evaluation of mono- and polyclonal antibody-based antigen detection immunoassays for diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi infection in the dromedary camel.two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), one based on a mouse anti-trypanosoma brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody and the other on rabbit anti-trypanosoma evansi polyclonal antibodies, have been evaluated for their ability to detect circulating trypanosome antigens in camel sera as a means for the diagnosis of t. evansi infections. all 91 sera from a negative control camel herd from kenya gave negative antigen-elisa results in the monoclonal antibody-based elisa and only 2 of them ...19921301627
productivity and health of camels (camelus dromedarius) in somalia: associations with trypanosomosis and somalia, one of the world's largest dromedary populations of about 5.3 million animals are kept by nomadic pastoralists under traditional management. interest in the development potential of camel herds in the semi-arid areas of central somalia initiated an investigation to determine the productivity of herds, their major diseases and likely associations among these parameters. using a systems approach, data were collected for herd production parameters, environmental factors, management and ...19921304662
predisposing factors in enterotoxemias of camels (camelus dromedarius) caused by clostridium perfringens type a.c. perfringens type a was isolated from different organs and intestines from breeding and racing camels which died from peracute and acute enterotoxemias in two separate outbreaks. pathological changes in the digestive tract were mild in breeding camels, and severe in racing camels. a polyvalent clostridial antiserum of bovine origin given intravenously had a life-saving effect on breeding camels, but not on racing camels. in the two outbreaks, fifty percent of the breeding camels were suffering ...19911818358
tenth international meeting on trypanosoma evansi: report of the working group. paris, 24 may 1989.some epidemiological surveys have provided information on the incidence of trypanosoma evansi infection among dromedaries in mali, and among buffaloes in java and indonesia. the disease among camels has been reported again from kazakhstan in the ussr, with the coexistence of t. evansi and cephalopina titillator in animals which developed acute infection. the disease has been studied among horses in venezuela and among buffaloes in vietnam and indonesia, and suspected among horses in brazil. diag ...19902132713
two simple antigen-detection enzyme immunoassays for the diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi infections in the dromedary camel (camelus dromedarius).a monoclonal antibody against a plasma membrane antigen of trypanosoma rhodesiense was used in a microplate- and a tube-elisa for the detection of t. evansi circulating antigen in camel sera from endemic areas in mali and kenya. the colour reactions could be read visually and the results obtained for both assays were identical. the sera from the control herd of 30 camels from a farm in a non-endemic area in kenya were all negative for antigen, while 18 out of 20 sera from infected camels in an e ...19892623422
evaluation of enzyme immunoassays in the diagnosis of camel (camelus dromedarius) trypanosomiasis: a preliminary investigation.three enzyme immunoassays were used for the serodiagnosis of trypanosoma evansi in camels in the sudan in order to evaluate their ability to discriminate between infected and non-infected animals. two assays were used for the detection of trypanosomal antibodies, one using specific anti-camel igg conjugate and another using a non-specific protein a conjugate. the third assay detected the presence of trypanosomal antigens using anti-t. evansi antibodies in a double antibody sandwich assay. inspec ...19892703023
camel trypanosomiasis and its vectors in somalia.blood samples from 3000 somali camels (camelus dromedarius) were examined for trypanosome infection. of these, 160 (5.33%) were infected with trypanosoma evansi, one (0.03%) with t. congolense and one (0.03%) with t. brucei. camel trypanosomiasis occurred in most areas of tabanid infestation throughout the country. the tabanids philoliche zonata and p. magretti are incriminated as the major vectors of the disease.19892781715
a clinical evaluation of samorin in trypanosoma evansi infections in camelus dromedarius. 19854020952
[trypanosomiasis caused by trypanosoma evansi in dromedaries in chad and its principal vectors]. 19655894025
changes in the levels of some serum enzymes in dromedary camels infected with trypanosoma evansi.the serum levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in healthy male dromedary camels were determined. the camels were then infected with trypanosoma evansi and the same enzymes determined at intervals, both during the period of infection and after treatment with the trypanocidal drugs suramin and quinapyramine sulphate. increases in the serum levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and gluta ...19807414087
