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interaction between fenbendazole and piperonyl butoxide: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications.the effect of the cytochrome p450 inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide on the pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of the benzimidazole compound fenbendazole was studied in sheep and goats. pretreatment of goats with the inhibitor caused a greater than three-fold increase in the relative bioavailability of fenbendazole and fenbendazole sulphoxide. a pharmacokinetic dose titration study was carried out in sheep with fenbendazole (5 mg kg-1) and piperonyl butoxide administered orally at 0, 15, 31, ...19968866343
helminth and arthropod parasites of indigenous goats in the northern transvaal.helminth and arthropod parasites of 60 female indigenous goats of three age groups on a farm in the northern transvaal were collected, identified and counted. anoplocephalid tapeworms were present in the two younger groups of goats, while larvae of taenia hydatigena were recovered from all three groups. eight species and two genera of nematodes were found in the youngest goats, five species and three genera in the middle group and six species and two genera in the oldest goats. strongyloides pap ...19947898893
occurrence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes on sheep farms in england and goat farms in england and wales.a survey in 1992 showed that 44 per cent of the sheep farms tested in the south west and 15 per cent of those in the north east of england had parasitic nematode worm burdens which were resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics, and that 65 per cent of the non-dairy goat farms tested in england and wales had resistant worms. ostertagia circumcincta was the main species in sheep and haemonchus contortus in goats. the resistance to benzimidazoles was diagnosed by a combination of an egg hatch assay ...19968843638
anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the netherlands.a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with angora and anglo-nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. the lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after infection with 5 mg kg-1 oxfendazole, 0.2 mg kg-1 ivermectin or 7.5 mg kg-1 levamisole. the lambs were slaughtered 1 week later and post-mortem worm counts were performed. benzimidazole resistance was ...19968916403
in vitro effects of anthelmintics on the histochemistry of haemonchus contortus and trichuris globulosa.in vitro incubation of haemonchus contortus (rud., 1803) and trichuris globulosa (v. linstow, 1901) were proformed for 10-12 h in tyrode's solution and 10 and 50 micrograms/ml concentrations each of albendazole (abz), fenbendazole (fbz), thiophenate (tp), dl-tetramisole and oxyclozanide (to), dl-tetramisole hci (tms) and levamisole hci (lms) to study morphological and histochemical alterations. the major structural changes observed after treatment with all the drugs were vacuolation in the intes ...19969060178
genetic resistance of three genotypes of goats to experimental infection with haemonchus contortus.a total of 46 weaned kids of three genotypes aged about 4-5 months were used to evaluate the effects of trickle infection with a sheep strain of haemonchus contortus. a completely randomized 3 x 2 factorial design was used. factors were genotype (thai native (tn), 75% tn x 25% anglo-nubian (an) and 50% tn x 50% an) and parasite (control and infected). the animals were infected with 750 infective larvae (l3) of h. contortus three times a week for 3 weeks, with a total of 6750 larvae. the experime ...19979066054
haemonchosis in spanish ibex.two cases of haemonchosis occurred in the spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica) population of the national hunting reserve of tortosa and beseit, northeastern spain, in july 1992 and may 1993. the animals were cachectic and recumbent and had an acute hemorrhagic, macrocytic and hypochromic anemia; which was related to a high infection of 2,016 and 1,863 haemonchus contortus, respectively, in the abomasum of the animals.19979249719
a hemolytic factor from haemonchus contortus alters erythrocyte morphology.a hemolytic factor from adult haemonchus contortus caused distinct morphological changes in the surface of sheep red blood cells (rbcs). after a 15 min exposure to the hemolytic factor, hemolysis was not detected in incubation media, but rbcs were spherical in shape with numerous surface projections compared to control cells that were smooth-surfaced biconcave disks. after 30 min, a time at which significant hemolysis occurred, echinocytes were formed, and after 90 min, cells were severely disru ...19989877069
prevalence and seasonal changes in the gastro-intestinal helminths of nigerian goats.a total of 120 gastro-intestinal tracts and 960 faecal samples were examined to assess the prevalence and seasonal changes in the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of red sokoto (maradi) goats slaughtered at ibadan between may 1991 and april 1992. egg types of strongyles, strongyloides, trichuris, skrjabinema, dicrocoelium and moniezia were encountered in 93%, 83%, 44%, 0.9%, 2.3% and 31% of the faecal samples respectively. however, only strongyle, strongyloides and trichuris eggs occurred in ...19968960229
haemonchus contortus: characterization and purification of excretory/secretory protease(s).the activity of protease(s) has been examined separately in excretory/secretory (e/s) products from male and female haemonchus contortus (nematoda: trichostrongylidae). the e/s proteolytic activity indicated the presence of preabsorptive digestion of host blood and/or tissues. protease activity was optimum at 37 degrees c, ph 8.5 and 8.0 mg casein. these protease(s) were purified to 32.16- and 88.80-folds from male and female e/s products, respectively, by sequential purification with saturated ...19989852772
anthelmintic resistance in goats in peninsular malaysia.ninety-six randomly selected farms, located throughout peninsular malaysia, were surveyed for goat nematodes resistant to benzimidazoles (bz). on 33 farms bz resistance was demonstrated by means of an egg hatch assay. haemonchus contortus was found to be the main species involved in anthelmintic resistance. there was a positive association between the frequency of anthelmintic treatments on a farm and the presence of benzimidazole resistance. to assess the value of the egg hatch assay, faecal eg ...19947725626
repeated infections with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats: comparison of resistant and susceptible animals.a total of 70 strongyle-free french alpine dairy goats were exposed to a combination of sequential and challenge infections with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis third-stage larvae. the sequential infection consisted of three inoculations at 50-day intervals, each infection being abbreviated by anthelmintic treatment at 40 days postinoculation. the challenge infection, composed of the same nematode strains, was undertaken 2 months later, when goats were at their 1st month ...19989521016
the efficacy of closantel and rafoxanide against fenbendazole- and levamisole-resistant haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. 19979345716
