heterogeneity of nonimmune immunoglobulin fc reactivity among gram-positive cocci: description of three major types of receptors for human immunoglobulin g.two hundred and thirty strains of various gram-positive cocci were tested for quantitative, nonimmune binding of radiolabeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin g (igg). the majority of coagulase-positive staphylococci and streptococci belonging to serogroups c and g showed a high uptake of igg. the binding of immunoglobulin to group a streptococci was considerably less, with a number of strains completely negative. none of the pneumococcal or the group b or d streptococcal strains displayed any bi ...1977409673
diethylaminoalkyloxycoumarin and -furocoumarin derivatives.four series of diethylaminoalkoxyderivatives of coumarin (at the positions 4 and 7) and furocoumarin (at the positions 5 and 8) have been prepared, in order to study their complexing capacity with dna, these compounds having a double possibility of interaction, that is intercalation of the aromatic moiety between two base pairs and formation of an electrostatic bond between their terminal amino group and a phosphoric group of dna. some biological effects connected with the interaction with dna h ...1979399924
red cell-linked antibody assay for detection of antigenic markers on cell surfaces.a direct method for demonstrating antigenic markers on cell surface has been developed which makes use of the ability of bovine red blood cells coated with protein a of staphylococcus aureus (es) to binding igg antibody without agglutinating. red cell-linked rabbit igg antibody reagents (esa) were prepared in this way, and ig-, igm- and thy-1-bearing mouse spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes were identified by a rosette assay.1979385784
control of mastitis by hygiene and therapy.hygiene and therapy are two important components of a program to control mastitis. conscientious application of these practices significantly reduces intramammary infection, especially when they are applied in concert with superior management. the two components operate independently, and response is maximum when both are applied. hygiene acts by reducing the frequency of infection. the primary effect of therapy is to increase the rate of eliminating established infections, although dry cow trea ...1979379060
hygiene in the prevention of udder infections. vi. comparative efficacy of a teat dip under experimental and natural exposure to mastitis pathogens.efficacies (reduction of new intramammary infections) of a bronopol teat dip under experimental exposure to streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus were 41.7 and 54.4%. under natural exposure, efficacy was 35.0% (p greater than .05) against streptococcus species and 50.0% against staphylococcus aureus during the first 9 mo of a 12-mo trial when favorable milking equipment and labor conditions prevailed. corresponding figures were 20.0 and 13.0% during the last 3 mo following onset of ...1978359606
the new south wales mastitis control program. 2. effect upon bacterial infections.bacteriological examinations were made on quarter samples from cows in 35 herds over a 3 year period to monitor the response in a mastitis control program. initially, staphylococcus aureus predominated in 32 of the herds and the mean herd prevalence was 26%. the control measures halved this rate but there was considerable variation in response between herds. the decline occurred rapidly and there was a significant reduction (p less than 0.01) by 3 months. streptococcus agalactiae predominated in ...1977348186
[studies of immunity in mastitis in cows].studies were carried out to establish the specific antibodies in the milk and blood sera of cows recovered from a spontaneous infection of the udder caused by streptococci, staphylocci, corynebacteria, and some representatives of escherichia coli as well as of cows immunized with a polybacterial vaccine. followed up was likewise the resistance of the udder in vaccinated cows to bacterial infections. it was found that in both groups of animals the specific antibodies' titer ranged from 1:80 to 1: ...1977331658
effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. xiv. bacteriolytic effects of human sera, synovial fluids, and purulent exudates on staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus faecalis: modulation by cohn's fraction ii and by polyelectrolytes.normal sera and plasma, derived from humans, calves, rats, rabbits, horses, human synovial fluids, inflammatory exudates, and leukocyte extracts, when sufficiently diluted are highly bacteriolytic for staph, aureus, strep. faecalis, b. sutilis and to a variety of gram-negative rods. on the other hand, concentrated serum or the other body fluids are usually not bacteriolytic for these bacterial species. while the lysis of staph, aureus and b. subtilis by diluted serum is not lysozyme dependent, l ...197992458