camel trypanosomosis in rajasthan, india.blood samples from 240 camels (camelus dromedarius) were examined for trypanosome infection. of these, 18 (7.50%) were found to be infected using the wet blood giemsa stain technique, while 76 (31.66%) camels were found to be positive for trypanosoma evansi antigen using the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the latter was found to be a more useful method for the detection of current infection.19937504363
efficacy of cymelarsan in the treatment of natural chronic trypanosoma evansi infection in camels in the sudan.the efficacy of cymelarsan, administered by intramuscular (i/m) injection in the treatment of chronic cases of camel trypanosomosis due to trypanosoma evansi, was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. it was confirmed that cymelarsan is a safe drug for use in dromedary camels when administered i/m at dose rates of 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg body weight. during the 90 days post-treatment no relapses occurred at either dose rate. hence, the drug was found to be fully effective against the chronic ...19947770663
[camel trypanosomiasis caused by trypanosoma evansi (steel 1885), balbiani 1888, in islamic republic of mauritania: results of surveys in the trarza region].a first survey concerning camel trypanosomiasis due to trypanosoma evansi was carried out in the trarza region (south-western mauritania). blood smears were made from 218 animals and 160 were submitted to an indirect immunofluorescence test. young calves below one year old seem to be free of t. evansi infection, while in dairy females, average rates of infection of 7.3% (blood smears) and 24.5% (serological results) were found. the type of herd management seems to be an important risk factor: th ...19947991900
[trypanosomiasis caused by trypanosoma evansi (steel 1885), balbiani 1888 in small ruminants in mauritania: results of experimental inoculation and field surveys].in order to define the eventual role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of t. evansi infection in southern mauritania, the following experiments were carried out: the intravenous inoculation of a ewe and a goat with a local strain of t. evansi isolated from a dairy camel; surveys of small ruminant flocks which graze with infected camels in the south of the trarza region. the experimental inoculation allowed to show that local sheep and goats are receptive. only the ewe showed a clinical epis ...19938073171
presence of ketones in the serum of trypanosoma evansi infected camels (camelus dromedarius) in the hundred serum and two urine samples collected from camels (camelus dromedarius) were analysed at the eastern state veterinary research laboratory, kassala, sudan, for the presence of ketones. all fifty sera from trypanosome infected camels gave positive results. fourty five out of the fifty serum samples of trypanosome negative camels showed negative results. the five positive samples were also positive with the mercuric chloride test.19938073172
[epidemiology of trypanosomiasis caused by t. evansi in camels in mali: results of parasitological and clinical survey].an epidemiological study of trypanosomiasis was conducted in the rearing areas of dromedary camels in mali. according to the parasitological and clinical surveys performed, the overall infection rates were 9.5% (29/305) in western sahel (region i) and 4.5% (28/627) in the areas of tombouctou and gao (region ii). the proportion of contaminated herds was 55% in region i and 68% in region ii and in some herds the infection rate exceeded 50%. the surveys showed a trend for increasing parasitological ...19938190982
a comparison of the antigen detection elisa and parasite detection for diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi infections in camels.two herds of 60 camels each, living in trypanosoma evansi endemic areas, were selected and studied for a period of 18 months. animals in one herd were treated prophylactically with quinapyramine prosalt (may and baker, dagenham, uk), while those in the other herd were treated individually with quinapyramine dimethylsulphate (may and baker, dagenham, uk) when proven parasitaemic. the herd on prophylaxis was sampled for antigen and patent infection monthly. the other herd was sampled weekly for pa ...19938249241
use of antigen capture tube enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi infections in dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius).parasitological diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi infection in camels is hampered by the small number of parasites in blood circulation, coupled with the tendency of this trypanosome to invade tissues. to overcome this, a more sensitive assay, an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), was developed, capable of detecting trypanosome antigens released into the bloodstream by dying parasites. to evaluate the usefulness of this assay in assisting chemotherapy, an experiment was designed to ...19938400400
