theileria parva genetic diversity and haemoparasite prevalence in cattle and wildlife in and around lake mburo national park in uganda.wildlife, especially cape buffalo (syncerus caffer), are thought to act as a reservoir for many of the important tick-borne pathogens of cattle. in this study, we have determined the prevalence of the most significant tick-borne haemoparasites in wildlife (buffalo, impala, eland and bushbuck) as well as in cattle grazing inside and neighbouring lake mburo national park (lmnp) in uganda. a high percentage of buffalo were carriers of theileria parva, theileria mutans, theileria velifera, theileria ...201120827491
environment and farm factors associated with exposure to theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in mbeere district, kenya.the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in mbeere district, kenya. a standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to t. parva infection epidemiology. serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of t. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immun ...201120835912
mhc class i bound to an immunodominant theileria parva epitope demonstrates unconventional presentation to t cell receptors.t cell receptor (tcr) recognition of peptide-mhc class i (pmhc) complexes is a crucial event in the adaptive immune response to pathogens. peptide epitopes often display a strong dominance hierarchy, resulting in focusing of the response on a limited number of the most dominant epitopes. such t cell responses may be additionally restricted by particular mhc alleles in preference to others. we have studied this poorly understood phenomenon using theileria parva, a protozoan parasite that causes a ...201020976198
haemoparasite prevalence and theileria parva strain diversity in cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) in uganda.cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) are considered to be an important reservoir for various tick-borne haemoparasites of veterinary importance. in this study we have compared the haemoparasite carrier prevalence in buffalo from four geographically isolated national parks in uganda [lake mburo national park (lmnp), queen elizabeth national park (qenp), murchison falls national park (mfnp) and kidepo valley national park (kvnp)]. differences were seen in haemoparasite prevalence in buffalo from the fou ...201021074945
evaluation of a taqman real-time pcr for the detection of theileria parva in buffalo and cattle.a real-time pcr assay based on taqman probe chemistry was developed for the detection of theileria parva dna in blood samples. it uses a theileria genus-specific pcr primer set and a t. parva-specific probe to amplify and hybridize with a species-specific part of the 18s rrna gene of the parasite. the test was evaluated using positive and negative reference blood samples and shown to be specific for t. parva. analytical sensitivity was determined by testing a dilution series of t. parva positive ...201021075533
bovipain-2, the falcipain-2 ortholog, is expressed in intraerythrocytic stages of the tick-transmitted hemoparasite babesia bovis.abstract:201021092313
epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in zambia.tick-borne diseases are a constraint to livestock production in many developing countries as they cause high morbidity and mortality, which results in decreased production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products. the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-saharan africa are east coast fever (caused by theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by babesia bigemina and b. bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by ehrlichia ruminantium). despite ...201021106294
treatment of cattle with dna-encoded flt3l and gm-csf prior to immunization with theileria parva candidate vaccine antigens induces cd4 and cd8 t cell ifn-? responses but not ctl responses.theileria parva antigens recognized by cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) are prime vaccine candidates against east coast fever in cattle. a strategy for enhancing induction of parasite-specific t cell responses by increasing recruitment and activation of dendritic cells (dcs) at the immunization site by administration of bovine flt3l and gm-csf prior to inoculation with dna vaccine constructs and mva boost was evaluated. analysis of immune responses showed induction of significant t. parva-specific ...201121288576
construction of a genetic map for theileria parva: identification of hotspots of recombination.the tick-borne protozoan parasite theileria parva is the causal agent of east coast fever (ecf), a severe lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern africa. the life cycle of t. parva is predominantly haploid, with a brief diploid stage occurring in the tick vector that involves meiotic recombination. resolved genetic studies of t. parva are currently constrained by the lack of a genome-wide high-definition genetic map of the parasite. we undertook a genetic cross of ...201121310160
response of nkedi zebu and ankole cattle to tick infestation and natural tick-borne, helminth and trypanosome infections in uganda.a cross-sectional study was conducted in soroti district of uganda to establish important traits of nkedi zebu and ankole cattle regarding their production performance responses to natural infections of trypanosomes, gastrointestinal nematodes, theileria parva, babesia bigemina, anaplasma marginale and tick infestations. over four visits between october 2006 to august 2007, tick counts were performed and blood, faecal samples and sera were collected from the nkedi zebu (295) and ankole (165) cat ...201121350849
molecular characterization of live theileria parva sporozoite vaccine stabilates reveals extensive genotypic diversity.the current infection and treatment method of vaccination against east coast fever comprises an inoculation of live theileria parva sporozoites and simultaneous administration of oxytetracycline. immunization with a combination of parasite types has been shown to provide broader protection than inoculation of individual strains. in this study, we used a high-throughput capillary electrophoresis system to determine the genotypic composition of the muguga cocktail, a widely used vaccine stabilate ...201121367527