hypobiosis of haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of kenya.a total of 42 lambs, 42 kids, 21 ewes and 21 does were necropsied during an investigation of the epidemiology of haemonchus contortus infection of sheep (red maasai) and goats (small east african goat) in a semi-arid area of kenya. availability and establishment of the infective stages were monitored by the necropsy of 21 tracer lambs and 21 tracer kids. prevalence of h. contortus was over 90% in both sheep and goats and this species contributed to about 80% of the total worm burden. only about ...19989652383
multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in kenya.the anthelmintic efficacy of benzimidazoles, levamisole, rafoxanide and ivermectin was evaluated on an institutional farm in kenya using faecal egg count reduction test, larval cultures and a controlled slaughter trial. the results of this study indicated simultaneous resistance of haemonchus contortus against benzimidazoles, levamisole and rafoxanide and trichostrongylus columbriformis and oesophagostomum sp. against levamisole on the same farm. injectable and orally administered ivermectin was ...19989637220
response to challenge infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats. differences between high and low-producers.the objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the level of milk production in dairy goats on the ability to develop resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection. two groups of 50 goats were initially exposed (group 'previously infected' pi) or not exposed (group 'not previously infected' npi) to repeated infections with a mixture of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis. after anthelmintic treatment, goats from both groups remained free of parasites for 2 mont ...19979477513
natural evolution of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats (capra hircus) in the semi-arid ecosystem of the paraíba backwoods, northeastern brazil.this study was conducted in patos county, a semi-arid area with caatinga vegetation in paraiba state, northeastern brazil. twenty-four male goats of mixed breeds were used. the animals were separated in age groups from 1-12 months, i. e., 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 months, with four animals in each group. the animals were slaughtered and necropsied to recover and identify adult worms. the goats were exposed to nematode infection from the first month of life. the most prevalent nematodes in ...19989877070
efficacy of an albendazole slow-release capsule for the control of susceptible or resistant nematode parasites of dairy goats.the efficacy of albendazole slow release capsules-asrc- (proftril-captec) on gastro-intestinal nematodes of dairy-goats was assessed both for benzimidazole (bz) susceptible and resistant strains. for bz susceptible strains, the efficacy of asrc, assessed by controlled test, ranged from 92% for trichostrongylus colubriformis to more than 99% for haemonchus contortus on existing worm burdens. the administration of the asrc prevented infection with the same strains for 85 to 91 days post treatment. ...19969017868
host range and the maintenance of haemonchus spp. in an adverse arid climate.three haemonchus species (haemonchus contortus, haemonchus placei and haemonchus longistipes) live in sympatry in sahelian areas such as mauritania (west africa). four host species (dromedary, zebu cattle, sheep and goats) share the same pastures for several months per year. experimental infection by h. contortus or h. placei was achieved only poorly in dromedaries, and h. contortus or h. longistipes infection failed to establish in zebu cattle. conversely, h. placei and h. longistipes successfu ...19989512988
resistance of galla and small east african goats in the sub-humid tropics to gastrointestinal nematode infections and the peri-parturient rise in faecal egg counts.a study was carried out from 1994 to 1996 to compare the resistance to naturally acquired gastrointestinal (gi) nematode infections (predominantly haemonchus contortus) of 88 galla and 114 small east african (sea) goats (does) in the sub-humid coastal region of kenya. live weights (lwt), blood packed cell volume (pcv) and faecal egg counts (fec) were recorded each year at mating, 3-4 months after mating, 1-2 weeks before kidding and 1-4 months after kidding. there was a significant increase in f ...19989777725
cross-reactive antigens of haemonchus contortus adult worms in teladorsagia circumcincta infected goats.the adult haemonchus contortus somatic antigens responsible for cross-reactivity have been analysed using serum samples from goat kids infected and reinfected with teladorsagia circumcincta. goat kids infected with t. circumcincta had similar serum elisa values against somatic antigens of h. contortus as goats infected with h. contortus itself. immunoblotting confirmed this extensive cross-reactivity particularly in the molecular weight range 105-29 kda. however, peptides with high (195, 152 and ...199910478421
faecal egg counts are representative of digestive-tract strongyle worm burdens in sheep and goats.the relationship between faecal egg counts and worm burdens in sheep and goats was studied in a large array of environments, from temperate (ewes, lambs or dairy-goats in france) or steppic (ewes in middle-atlas of morocco) to sahelian (young sheep and goats of mauritania in west africa) climates. the studied temperate worm communities were dominated by teladorsagia and trichostrongylus sp., and those from steppic areas by teladorsagia, marshallagia and trichostrongylus sp.; haemonchus contortus ...19989754309
diversity of benzimidazole-resistance alleles in populations of small ruminant parasites.the resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants (sheep and goat) to benzimidazole anthelmintic drugs seems to be linked primarily to a single mutation in the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene. this study was carried out to investigate the origin and diversity of benzimidazole-resistance alleles in trichostrongylid nematodes. we sequenced a 550 bp fragment of the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene from several benzimidazole-resistant teladorsagia circumcincta populations isolated from dairy g ...200212062563
interaction between trypanosoma evansi and haemonchus contortus infection in goats.an experimental study on interaction between trypanosoma evansi and haemonchus contortus infections was conducted in 42 male barbari goats of 6-9 months age. parasitological observations like prepatent period, faecal egg count, worm burden and mortality were made in animals infected with h. contortus followed 1 week later with t. evansi and vice versa. these parameters were also examined in animals with single infection with each of these parasites. it was revealed that t. evansi infection in go ...200010996737
expression of acquired immunity to a local isolate of haemonchus contortus by the nigerian west african dwarf goat.the capacity of young nigerian west african dwarf (wad) goats to express good acquired immunity to their native geographic strain of haemonchus contortus and the correlates of this responsiveness were studied in a laboratory experiment involving forty 7-8 month old kids. a primary immunising infection with 2000 l3 (equivalent to 260-450 l3/kg body weight) with or without challenge on d42 with 2000 l3 resulted in a mild chronic infection with a pre-patent period of 18-20 days and little or no red ...200211812621