trypanozoon-like epimastigotes in the larvae of cephalopina titillator (diptera: oestridae) infesting camels (camelus dromedarius) infected with trypanosoma evansi. 19938447075
evaluation of various diagnostic techniques for trypanosoma evansi infections in naturally infected hundred and eight camels (camelus dromedarius) from trypanosoma evansi endemic areas of the thar desert of rajasthan state, india, were evaluated by various diagnostic tests including parasitological tests (wet blood film-wbf, stained thick blood film), chemical test (mercuric chloride), biological test (mouse subinoculation-msi), and immunodiagnostic tests based on antibody detection (double immunodiffusion test-did, card agglutination test-catt), antigen detection (double antibody sandwich ...19979187029
changes in classical pathway complement activity in dromedary camels experimentally infected with trypanosoma evansi.the complement system is known to have important effector functions in immune responses. however, its role in camel trypanosomosis has not been determined. the present study was undertaken to evaluate haemolytic complement activity in trypanosoma evansi-infected and uninfected camels. five dromedary camels were experimentally infected with t. evansi and classical pathway haemolytic complement activity was assayed. parasitaemia and packed cell volume were also monitored. following infection, clas ...19979239845
diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi in saudi arabian camels (camelus dromedarius) by the passive haemagglutination test and ag-elisa.the passive haemagglutination test and ag-elisa were employed to monitor antibody titres and antigenaemia levels in 4 najdi camels experimentally infected with trypanosoma evansi. the two tests were also used to determine the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in a total of 218 najdi camels in the gassim region, central saudi arabia, during the period from october 1992 to september 1993. trypanosoma evansi antibodies in the experimentally infected camels rose after 14-21 days and reached a maximum of ...19989916554
camel trypanosomosis in the canary islands: assessment of seroprevalence and infection rates using the card agglutination test (catt/t. evansi) and parasite detection tests.trypanosomosis due to trypanosoma evansi (surra) is a major enzootic disease of the dromedary camel. thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess seroprevalence and infection rates in the canary islands using antibody(-card agglutination test-catt/t. evansi) and parasite detection tests (micro-haematocrit centrifugation technique, giemsa stained blood smears, microscopic examination of lymph node aspirates and mouse inoculation). pcv was also determined. 745 dromedary camels (483 females ...200010828522
seroprevalence of trypanosoma evansi in dromedaries (camelus dromedarius) from the canary islands (spain) using an antibody ab-elisa.after the description in grand canary island of a case of dromedary trypanosomosis caused by trypanosoma evansi in 1998, an indirect enzyme immunoassay for the detection of specific anti-t. evansi igg (ab-elisa) was used to assess the seroprevalence of this disease on the canary islands. seroprevalence was 9.0% in the four studied islands (gran canaria, tenerife, lanzarote and fuerteventura), varying from 10.0 to 7.5% by island (not significantly different). prevalence using ab-elisa was higher ...199911018734
preliminary evaluation of diagnostic tests using horses experimentally infected with trypanosoma surra negative horses were intravenously inoculated with 3 x 10(6)trypanosoma evansi parasites derived from a camel. one horse was maintained as an uninfected negative control. three antigen and three antibody detection tests were evaluated for diagnosis of infection in horses. the microhaematocrit centrifugation test (mhct) was the most sensitive, first detecting parasites between one and three days (x 2.4) post infection (p.i.). the antigen (ag)-elisa detected antigen between three and t ...200111352486
impairment in the pituitary-thyroid axis of the camelus dromedarius infected with trypanosoma evansi.camels infected with trypanosoma evansi were diagnosed by the passive haemagglutination test and ag-elisa and subjected to hormonal blood analyses to estimate the function of the thyroid gland. the results indicated that t. evansi caused a significant case of hypothyroidism evidenced as a decrease in the thyroid triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4) blood levels associated with a parallel decrease in the level of blood pituitary thyrotropic hormone (tsh) as measured by the ria technique.200111370479