spatial variation of tick abundance and seroconversion rates of indigenous cattle to anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and theileria parva infections in uganda.tick abundance and seroconversion rates of 640 indigenous cattle in a mixed crop-livestock system in uganda were investigated in a 14 months longitudinal study. up to 100% of the cattle in buyimini, kubo, nanjeho, ojilai and sitengo villages (high tick challenge zone) were consistently infested with rhipicephalus appendiculatus, whereas on average 50% of the cattle in bunghaji, hitunga and magoje villages (low tick challenge zone) were inconsistently infested. likewise, up to 50% of the cattle i ...201121499913
mixed theileria infections in free-ranging buffalo herds: implications for diagnosing theileria parva infections in cape buffalo ( syncerus caffer).summarybuffalo-adapted theileria parva causes corridor disease in cattle. strict control measures therefore apply to the movement of buffalo in south africa and include mandatory testing of buffalo for the presence of t. parva. the official test is a real-time hybridization pcr assay that amplifies the v4 hypervariable region of the 18s rrna gene of t. parva, t. sp. (buffalo) and t. sp. (bougasvlei). the effect that mixed t. parva and t. sp. (buffalo)-like infections have on accurate t. parva di ...201121524322
two theileria parva cd8 t cell antigen genes are more variable in buffalo than cattle parasites, but differ in pattern of sequence diversity.theileria parva causes an acute fatal disease in cattle, but infections are asymptomatic in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer). cattle can be immunized against the parasite by infection and treatment, but immunity is partially strain specific. available data indicate that cd8(+) t lymphocyte responses mediate protection and, recently, several parasite antigens recognised by cd8(+) t cells have been identified. this study set out to determine the nature and extent of polymorphism in two of the ...201121559495
analyses of genes encoding theileria parva p104 and polymorphic immunodominant molecule (pim) reveal evidence of the presence of cattle-type alleles in the south african t. parva population.restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of pcr products (pcr-rflp) and sequencing of the variable region of the p104 and pim genes was performed on samples obtained from south african t. parva parasites originating from cattle on farms with suspected theileriosis and from buffalo. p104 and pim pcr-rflp profiles similar to those of the t. parva muguga stock, an isolate that causes ecf in kenya, were obtained from three of seven cattle samples collected on a farm near ladysmith in kwazul ...201121621920
identification of theileria parva and theileria sp. (buffalo) 18s rrna gene sequence variants in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in southern africa.theileria parva is the causative agent of corridor disease in cattle in south africa. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in south africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. a t. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test based on the small subunit ribosomal rna (18s rrna) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle ...201121700394
trends of selected cattle diseases in eastern zambia between 1988 and 2008.livestock diseases have long been a challenge to livestock production and public health in sub-saharan africa and zambia in particular. the eastern province of zambia is one area in zambia that is not spared by this challenge. among various livestock diseases affecting cattle in this region, the most prominent are east coast fever (ecf) and african animal trypanasomiasis (aat). since little has been published on the epidemiological trends of these diseases in eastern zambia, a retrospective epid ...201121723631
Theileria parvaisolate of low virulence infects a subpopulation of lymphocytes.Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that infects and transforms bovine lymphocytes. We have previously shown that Theileria parvaChitongo (TpC) is an isolate of lower virulence than T.parvaMuguga (TpM). Lower virulence appeared correlated with a delayed onset of thelogarithmic growth phase of TpC-tranformedperipheral blood mononuclear cells after in vitro infection. In the current study, infection experiments of WC1(+)-?d-T cellsrevealed thatonly TpMcould infect these cells ...201122202119
escape from cd8+ t cell response by natural variants of an immunodominant epitope from theileria parva is predominantly due to loss of tcr recognition.polymorphism of immunodominant cd8(+) t cell epitopes can facilitate escape from immune recognition of pathogens, leading to strain-specific immunity. in this study, we examined the tcr β-chain (trb) diversity of the cd8(+) t cell responses of cattle against two immunodominant epitopes from theileria parva (tp1(214-224) and tp2(49-59)) and investigated the role of tcr recognition and mhc binding in determining differential recognition of a series of natural variants of the highly polymorphic tp2 ...201122058411
History and critical review of Theileria parva (Boleni), the vaccine stock against Zimbabwean cattle theileriosis.The paper reviews the infectivity, cross-immunization experiments, and cattle vaccination of Zimbabwean cattle-derived Theileria parva (Boleni) sporozoite stabilates produced at the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL) in Harare between 1980 and 2003. The Boleni stock was first isolated in July 1978 during a theileriosis outbreak and was shown to be virulent in susceptible cattle. Thereafter, the reactions observed in susceptible cattle produced by different tick stabilates derived from the origi ...201121890071
The Hybrid II assay: a sensitive and specific real-time hybridization assay for the diagnosis of Theileria parva infection in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle.SUMMARYCorridor disease is an acute, fatal disease of cattle caused by buffalo-adapted Theileria parva. This is a nationally controlled disease in South Africa and strict control measures apply for the movement of buffalo, which includes mandatory testing for the presence of T. parva and other controlled diseases. Accurate diagnosis of the T. parva carrier state in buffalo using the official real-time hybridization PCR assay (Sibeko et al. 2008), has been shown to be affected by concurrent infec ...201121902875
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