complete versus selective dry cow therapy for mastitis control.two hundred and thirty-two cows were assigned alternately to complete dry cow therapy (infusion in all quarters on the day of drying off) or selective therapy (infusion in all quarters if a history of mastitis, california mastitis test score of +2 or +3 in any quarter, or if cell counts from bucket milk samples as determined by the membrane filter-deoxyribonucleic acid procedure were above 500,000 cells/ml). a dry cow product containing 10(6) units of procaine penicillin g and 1 g of dihydrostre ...197881843
[cytotoxic effects of a leukocidin from staphylococcus aureus (author's transl)].in an attempt to improve the assay of leukocidin from staphylococcus aureus a combined vital fluorochrome staining procedure with acridine organe and ethidium bromide was developed. it proved to be more suitable for the demonstration of leukocidic effects on leukocytes than phasecontrastmicroscopy. damaged leukocytes fluoresced distinctly red and undamaged leukocytes green. with the fluorochrome-method leukocidic changes became also evident in some lymphocytes. these were not clearly demonstrate ...197556107
epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in dairy herds.sixty-eight methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from mastitis milk samples originating from 20 belgian dairyherds. all these strains appeared to be representatives of one single strain which was probably of human origin. evidence is presented indicating a rapid in vivo evolutionary change in this strain. the following characteristics were found to be variable: the production of beta haemolysin inversely connected with fibrinolysin (staphylokinase) activity; the prod ...1975125447
purification of antibodies to bacterial antigens by an immunoadsorbent and a method to quantify their reaction with insoluble bacterial targets.a combination of procedures was employed to develop a radioimmunoassay which quantified the binding of antibodies to antigens of either intact propionibacterium acnes or to antigens of insoluble extracts derived from the bacteria. reactive antibody populations were purified by use of bacterial immunoadsorbents which were prepared by coupling p. acnes to diethylaminoethyl cellulose. binding of antibodies was detected with [125i]staphylococcal protein a ([125i]spa) and optimal conditions for the a ...1979113462
[phage typing of strains of staphylococcus aureus from staphylococcal mastitis of dairy cows].of 62 strains of staphylococcus aureus, isolated from milk samples of dairy-cows with staphylococcic mastitis from five agricultural enterprises, 68 p. c. could be typified as bacteriophages. in 42 typified strains, altogether 17 different phage pictures were found, in which case, in the different agricultural enterprises, the number of phage picture fluctuated between 1 and 8. phage picture 42 d was found and dominated in all the agricultural enterprises. of the typified strains, 76% could be r ...1975129902
injury to staphylococcus aureus during sausage fermentation.staphylococcus aureus 196e added to a beef sausage containing starter culture and 0.5 to 2.0% glucose and incubated at 35 degrees c was unable to grow when plated on tryptic soy agar (tsa) containing 7.5% nacl. the injury, presumed to be due to the lactic acid produced during fermentation, was more pronounced at the lower concentrations of glucose (and lower acid levels). in the absence of glucose and/or starter culture, no injury was observed. when sausages containing s. aureus injured by ferme ...197832835
hygiene in the prevention of udder infections. iv. evaluation of teat dips with excised cows' teats.suspensions of staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus agalactiae, escherichia coli, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to contaminate teats excised from cows. commercially available teat dips were applied for evaluation of comparative germicidal activity. iodophors, sodium hypochlorite, and sodium dichloro-s-triazenetrione were highly effective against all four test organisms. quarternary ammonium, chlorhexidine, and cetylpyridinium chloride were effective against staphylococcus aureus, and stre ...1978100535
identification of clumping-factor-negative staphylococci isolated from cows' udders.identification to species level was attempted on a collection of 954 cultures of catalase-positive, clumping-factor- and beta-haemolysin-negative gram-positive cocci isolated from teats and milk of cows. eighty-seven per cent of the strains were identified as staphylococcus xylosus, s epidermidis, s sciuri, s haemolyticus, s hyicus subsp hyicus and chromogenes, s simulans and s cohnii. nine per cent of the collection belonged to another group which could not be identified with any of the known s ...1979542718