from isolates to a synthetic laboratory population: maintenance of variability in the nematode haemonchus contortus.haemonchus contortus isolates were collected from goats of five locations with different climatic characteristics in guadeloupe archipelago. they were investigated for morphology, morphometrics and allozyme diversity after passage in immunosuppressed lambs using long acting corticoids. the basic aim of the work was to construct a synthetic strain in laboratory conditions which was representative of the isolates. the isolates were only slightly different although climatic conditions were very dif ...200010743645
efficacy of copper oxide needles for the control of nematode parasites in dairy goats.the spread of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in dairy goat farms is of a great concern as probably more than 70% of the flocks are involved. as there are very few other anthelmintic options during the lactating period, we have evaluated the efficacy of copper oxide needles (con, copinox, bayer, uk) in both experimental and natural infections in goats. the curative effect of con (2-4 g) on existing worm burdens was assessed in goats experimentally infected with teladorsagia circumcincta, haemo ...200011014608
microsatellite diversity of isolates of the parasitic nematode haemonchus contortus.the alarming development of anthelmintic resistance in important gastrointestinal nematode parasites of man and live-stock is caused by selection for specific genotypes. in order to provide genetic tools to study the nematode populations and the consequences of anthelmintic treatment, we isolated and sequenced 59 microsatellites of the sheep and goat parasite haemonchus contortus. these microsatellites consist typically of 2-10 tandems ca/gt repeats that are interrupted by sequences of 1-10 bp. ...200010989146
the response of nigerian west african dwarf goats to experimental infections with haemonchus contortus.one option for controlling haemonchosis in warm pastoral regions is improvement of resistance by selective breeding. variation in acquired immunity to h. contortus and immunological correlates of infection were studied in west african dwarf (wad) goats. following exposure to 5000 l3, 63 per cent of the inoculum established but 77 per cent of established worms were expelled by week 5. all infected animals were anaemic (day 14). when exposed to 2000l3, 36 per cent of the inoculum was still present ...199910208893
haemonchus contortus: inter- and intrageographic isolate heterogeneity of proteases in adult worm excretory-secretory products. 19979149245
anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goat farms on peninsular malaysia.the faecal egg count reduction test (fecrt) was conducted on 39 sheep farms and 9 goat farms located in peninsular malaysia. the anthelmintic groups used in these tests were the benzimidazoles, levamisole, the benzimidazole/levamisole combination, macrocyclic lactones and closantel. results indicated that the prevalence of resistance to the benzimidazole group was high, with approximately 50% of the sheep farms and 75% of the goat farms having resistant nematode parasite populations present. res ...199910384906
cd4+ t lymphocytes contribute to protective immunity induced in sheep and goats by haemonchus contortus gut antigens.immunization with parasite antigens derived from the gut of adult haemonchus contortus induces significant levels of protection against the parasite in sheep and goats. however, the mechanisms of immunity involved in this protection are not clear. here, we investigate the requirement for cd4+ t lymphocytes in gut antigen-induced immunity against h. contortus. gut antigen immunized animals were depleted (> 98%) of their cd4+ t lymphocytes in peripheral blood by intravenous injection of an anti-cd ...19979372511
epidemiology of parasitic gastrointestinal nematode infections of ruminants on smallholder farms in central kenya.in order to establish the infection pattern with gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants in the central kenya highlands, a study was carried out in 58 smallholder farms. the study involved monthly faecal examinations from sheep, goats and cattle and pasture sampling from eight communal grazing areas. each month, six dorper worm-free tracer lambs were introduced and four locally grazed cross-bred sheep were purchased for parasite recovery. the mean faecal egg counts (fec) for cattle were low thro ...200111170849
a molecular tool for species identification and benzimidazole resistance diagnosis in larval communities of small ruminant parasites.this report describes a molecular method for determining in a first step the generic composition of a nematode community and in a second step, the resistance of each species to benzimidazole (bz). we first established a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy using the isotype 1 beta-tubulin gene. this method overcame the limitations of morphological identification of larval stages of trichostrongylid nematode species. geographically distant ...200011038310
description of haemonchus placei (place, 1893) (nematoda, trichostrongylidae, haemonchinae), identification and intra-specific morphologic variability.haemonchus placei in cattle has never been completely described, possibly due to great morphological similarity with small ruminants haemonchus contortus. it is newly described on one isolate from argentina. it has clear distinct morphological features from sheep and goats haemonchus contortus and presents only two female morphotypes (linguiform and knobbed) instead of three recorded in h. contortus. a key is proposed to identify females. female as well as male haemonchus placei from new world ( ...199910633504
variability of resistance in goats infected with haemonchus contortus in brazil.the variability between and within breeds with respect to nematode egg counts (epg), packed cell volume (pcv) and hemoglobin (hb) was studied in 36 yearling female goats of the caninde (15), bhuj (6) and anglo-nubian (15) breeds, exposed to haemonchus contortus. nematode-free goats were turned to a contaminated paddock in late february. from then on, fecal egg per gram counts (epg), packed cell volume (pcv) and hemoglobin (hb) were determined at 2-week intervals up to week 18. the epg, transform ...200010681034
benefit of the control of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats in the dry zone of sri lanka.the benefit of gastrointestinal nematode control in cross-bred goats in the dry area of sri lanka was studied throughout 1 year by comparing the performances of three groups: group 1 animals (n = 11) were left untreated against gastrointestinal nematodes; group 2 animals (n = 11) were given monthly anthelmintic treatment. doramectin, at the dose rate of 300 microg/kg bodyweight during the entire study period; group 3 animals (n = 11) were also given monthly doramectin treatment at the dose rate ...200212019940
duration of activity of oral moxidectin against haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goats. 199910399250
multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd.anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern virginia, usa. resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (fecrt). when levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to reduce fecal egg counts by only 50%, two doses administered in a 12 h interval increased e ...200010622608
prevalence of coccidia and gastrointestinal nematode infections in cross bred goats in the dry areas of sri lanka.the prevalence and intensity of oocysts of coccidia, particularly eimeria species, and eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes in kids (2-4 months), young goats (5-12 months) and adult goats (>1 year) were determined in five large herds managed extensively in five villages in the dry zone. of the representative samples examined, oocysts were found in 88% of kids, 91% of young goats and 83% of adults. seven species of eimeria were identified in faecal samples by salt flotation. eimeria ninakohlyakimov ...200111323207