effect of season on the productivity of camels (camelus dromedarius and the prevalence of their major parasites in eastern ethiopia.the productivity and the prevalence rates of the major parasites of camels (camelus dromedarius) kept under traditional management conditions at errer valley, ethiopia were assessed for a year (october 1997-september 1998). the daily milk offtake was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the wet season (3.12 +/- 0.03 l) than during the dry season (1.49 +/- 0.04 l). likewise, significantly higher (p < 0.05) daily weight gains (50.68 +/- 0.54 g) were observed during the wet season than during dry ...200111474866
animal-level risk factors for trypanosoma evansi infection in camels in eastern and central parts of kenya.point prevalences and animal-level risk factors for trypanosoma evansi infection were investigated in a cross-sectional study that involved 2227 camels from eastern and central parts of kenya. the screening tests used were haematocrit centrifugation technique (hct), mouse inoculation and latex agglutination (suratex). all camels were screened with hct, while 396 and 961 of them were, in addition, screened with mouse inoculation and suratex tests, respectively. parasitological and suratex test re ...200212625378
evaluation of the card agglutination test (catt/t. evansi) for detection of trypanosoma evansi infection in water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) in egypt.a card agglutination test (catt/t. evansi) was evaluated for detection of antibodies against trypanosoma evansi (t. evansi) in experimentally and naturally infected buffaloes. four calves were inoculated with a strain of t. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel. parasitological examination of the calves revealed trypanosomes in the blood from days 4 to 9 post-inoculation (pi). general emaciation appeared from day 26 pi and aggravated until the end of the experiment (day 88 pi). antibodies again ...200415110402
trypanosomiasis-induced infertility in dromedary (camelus dromedarius) bulls: changes in plasma steroids concentration and semen characteristics.the effect of trypanosomiasis on concentrations of plasma steroids and semen characteristics was studied in 24 dromedary bulls. based upon the parasitological and serological diagnosis, 18 bulls were found infected with trypanosoma evansi (group 2) and six were found to be free from infection and served as controls (group 1). the infected animals exhibited signs of anaemia indicated by the decrease of packed cell volume (pcv) and haemoglobin concentration (hb), pale mucus membranes, weight loss, ...200415302388
a comparative evaluation of parasitological, serological and dna amplification methods for diagnosis of natural trypanosoma evansi infection in camels.a representative number of 217 camels (camelus dromedarius) from different areas of western rajasthan state, india, were examined from july 2002 to may 2003 for trypanosoma evansi infection. the tests used were parasitological (wet blood film, wbf; stained thin blood smear, tbs), immunodiagnostic (double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for antigen detection, ag-elisa), and dna amplification by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). these techniques were compared and the best effici ...200415567041
use of the miniature anion exchange centrifugation technique to isolate trypanosoma evansi from goats.deae (anion exchanger diethylaminoethyl)-cellulose and mini anion exchange centrifugation technique (maect) allow salivarian trypanosomes to be separated from the blood of affected animals. the purpose of this study was to assess the maect in goats infected with t. evansi. five adult canary goats were inoculated intravenously with at least 1 x 10(5) t. evansi isolated from a dromedary camel in the canary islands. the goats were monitored for specific antibodies and parasite detection. the inocul ...200415604483
performance of serological tests for trypanosoma evansi in experimentally inoculated goats.natural trypanosoma evansi infection in the canary islands has only been diagnosed in the camel population, but dissemination of the disease in other hosts has not been excluded. the objective of this work was to assess the performance of serological antibody tests in experimentally inoculated goats. five canarian goats were inoculated intravenously with at least 1 x 10(5) t. evansi. the animals were kept for 8 months and checked monthly for the presence of the parasite and specific antibodies. ...200415604484
recombinant rotat 1.2 variable surface glycoprotein as antigen for diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels.the transcript encoding a predominant trypanosoma evansi variable surface glycoprotein rotat 1.2 was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein in spodoptera frugiperda and trichoplusia ni (insect) cells. its potential as an antigen for specific detection of antibody in serum of dromedary camels affected by surra, was evaluated. in elisa, the reactivity of the recombinant rotat 1.2 vsg was similar to that of native rotat 1.2 vsg. an indirect agglutination reagent was therefore prepared by cou ...200515777921
an outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality associated with trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels in the canary islands.trypanosoma evansi was diagnosed for the first time in the canary islands (spain) in 1998 in a dromedary camel. seroprevalences of 4.8% up to 9% have been observed using different diagnostic methods. affected animals have been treated but the dissemination of the disease is unknown. this article presents an outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality attributable to t. evansi infection in camels as well as the clinical assessment of the affected animals. the patients were diagnosed by rout ...200515893083
a simple and rapid method for detection of trypanosoma evansi in the dromedary camel using a nested polymerase chain reaction.a nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr)-based assay, was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected mice and naturally infected camels (camelus dromedarius). four oligonucleotide primers (te1, te2, te3 and te4), selected from nuclear repetitive gene of t. evansi, were designed and used for pcr amplifications. the first amplification, using a pair of outer primers te1 and te2, produced a 821-bp primary pcr product from t. evansi dna. the second ...200616712737
prevalence of trypanosoma evansi infection in equines and camels in the punjab region, pakistan.a cross-sectional study has been carried out in order to determine the prevalence of trypanosoma evansi infection in susceptible hosts in the punjab region (pakistan). a total of 170 equines and 150 dromedary camels were examined. five (3.3%) and 6 (4%) camels were positive at parasitological and serological examination, respectively. none of the equines tested positive at any method. these results seem to indicate that t. evansi infection has a relatively low prevalence in the punjab region. ho ...200617135532
clinical, hematological, and biochemical findings in an outbreak of abortion and neonatal mortality associated with trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels.this article presents the clinical and laboratorial findings in an outbreak of abortions and high neonatal mortality attributable to trypanosoma evansi infection in camels. a total of 16 females were diagnosed, 2 of which showed moderate signs of chronic form, particularly hyporexia and intolerance to exercise. the main laboratorial findings were regenerative anemia (hemolytic anemia), lymphocytic and monocytic leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoglycemia, serum urea increased ...200617135533
study on the antioxidant status of rats experimentally infected with trypanosoma evansi.the antioxidant status of rats experimentally infected with trypanosoma evansi isolated from a camel was studied using established parasitological, haematological and biochemical methods. the results indicated that infections in all rats resulted in a fulminating parasitaemia. changes in blood parameters in t. evansi-infected rats indicated leukocytosis and a macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. a degree of anisocytosis was also observed. the activities of plasma glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ...200717169491
development and application of an antibody-elisa to follow up a trypanosoma evansi outbreak in a dromedary camel herd in outbreak of trypanosomosis was observed for the first time in metropolitan france in october 2006, when five camels were proved to be infected by trypanosoma evansi using parasitological methods. the parasite was isolated and used to produce a soluble antigen for antibody-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in a protocol derived from a method previously developed for sheep and humans but using protein a conjugate. the animals were treated on three instances, alternatively with melarsomi ...200919372008
oxidative stress in blood of camels (camelus dromedaries) naturally infected with trypanosoma evansi.oxidant stress is an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging activity, resulting in oxidation products and tissue damage. the present study aimed to estimate oxidation and antioxidant status in blood of camels naturally infected with trypanosoma evansi. blood samples from t. evansi-infected and healthy (control) female camels were used to determine the free radical nitric oxide (no) generation in serum, malondialdehyde production in serum (smda) and erythrocyte (emda) as a bi ...200919375230
trypanosoma evansi infection in mainland outbreak of trypanosoma evansi infection that occurred in mainland spain is described. the outbreak occurred on an equine and camel farm to which dromedary camels from an infected area of the canary islands had recently been introduced. one of these camels developed clinical signs and t. evansi was discovered in a blood smear examination. the herd was evaluated in order to determine the extent of the disease. the results showed that 76% of the camels, 35% of the donkeys and 2% of the horses w ...201019864069
loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) test for detection of trypanosoma evansi strain b.camel trypanosomiasis (surra) is mainly caused by trypanosoma evansi strains that express variable surface glycoprotein (vsg) rotat 1.2. however, in kenya a second causative strain that does not express rotat 1.2 vsg (t. evansi type b) has been identified. the prevalence of t. evansi type b largely remains unknown due to inadequate diagnostic assay. this work reports the development of a sensitive and specific diagnostic assay capable of detecting t. evansi type b based on the strategy of loop-m ...201020109454
trypanosoma evansi: recent outbreaks in, two recent outbreaks of trypanosoma evansi infection in mainland france and spain associated with the importation of dromedary camels from the canary islands, are reported. the disease is well-known on the archipelago since 1997 and many efforts have been made towards control and eventual eradication, but some areas still remain affected. both mainland outbreaks were controlled by means of massive treatments and monthly serological, parasitological and molecular (pcr) evaluations carried o ...201020851526
molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of trypanosoma evansi from dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius) in egypt, a pilot study.animal trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints of livestock industry in developing countries. in the present study, prevalence of trypanosome evansi was assessed in the blood of dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius) brought to al bassatein abattoir, cairo, egypt, by mouse inoculation test out of 84 tested camels, 4 animals (4.7%) were infected. molecular analysis was achieved by pcr amplification and sequence analysis of part of ribosomal rna gene including 18s, its1, 5.8s and its2 regi ...201020887705
longitudinal study of an outbreak of trypanosoma evansi infection in equids and dromedary camels in outbreak of trypanosomoasis caused by trypanosoma evansi involving horses, camels and donkeys occurred in a farm in israel. a longitudinal study of two outbreak phases was conducted which included clinical monitoring, blood smears, packed cell volume (pcv), serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) followed by reverse dot blot (rdb) for the molecular detection of infection. this was the first reported t. evansi outbreak in domestic animals in israel. most of the camels on the farm (8/10; 8 ...201020926194
ovarian hydrobursitis in female camels (camelus dromedaries): biochemical, bacterial and protozoal evaluation.the aim of this study was to evaluate female camels affected with ovarian hydrobursitis (n = 31) for hematological and biochemical findings and for bacterial and protozoal infections. blood samples were obtained and surgical ablation of the affected bursa was performed. bursal fluid, follicular fluid, and serum were subjected to hormonal and biochemical analyses. bursal fluids were cultured and colonies were identified using biomérieux vitek two compact system. passive haemagglutination test was ...201021144565
morphological forms of trypanosoma evansi from blood of arabian camel (camelus dromedarius) in the riyadh metropolitan areas.trypanosoma evansi is commonly referred to as haemoflagellate infesting camels and other vertebrates. it is causative agent of number of diseases. t. evansi has several morphological forms. we have detected three forms in the blood of camels, slender, transitional and intermediate. the present study is the first investigation on the morphological forms of t. evansi in arabian camels in saudi arabia.201121634239
trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater cairo, egypt.trypanosoma evansi (steel, 1885) balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. the incubation period varies from 7-15 days. the mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. they were examined clinically and diagnosed by giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by elisa and urine thymol tu ...201121634243
population genetics of trypanosoma evansi from camel in the sudan.genetic variation of microsatellite loci is a widely used method for the analysis of population genetic structure of microorganisms. we have investigated genetic variation at 15 microsatellite loci of t. evansi isolated from camels in sudan and kenya to evaluate the genetic information partitioned within and between individuals and between sites. we detected a strong signal of isolation by distance across the area sampled. the results also indicate that either, and as expected, t. evansi is pure ...201121666799
