121961753
Use of a mixed sericea lespedeza and grass pasture system for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs and kids.Because of a high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and consumer demand for chemical free meat products, management tools to minimize the need for deworming are needed. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) in a mixed grass or a pure forage system for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN); in other words pasture systems included grass, grass plus SL, or SL alone (Experiments 2 and 3). Selective use of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) based o ...201122192772
experiences with integrated concepts for the control of haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the united states.the generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern united states (u.s.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) of sheep and goats. consequently, infection with gin is the greatest threat to economic small ruminant production in this region. with anthelmintic resistance now reaching epidemic proportions in small ruminants in the u.s., non-chemical control alternatives are critically needed. ...201122178411
genetic analysis of the potential role of iga and ige responses against haemonchus contortus in parasite resistance of creole goats.small ruminants are affected by gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infection. a promising alternative strategy for control of gin infection is to increase the level of resistance in the population by taking advantage of the host's immune response. immunoglobulin a (iga) and e (ige) are known to be involved in immune response to gin. the aim of this study was thus to investigate genetic parameters of iga and ige responses against haemonchus contortus in creole kids naturally challenged at pasture an ...201122188980
Candidate anthelmintic resistance-associated gene expression and sequence polymorphisms in a triple-resistant field isolate of Haemonchus contortus.An isolate of Haemonchus contortus, UGA/2004, highly resistant to benzimidazoles, levamisole, and ivermectin was isolated from sheep at the University of Georgia, and passaged through experimentally infected goats. We measured the expression of twenty-nine mRNAs encoding drug targets and P-glycoproteins (P-gps), comparing the results to a fully susceptible laboratory passaged isolate. Expression levels of some nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mRNAs were markedly different in UGA/2004. Levels of ...201121945142
gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern rajasthan, india.a total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (capra hircus) and 83 sheep (ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern rajasthan, india were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. in southern rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline ...201224431582
haemonchotolerance in west african dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed nigerian dwarf goats.west african dwarf (wad) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of west africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infections. here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural west africa. we review recent work showing that nigerian wad goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domes ...201525744655
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