multispecific resistance of trichostrongyles to benzimidazoles in a goat herd in germany.anthelmintic resistance of nematodes to benzimidazoles and ivermectin was suspected from field observations in an angora goat herd in northern hesse. larvae of the caprine trichostrongyle isolate were used for artificial infections of helminth-naive sheep. groups of the lambs were treated with albendazole (3.8 mg/kg p.o.) or ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) four weeks after infection or remained untreated as controls and were necropsied one week later. albendazole reduced the mean faecal egg counts b ...200111367880
response to challenge infection with haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis in dairy goats. consequences on milk production.the objective of the study was to examine the ability of dairy goats to develop a response to nematode parasites of the digestive tract after a previous contact with the worms. one hundred dairy goats were initially divided into 2 groups. one remained free of parasites (not previously infected: npi). the second group was infected thrice at 50 days interval with a mixture of haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis (previously infected: pi). after this initial exposure to nematodes ...19989493309
prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats under extensive management conditions in southwestern france.the occurrence of benzimidazole (bz) and levamisole resistance was investigated in 18 randomly selected dairy goat herds located in southwestern france and characterized by extensive management. on each of the 18 farms, 45 adult goats were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 animals each: an untreated control group, a group that was orally administered fenbendazole (10 mg kg(-1) body weight) and a group that received orally a levamisole drench (12 mg kg(-1) body weight). individual faecal ...200111818048
anthelmintic activity of essential oil of ocimum gratissimum linn. and eugenol against haemonchus contortus.the ovicidal activity of the essential oil of ocimum gratissimum linn. (labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. the oil and eugenol were diluted in tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. in the egg hatch test, h. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. at 0.50% concentration, the essential oil and eugenol showed a maximum eclodibility inhibition. these results s ...200212383625
evolution of high-level, multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in malaysia.anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep and goats on a government farm in north malaysia was monitored over a 3-year period (1997-2000). the faecal egg count reduction test (fecrt) was conducted on young sheep at the beginning and end of this period. changes in management, designed to reduce the selection pressure for the development of anthelmintic resistance, were also implemented during this time. by far the most important parasite problem was haemonchus contortus. in 1997, thi ...200312636358
examination of gastrointestinal helminth in livestock grazing in grassland of bangladesh.to determine association of grassland with parasitic diseases of livestock in bangladesh, the 'tracer' animals (two cow calves and two goats) were released for a month in a grassland used for communal grazing of livestock near school premise in kanthal, trishal, mymensingh, bangladesh. after slaughtering of the tracer animals, their gastrointestinal tract examination revealed six species of nematode and one cestode. the nematode species were haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, mecistoci ...200011002657
the contribution of molecular biology to the development of vaccines against nematode and trematode parasites of domestic ruminants.rapid developments in molecular biology have had an enormous impact on the prospects for the development of vaccines to control the major nematode and trematode infestations of livestock. vaccine candidates are purified using conventional protein chemistry techniques but the limitations imposed by the scarcity of parasite material provide an insurmountable barrier for commercial vaccine production by this means. the ability to purify mrna from different parasite life-cycle stages and to prepare ...200111707304
susceptibility of trypanotolerant west african dwarf goats and f1 crosses with the susceptible sahelian breed to experimental trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with helminth infections and different levels of diet.forty pure west african dwarf (wad) goats and 35 of its f1 crosses with the sahelian breed were used in a multifactorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of an experimental trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with natural helminth infections and different levels of diet on health and productivity of these two breeds. trypanosome infection caused a severe drop in packed cell volume (pcv), but this was not significantly affected by breed. neither deworming nor diet had any ...200212208040
effects of condensed tannins on goats experimentally infected with haemonchus contortus.although the use of tanniferous plants or condensed tannins as an alternative to anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes has been largely documented in sheep, studies remain scarce in goats. the objective of this study was therefore to assess the possible impact of condensed tannins in goats infected with adult haemonchus contortus. two groups of cull goats were experimentally infected with 10.000 l3 of h. contortus. after 4 weeks, quebracho extracts, representing 5% of the diet dm, ...200312719140
host specificity of haemonchus spp. for domestic ruminants in the savanna in northern ivory coast.three haemonchus species (haemonchus contortus, haemonchus placei and haemonchus similis) live in sympatry in the savanna of north côte d'ivoire. four domestic ruminant hosts (zebu-cattle, taurine-cattle, sheep and goats) share the same pastures throughout the year. our post-mortem data imply that a haemonchus spp. circulation exists among the different hosts species in the savanna of north côte d'ivoire. under field conditions, mixed congeneric infections were the rule except in sheep where mon ...200314519319
assessment of genetic variability of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in creole goats in the humid tropics.goat production is widespread in the tropics. goats are very susceptible to gastrointestinal nematode infection, but there is less evidence of their genetic resistance. genetic resistance of creole goats to gastrointestinal nematodes has been studied at guadeloupe in the french west indies since 1995. the objective of this research was to investigate genetic variation for resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infection, in order to introduce this trait into breeding schemes. genetic variabilit ...200111465357
the famacha system for managing haemonchosis in sheep and goats by clinically identifying individual animals for treatment.escalating anthelmintic resistance has made it essential to develop alternative ways of worm management for reducing selection for worm resistance, and one of the most promising approaches is to treat only those animals unable to cope with worm challenge, thus favouring unselected worms originating from untreated animals. only clinical evaluation of anaemia (famacha system) and the body condition score are regarded as being of practical value or having potential, respectively, for repeatedly exa ...200212387487