serum biochemical profile and molecular detection of pathogens in semen of infertile male dromedary camels (camelus dromedarius).detection of pathogens in the semen of camels has not been completely elucidated. therefore, the current study aimed to determine the association of some economically important pathogens with infertility in 94 male infertile camels through molecular detection and estimation of selected biochemical parameters in serum of these animals compared with a control non infected fertile animals (n=40). pcr analysis of semen samples of infertile camels indicated that, four potential pathogens namely mycop ...201728341394
recombinant expression of trypanosome surface glycoproteins in pichia pastoris for the diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi infection.serodiagnosis of surra, which causes vast economic losses in livestock, is still based on native antigens purified from bloodstream form trypanosoma (t.) evansi grown in rodents. to avoid the use of laboratory rodents in antigen preparation we expressed fragments of the invariant surface glycoprotein (isg) 75, cloned from t. brucei gambiense cdna, and the variant surface glycoprotein (vsg) rotat 1.2, cloned from t. evansi gdna, recombinantly in pichia (p.) pastoris. the m5 strain of this yeast h ...201323747105
molecular identification of hemoprotozoan parasites in camels (camelus dromedarius) of iran.although camels represent a valuable source of food, wool and hide in many countries, in-depth information about their vector-borne pathogens is scarce compared to other animals. the aim of the current study was to characterize vector-borne protozoa in the blood of dromedaries from iran by molecular tools.201728127369
vertical transmission of trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels and studies on fetal pathology, diagnosis and the present study, a total of 14 (73.68%) cases of abortions and two (100%) cases of still births were detected positive for trypanosoma evansi infection by wet and dry blood smear examination and fetal tissue pcr in camels of an organized farm. the abortions in infected dams were recorded from 8 to 11.5 month of gestation, however majority occurred during 9th to 10th month. the important laboratorial findings in infected dams were anemia, hypoglycemia, hyperproteinemia and leukocytosis. at n ...201627078656
new trypanosoma evansi type b isolates from ethiopian dromedary camels.trypanosoma (t.) evansi is a dyskinetoplastic variant of t. brucei that has gained the ability to be transmitted by all sorts of biting flies. t. evansi can be divided into type a, which is the most abundant and found in africa, asia and latin america and type b, which has so far been isolated only from kenyan dromedary camels. this study aimed at the isolation and the genetic and phenotypic characterisation of type a and b t. evansi stocks from camels in northern ethiopia.201627035661
trypanosoma evansi in naturally infected dromedary camels: lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines.additional biomarkers are essential for control of trypanosoma evansi (t. evansi) infection in dromedary camels. two groups of 30 camels each, one naturally infected with t. evansi and other normal healthy were executed. the basis for the infection was the positive findings of clinical examination, blood smears and latex agglutination test. blood samples of both groups and its harvested serum were used for the estimation of present serobiochemical parameters. the present findings revealed signif ...201626887646
parasitological, serological and molecular survey of trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels from cholistan desert, pakistan.surra, a vector borne disease caused by trypanosoma (t.) evansi, affects the health, productivity and working capacity of camels. since clinical signs are not pathognomonic, diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratory methods. this is a first study on the prevalence of surra in cholistan desert, pakistan using a broad variety of diagnostic tests thereby emphasizing it as a risk for the dromedaries of pakistan.201526259616
trypanosome infection in dromedary camels in eastern ethiopia: prevalence, relative performance of diagnostic tools and host related risk factors.a cross-sectional study was conducted in chifra and dewe districts of afar region, eastern ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, agreement between diagnostic tests and host related risk factors of trypanosome infection in camel. an overall prevalence of 2%, 24.1%, 21.3%, 9.5% and 7.8% was recorded with respectively giemsa stained thin blood smear, catt/t. evansi, rotat1.2 pcr, 18s pcr and its-1pcr in a cohort of 399 animals. only one t. vivax infection was confirmed by tvprac pcr indicating t. ...201526071981
epidemiology of trypanosoma evansi and trypanosoma vivax in domestic animals from selected districts of tigray and afar regions, northern ethiopia.african animal trypanosomosis, transmitted cyclically by tsetse flies or mechanically by other biting flies, causes serious inflictions to livestock health. this study investigates the extent of non-tsetse transmitted animal trypanosomosis (nttat) by trypanosoma (t.) evansi and t. vivax in domestic animals in the tsetse-free regions of northern ethiopia, afar and tigray.201525889702