variability in the resistance of the nigerian west african dwarf goat to abbreviated escalating trickle and challenge infections with haemonchus contortus.the west african dwarf (wad) goat is known to be relatively resistant to infection with haemonchus contortus. an experiment was carried out to assess variability in resistance under escalating trickle and single pulse challenge infection protocols. thirty two 7-8 month old goats were subjected to trickle infection beginning with a thrice weekly dose of 100 l3 and increasing to 500 l3 by week 5, the last dose being administered on d30. infection was abbreviated with fenbendazole on d32 and the an ...200415158556
pyrosequencing analysis identifies discrete populations of haemonchus contortus from small ruminants.the genus haemonchus consists of blood-sucking parasitic nematodes in the abomasum of ruminants. members of this genus are responsible for extensive production losses, particularly of small ruminants in the tropics but are also found in temperate regions. in this study, we examined the internal transcribed spacers-1 and -2 of rrna in haemonchus spp. the rrna region spanning the internal transcribed spacers-1, -2 and the 5.8s rrna gene was amplified by pcr from each of 10 worms from swedish sheep ...200312814655
experimental haemonchosis in goats: effects of single and multiple infections in the host response.histopathological changes and the distribution of t lymphocytes (cd3), b cells (cd79alpha) and igg secreting plasma cells were recorded in the abomasum and abomasal lymph nodes of goats during early and late post-infection stages with one to four doses of haemonchus contortus l3. the infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells, cd3(+) t lymphocytes, cd79alpha(+)b cells and igg(+) plasma cells in the abomasal mucosa increased dramatically from 10dpi onwards, whereas globule leukocytes were observed o ...200312559712
abomasal lymph node responses to haemonchus contortus intestinal antigens established in kid goats by infection or immunization with intestinal antigens.immune responses to haemonchus contortus intestinal antigens were evaluated using abomasal lymph node (aln) lymphocytes from kid goats protected against challenge infection by immunization with parasite intestinal antigen, and from kids that were challenged after immunization with ovalbumin. aln lymphocytes from the intestinal antigen-immunized group produced significantly higher antibody levels against intestinal antigens than the ovalbumin group, supporting the theory that immunization contrib ...200312791101
mortality of creole kids during infection with gastrointestinal strongyles: a survival analysis.mortality due to strongyles infection in small ruminants is a critical component of flock productivity in a tropical climate. in goat production, few experiments have been conducted to estimate the variability of this trait. a survival analysis study was carried out in the creole experimental flock of inra-gardel (moule, guadeloupe) to identify management and genetic factors influencing mortality of kids reared at pasture and infected with gastrointestinal strongyles, predominantly haemonchus co ...200314552365
susceptibility to ivm in a field strain of haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep-goat flock in kenya.susceptibility to ivm (ivm) of "strain a" haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to ivm four times over a 2-year period was compared to ivm susceptibility of "strain c" h. contortus which had no prior field exposure to ivm, by in vivo and in vitro methods. in vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (fec) and the total worm counts (twc) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose ivm (20 microg/kg). in vitro susceptibility to ivm was e ...200312482652
the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of browsing criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections during the rainy season in tropical mexico.the objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the wet season in tropical mexico. thirty-four 2-month old criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 22-week trial. the kids were placed into four groups. two groups of 8 kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74%, respectively fresh basis) (t ...200415381302
effects of acacia nilotica and acacia karoo diets on haemonchus contortus infection in goats.this study was carried out to determine the effects of acacia karoo and acacia nilotica diets on haemonchus contortus infections in goats. twenty-four boer goats of mixed sex (live weight 17-22 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, namely: a. nilotica (an) group, a. karoo (ak) group, control infected with h. contortus (hc) group and the non-infected control (nhc) group. animals in the an, ak and hc groups were orally infected with a single dose of 3000 hc third stage larvae. the a ...200312935742
effects of the repeated distribution of sainfoin hay on the resistance and the resilience of goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats, the need to explore novel approaches to control nematodes and to reduce the exclusive reliance on chemotherapy is strongly demanded in this host species. in sheep, several studies have shown that the consumption of tannin-rich legume forages was associated with positive effects on host resilience and resistance to parasite infection. in goats, studies on such interactions between tanniferous plants and nematode infections remain few ...200515710528
effect of urea-molasses block supplementation on grazing weaner goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.the influence of feeding urea-molasses blocks (umb) on growth and gastrointestinal (gi) nematode parasitism of weaner goats grazing the same pasture was investigated on a farm in nyandarua district, kenya. thirty female small east african goat kids at an average age of 5 months were initially treated with albendazole orally (5 mg kg(-1) body mass) and randomly assigned into one of two groups: group i were fed umb prepared using a cold process and group ii kids (controls) received no block supple ...200415732455
pathological and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum and abomasal lymph nodes in goats experimentally infected with haemonchus contortus.histopathological changes and the distributions of t and b lymphocytes and igg producing plasma cells were recorded in the abomasum and abomasal lymph nodes of goats 3, 7 and 21 weeks post-infection (wpi) after an experimental infection with h. contortus. the low rate of worm recovery by 3 wpi (5.6%) might have been due to larvae death as suggested by the presence of granulomas in the abomasal mucosa at 3 and 7 wpi, or simply due to a poor larval establishment. marked increase in the secretion o ...200111592616
capability of the nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans to reduce infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes in goat feces in the southeastern united states: dose titration and dose time interval studies.infection with gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly haemonchus contortus, is a major constraint to goat production in the southeastern united states. non-anthelmintic control alternatives are needed due to increasing resistance of these nematodes to available anthelmintics. two studies were completed in central georgia in august 1999, and april-may 2000, using spanish does naturally infected with haemonchus contortus, trichostongylus colubriformis, and cooperia spp. to evaluate effectiveness ...200415063939