cardiac and oxidative stress biomarkers in trypanosoma evansi infected camels: diagnostic and prognostic prominence.this study was conducted to investigate the level of cardiac and oxidative stress markers in camels infected with trypanosoma evansi and to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of cardiac troponin i (ctni) and creatine kinase-myocardial band (ck-mb) in response to infection. seventy four dromedary camels with clinical and laboratory evidence of trypanosomosis and 20 healthy controls were included in this study. serum ctni, ck-mb, ck, malondialdehyde (mda) and super oxide dismutase (sod) w ...201525578857
control and eventual eradication of trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels after an episodic outbreak in mainland spain: an example in a non-endemic 2008, trypanosoma evansi was detected on a camel farm in mainland spain. the animals were isolated, confined in a closed stable, and treated twice with melarsamine (cymelarsan(®), merial, lyon, france) with an interval of 1 month. clinical and laboratory examinations by means of parasitological, serological, and molecular procedures (polymerase chain reaction (pcr)) were carried out regularly for 6 years. after the treatment, all parasitemic camels were cleared of parasites, and in the seropo ...201424933467
trypanosomiasis of camels (camelus dromedarius) in algeria: first report.camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. this study was carried out on the south-east area of algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with grea ...201325568684
genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of trypanosoma evansi in iranian dromedary camels.whole blood samples were collected from 117 male clinically healthy camelus dromedarius aged between 6 months to 18 years from several farms in yazd province of iran. trypanosoma evansi-affected camels were detected by giemsa-stained blood smears, and the positive blood samples (4 out of 117) were submitted to pcr examination and phylogenetic analysis. basic local alignment search tool data of the obtained complete internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences revealed that they corresponded to th ...201323007725
cross-sectional study on prevalence of trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic ruminants in an endemic area of the canary islands (spain).trypanosoma evansi is the most widely spread of the pathogenic african trypanosomes of animals. the disease (surra) was first diagnosed in the canary islands in a dromedary camel in 1997; thus, a control plan was implemented achieving the eventual eradication of t. evansi from most of the infected areas in the archipelago. however, a little area remains still infected despite the use of the same control measures. to evaluate possible reservoirs in the area a representative sample of domestic rum ...201222386739
epidemiological study of common diseases and their risk factors in camels in south punjab, pakistan.bacteriological study of mastitis along with common blood protozoan diseases were studied in dromedary camels in cholistan, dera ismail khan and rahim yar khan districts in south punjab, pakistan. for this purpose 300 camels were sampled randomly at different common grazing and watering point. for study of blood parasites clinically suspected and apparently healthy camels, 150 each, were sampled. an overall prevalence of 15%and 5% was recorded for trypanosomiasis and anaplasmosis respectively. t ...201728428133
trypanosoma evansi infection and major risk factors for iranian one-humped camels (camelus dromedarius).trypanosoma evansi is a cosmopolitan protozoan which affects camelids and may cause illness and economic losses. the present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and geographic distribution of t. evansi in iranian one-humped camels of south east iran. a total of 369 camels were randomly examined from three parts of southeastern iran from march to september 2015. blood samples were taken from jugular vein and examined by using thin blood smear and mercuric chloride test. ninety-five out of ...201728848291
trypanosoma vivax is the second leading cause of camel trypanosomosis in sudan after trypanosoma evansi.this study was conducted in response to recurring reports from eastern sudan of camel trypanosomosis that can no longer be treated by currently available trypanocidal drugs. one hundred and eighty-nine blood samples were obtained from camels in different herds and local markets in the western part of sudan, and a cross-sectional study was carried out between december 2015 and february 2016 to identify the causative agents and possible circulating genotypes.201728403897
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