failure of young goats to acquire resistance to haemonchus contortus.two experiments were carried out to investigate the acquisition by goats of resistance to haemonchus contortus. in experiment 1, five saanen wethers reared worm-free and averaging 5 1/2 months of age at the start of the experiment, were dosed with 200 h. contortus infective larvae three times per week for 10 weeks (approximately 23 infective larvae/kg mean initial liveweight/week) and then given anthelmintic treatment. each goat and an equal number of worm-free controls were then challenged with ...198916031502
multiple anthelmintic resistance in haemonchus contortus isolated from south african boer goats in switzerland.a suspected case of multiple anthelmintic resistance on a farm in the canton of zurich, switzerland, into which south african boer goats had previously been imported, was confirmed in a controlled test. twenty sheep were allocated into one control group and three treatment groups to determine the efficacy of mebendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin applying the faecal egg count reduction test (fecrt). the sheep were slaughtered 1 week later and post-mortem worm counts were performed. benzimidazole ...200515740865
comparative efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans against haemonchus contortus, teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus colubriformis in goat faeces: influence of the duration and of the temperature of coproculture.amongst the alternative strategies to the use of anthelmintics, the administration of duddingtonia flagrans spores has already proved its efficacy in reducing the number of developing larvae of several nematode species in goat faeces. in this trial, the efficacy of this fungus against the larvae of the three major nematode species of goats was compared in various conditions of coproculture. twelve strongyle free goats were experimentally infected with either trichostrongylus colubriformis, telad ...200616328368
the effect of duddingtonia flagrans on trichostrongyle infections of saanen goats on pasture.four groups of nine saanen goat does with a naturally acquired mixed trichostrongylid infection were grazed on four paddocks. two groups received a daily dose of duddingtonia flagrans at the rate of 5 x 10(7) chlamydospores per animal per day for the 26-day grazing period. after a 19-day pasture resting period, 20 worm free 12-week-old tracer kids were introduced to the paddocks for 14 days prior to removal for worm burden analysis. four groups of five does and four kids were drenched then turne ...200314651876
the comparative efficacy of four broad spectrum anthelmintics against some experimentally induced trichostrongylid infections in sheep and goats.a controlled slaughter trial was undertaken to compare the efficacies of oxfendazole (5 mg/kg), morantel citrate (10 mg/kg), levamisole (8 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) against experimentally induced infections of adult haemonchus contortus, ostertagia spp., trichostrongylus colubriformis and cooperiacurticei in sheep and goats. ivermectin and oxfendazole achieved similar levels of efficacy in both hosts against all four worm genera as did levamisole and mortantel against h. contortus and c. ...198716031344
characterization of haemonchus contortus calreticulin suggests its role in feeding and immune evasion by the parasite.haemonchus contortus, a gastrointestinal parasite of sheep and goat feeds on the blood of its host and causes bleeding at the biting site. in this report, we demonstrate that the ca2+ binding protein, calreticulin (calr), is present in excretory/secretory products of adult worms. the secreted calr enhanced plasma coagulation time. using recombinant fragments, this property has been mapped to c-terminal part of the molecule which has binding sites for ca2+ as well as clotting factors. complement ...200515716049
morphological identification of nematode larvae of small ruminants and cattle simplified.a simplified system has been developed to facilitate identification of nematode larvae of the common nematodes of cattle, sheep and goats. firstly, in addition to the characteristics conventionally used for identification (such as the shape of the cranial extremity and numbers of intestinal cells), the lengths of the infective sheath tails of infective larvae of each genus/species are related to that of trichostrongylus spp. instead of using measurements for differentiation. for instance, if the ...200415154594
the possibilities and limitations of evasive grazing as a control measure for parasitic gastroenteritis in small ruminants in temperate climates.between 1999 and 2003 studies were done at utrecht university on the population dynamics of gastrointestinal nematodes and the potential to use evasive grazing for the control of nematode infections in small ruminants. on most pastures grazed in may and june it took at least 3 weeks before high pasture infectivity levels for haemonchus contortus developed while it took at least 2 weeks on pastures grazed in july, august and september. occasionally, larvae emerged earlier on pasture when high tem ...200515817209
removal of haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus spp. from goats, by morantel citrate, levamisole hydrochloride, fenbendazole, and oxfendazole.young feral goats harbouring 3, 7 and 36 day old experimental infections of strains of gastrointestinal nematodes, known to be susceptible to anthelmintics in sheep, were dosed orally with commercially available anthelmintics at the manufacturers' recommended rates for sheep. the drugs and overall removals of ostertagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus spp. (t. colubriformis and t. vitrinus) respectively were: morantel citrate 69% and 68%; levamisole hydrochloride 55% and >99%; fenbendazole 98. ...198716031353
the efficacy of albendazole against some gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.on the basis of worm counts in naturally infected angora-x goats, albendazole at either 3.8 mg/kg repeated after 24 hours or as a single dose at 7.6 mg/kg, was >99% effective in removing adult ostertagia and trichostrongylus spp. small numbers of adult haemonchus contortus, cooperia sp. and chabertia ovina were present in control but not treated animals. the single dose of 7.6 mg/kg removed >99% of adult oesophagostomum venulosum whereas the repeated dose of 3.8 mg/kg removed only 96%.198816031461
ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of spigelia anthelmia linn. extracts on haemonchus contortus.the rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plants as alternative sources of anthelmintics. spigelia anthelmia extracts obtained with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate or methanol, were tested on haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae via egg hatch and larval development tests. the extracts ...200314597278
efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans against three species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in laboratory faecal cultures from sheep and goats.the ability of the nematode-killing fungus duddingtonia flagrans to reduce number of infective larvae of three species of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematodes developing in dung was investigated in both goats and sheep. groups of lambs and kids (12-20 weeks old) were given mono-specific infections of haemonchus contortus, ostertagia (teladorsagia) circumcincta or trichostrongylus colubriformis. following patency of the infections (t1) faecal samples were collected for determination of faecal ne ...200314729170
validation of the famacha eye color chart for detecting clinical anemia in sheep and goats on farms in the southern united states.recent studies on sheep and goat farms in the southern united states indicate that multiple-anthelmintic resistance in haemonchus contortus is becoming a severe problem. though many factors are involved in the evolution of resistance, the proportion of the parasite population under drug selection is believed to be the single most important factor influencing how rapidly resistance develops. therefore, where prevention of resistance is an important parallel goal of worm control, it is recommended ...200415265575
investigations on the seasonal patterns of strongyle infections in grazing lambs, and the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in western anatolia, turkey.the seasonal patterns of strongyle infections in untreated, weaned lambs were determined on four governmental farms during a grazing season. in three farms, the infection level (predominantly teladorsagia spp. and trichostrongylus spp.) measured by egg counts or worm burdens remained low throughout the study; higher egg counts mainly caused by haemonchus contortus were transiently recorded on the fourth farm. significant body weight gains were observed in all groups, but they varied between farm ...200515765247
immunoprotection in goats against haemonchus contortus after immunization with cysteine protease enriched protein fractions.haemonchus cysteine proteases, because of their apparent critical function in worm physiology, are considered important candidates in the immunological control of haemonchosis in sheep. only limited information is, however, available on the immunoprotective properties of these molecules in goats. in the present study cysteine proteases of haemonchus contortus adult worms isolated from a goat strain (gran canaria, spain) were enriched by affinity chromatography and evaluated as immunoprotective a ...200415369659
identification of a 66 kda haemonchus contortus excretory/secretory antigen that inhibits host monocytes.a 66 kda adult haemonchus contortus excretory/secretory (e/s) antigen was identified in western blot by reaction with sera from the infected goats. the protein was purified from the adult worm extract and e/s products by anion exchange and cona-sepharose chromatography. the purified protein inhibited monocyte function in vitro as judged by decreased production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in the culture medium. the protein also caused proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. ...200616517075
ovicidal and larvicidal activity of melia azedarach extracts on haemonchus contortus.haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the northeast of brazil. however, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. in the search for natural anthelmintics, melia azedarach l., a plant indigenous to india but now distributed throughout brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. the aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf ex ...200616621294
the modulatory influence of trypanosoma brucei on challenge infection with haemonchus contortus in nigerian west african dwarf goats segregated into weak and strong responders to the nematode.although nigerian west african dwarf (wad) goats are relatively resistant to infection with haemonchus contortus and are also trypanotolerant, natural outbreaks of both infections are known to occur. despite their relative resistance to h. contortus wad goats nevertheless show variability in response phenotype and it was of interest to examine the effect of this variability on the outcome of concurrent trypanosome infection. trypanosoma brucei infections were established in goats that were initi ...200515725530
total anthelmintic failure to control nematode parasites of small ruminants on government breeding farms in sabah, east malaysia.government-owned small-ruminant breeding farms in malaysia provide the source of sheep and goats to smallholder farmers in the country. in the eastern malaysian state of sabah, high-level stock losses have been recorded on these farms for several years, frequently accompanied by clinical signs indicating pathogenic levels of infections with the nematode parasite haemonchus contortus. this suggests that their dependence on chemotherapy to control parasite infections had failed. accordingly, tests ...200415509022
lack of effects of quebracho and sainfoin hay on incoming third-stage larvae of haemonchus contortus in goats.the effects of tannins on adult populations of haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis and teladorsagia circumcincta in goats are characterised mainly by a decrease in egg excretion without any significant changes in worm number. in contrast, the impact of tannins on t. colubriformis or t. circumcincta third-stage larvae (l3) is associated with a significant reduction in worm establishment. the objective of the present study was to examine the effects of quebracho extract tannins on ...200516129346
amphids: the neuronal ultrastructure of macrocyclic-lactone-resistant haemonchus contortus.the development of anthelmintic resistance by nematode parasites is a growing problem for veterinarians and producers. the intensive use of the macrocyclic lactones for the treatment of a variety of parasitic diseases has hastened the development of resistance to this family of parasiticides among sheep, goats and cattle. as a result, resistance to ivermectin, moxidectin and doramectin by haemonchus contortus has been documented throughout the world. while the exact sites of action of the macroc ...200415305725
improving resilience against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing kids during the dry season in tropical mexico.the objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (gin) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the dry season in tropical mexico. thirty-three two-month-old criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 20-week trial. the kids were placed into four groups. two groups of eight kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74% respectively fresh bas ...200616203095
control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats on pastures in south africa using nematophagous fungi duddingtonia flagrans and selective anthelmintic treatments.the effectiveness of selective anthelmintic treatments and use of nematophagous fungi duddingtonia flagrans in reducing levels of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats was investigated at onderstepoort, south africa. nineteen (19) naturally infected indigenous male goats, aged 10 months, were separated into four groups and grazed in separate previously ungrazed paddocks for two worm seasons (february 2002-march 2003). two groups of goats were fed d. flagrans chlamydospores daily and two groups did ...200616563632
sericea lespedeza hay as a natural deworming agent against gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats.infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (gin), particularly haemonchus contortus, is the biggest constraint to profitable goat production in the united states (us). due to widespread prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goat gin, alternative, non-chemical control methodologies are needed to increase profitability of small ruminant industries. a study was designed to test the efficacy of a high condensed tannin (ct) legume, sericea lespedeza [sl, lespedeza cuneata (dum.-cours. g. don)] agai ...200616564132
anthelmintic resistance of nematode parasites of small ruminants in eastern ethiopia: exploitation of refugia to restore anthelmintic efficacy.faecal egg count reduction tests (fecrt) were conducted in may 2003 to determine the efficacy of anthelmintics used for treatment against nematode parasites in separately managed sheep and goat flocks at alemaya university in eastern ethiopia. these tests revealed high levels of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole, tetramisole, the combination of these two drugs, and to ivermectin in the goat flock (predominantly infected by haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus spp.), whereas all drugs w ...200616213096
accuracy of an anaemia scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid kenya and its potential for control of haemonchus contortus infections.we tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the famacha chart) as a method for controlling haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of central kenya. the objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the famacha chart in identifying anaemic goats (pcv< or =18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. on each of two farms, small east african goats of various ages were allocated to two ...200616824684
impact of the nematophagous fungus duddingtonia flagrans on muellerius capillaris larvae in goat faeces.the small lungworm muellerius capillaris is very prevalent in goats and causes production losses. its control is particularly difficult. the nematophagous fungus duddingtonia flagrans has been shown to be effective in trapping a large range of gastro-intestinal nematode larvae but its trapping activity against small lungworm remains to be assessed. the purpose of this work was firstly, to evaluate the ability of first-stage larvae of m. capillaris (l1) to induce trap formation in in vitro condit ...200515936150
targeted selective treatment for worm management--how do we sell rational programs to farmers?seriously escalating global anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants has spawned a variety of alternatives to anthelmintics for worm management, based on the need for sustainable integrated parasite management (sipm). pivotal to the sipm approach is the concept of refugia, the proportion of a given parasite population that escapes exposure to control measures. by balancing drug applications with the maintenance of refugia, the accumulation of anthelmintic resistan ...200616774807
characterization of hc58cdna, a putative cysteine protease from the parasite haemonchus contortus.because of the complexity of the cathepsin b-like (cbl) family, an information on the biological and biochemical characteristics of individual cbl genes is lacking. in this study, we investigated the degradative effects of the recombinant hc58 protein isolated from haemonchus contortus parasites on protein substrates over a broad ph range in vitro. this protein, which hydrolyzed the synthetic peptide substrates z-fr-amc and z-rr-amc, had characteristics of the cysteine protease class of proteins ...200616871019
impact on productivity of peri-parturient rise in fecal egg counts in creole goats in the humid tropics.the control of gastrointestinal nematodes requires an understanding of their epidemiology so that particular parasite stages can be targeted. dam infection during early lactation is one example of this in ruminant nematode infections. the existence of the peri-parturient relaxation in immunity and its impact on productivity were examined in a creole goat flock from guadeloupe, exposed to mixed natural infection (predominantly haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus colubriformis). a total of 1 ...200516165278
[evaluation of nematode predacious fungus duddingtonia flagrans on infective haemonchus contortus and strongyloides papillosus larvae of goats].one brazilian isolate of nematode-trapping fungus duddingtonia flagrans ac 001 was evaluated regarding the capacity of supporting passage through the gastrointestinal tract of goats without losing the ability to entrap infective haemonchus contortus and strongyloides papillosus larvae (l3). ten saneen goats of eight months old, males and infected naturally were divided in two groups of five animals. in the group 1, the animals received orally 20 g of pellets of the d. flagrans. in the group 2 (c ...200616834900
biotransformation of flubendazole and selected model xenobiotics in haemonchus contortus.haemonchus contortus is one of the most pathogenic parasites of small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goat). the treatment of haemonchosis is complicated because of frequent resistance of h. contortus to common anthelmintics. the development of resistance can be facilitated by the action of drug metabolizing enzymes of parasites that can deactivate anthelmintics and thus protect parasites against the toxic effect of the drug. the aim of this project was to investigate the phase i biotransformation of ...200818054171
management and control of nematode parasites of small ruminants in the face of total anthelmintic failure.total failure of modern broad spectrum anthelmintics to control nematode parasites of sheep and goats is a reality, of rapidly increasing dimension, on many farms in the tropical / subtropical regions of the world. this is primarily associated with the highly pathogenic, blood sucking parasite, haemonchus contortus, and where it now cannot be controlled by chemotherapy, annual mortalities exceeding 20% of the flock can be expected. thus sheep and goat enterprises become totally unsustainable, un ...200416493393
managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in south africa.gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. of the responsible nematodes, haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. in africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmi ...200616700468
control of haemonchus contortus in goats with a sustained-release multi-trace element/vitamin ruminal bolus containing copper.the objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a sustained-release multi-trace element/vitamin ruminal bolus (teb) containing copper administered to mature does for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (gin) during summer months and during late gestation. haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode during these trials. in experiment 1, yearling spanish does were untreated or administered teb (n=11/group) on day 0 (august 2005) prior to breeding. in experiment 2, spanish ...200616716521
[a new control method for haemonchus contortus: famacha].famacha is a method that has been developed against haemonchus contortus which causes anemia in sheep and goats especially in tropical and subtropical areas. the basic principle of the method is the detection of the color changes in the mucous membrane of the eye that is caused by anemia. according to the famacha anemia guide, (fag), the mucous membranes of the eyes of animals are inspected for color differences at two or three week intervals. the criteria are used for treating the animals. thus ...200617106855
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