lipopolysaccharide and lipid a-induced human blood lymphocyte activation as detected by a protein a plaque assay.various purified cell wall lipopolysaccharides (lps) from gram-negative bacteria and derivatives of these lps were tested for their stimulatory capacity for human peripheral blood cells. immunoglobulin (ig) production was tested by an indirect plaque-forming cell assay using staphylococcus aureus protein a-coupled erythrocytes and specific anti-ig as developing serum. this method allows the detection of the majority of cells secreting ig of a single class, and the number of plaque-forming cells ...1979387423
diagnosis of salmonella bacteria: antibodies against synthetic salmonella o-antigen 8 for immunofluorescence and co-agglutination using sensitized protein a-containing antiserum against the synthetic disaccharide abequose 1 leads to 3 alpha rhamnose (ar), representative of salmonella o-antigen 8, coupled to bovine serum albumin (bsa) was used for diagnosis of salmonella bacteria by indirect immunofluorescence (ifl) and by co-agglutination (coa) using sensitized protein a-containing staphylococci. among the 1150 enteric bacteria tested in ifl, the antiserum correctly identified all 99 salmonella serogroup c2 and c3 bacteria with o-antigen 8. no fluorescence ...1979373381
[comparative studies of methods for the bacteriological diagnosis of mastitis in cows].comparative studies were carried out on some methods and nutrient media used for the isolation and identification of mastitis causative agents. milk from normal andmastitis-affected udder quarters was aseptically sampled and treated under various conditions. individual samples were simultaneously seeded in different media. the following conclusions were drawn: 1. milk samples for the diagnosis of mastitis of a subclinical character can be taken at the beginning and at the end of milking. 2. dire ...1977341499
tandem coagulase/thermonuclease agar method for the detection of staphylococcus optimizing previously reported coagulase agar media to obtain a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive coagulase test agar, variations in plasmas, ph, buffer system, fibrinogen, and fibrinolytic inhibitor were investigated. the agar with the following composition was determined best for the demonstration of coagulase production by staphylococcus aureus: 25 ml of 15% bovine fibrinogen (fraction i, type i, citrated, sigma chemical co.), 25 ml of rehydrated rabbit plasma (coagulase plasma ethylenediam ...1979373627
the effect of single intracisternal dry cow administration of staphylococcal antigens and antibiotics on the incidence of staphylococcal bovine mastitis.the incidence of staphylococcal mastitis was investigated in 3 large commercial friesland herds before and after the single intracisternal administration, during the dry-period, of 1 of 4 formulations containing staphylococcal antigens, antibiotics and base alone or in combination. results suggest that the instillation of vaccine alone and vaccine plus antibiotics into fully involuted quarters very significantly reduced the incidence of staphylococcal mastitis in the subsequent lactation. compar ...1977599526
a modified pork plasma agar for the enumeration of staphylococcus aureus in foods.the coagulase reaction of staphylococcus aureus on the ppsa (pork plasma for s. aureus) agar of devoyod et al. was found to be fibrinogen-deficient. by including bovine fibrinogen (bfg) in the medium, the fibrin halos around s. aureus colonies became more distinct, preparations of pork plasma previously unacceptable for inclusion in the original ppsa agar were performing well, and the amount of pork plasma required in ppsa agar could be reduced by nearly 90%. in the modified medium, designated p ...1979575504
[characterization of staphylococci in microtiter-plates (author's transl)].the conventional methods for the demonstration of coagulase, clumping-factor, fermentation of mannitol, protein a, alpha-, beta-, and delta-hemolysins and acid phosphatase were adapted to a microtitersystem (mts). this led to a considerable saving in working-time and reagents. the biochemical reactions could be distinctly evaluated in the mts (fig. 1). in all qualitative determinations there was complete agreement between the results obtained by mts and the conventional procedures. in the quanti ...1977322425
the rapid isolation of ribonuclease-free immunoglobulin g by protein a-sepharose affinity chromatography.a rapid method is described for the simultaneous removal of contaminant ribonuclease activity and isolation of immunoglobulin g from fractionated or whole serum using insolubilized protein a. protein a, isolated from the cowan i strain of staphylococcus aureus, was covalently attached to sepharose cl-4b resin and used as a specific affinity absorbent for immunoglobulin g. affinity column-purified immunoglobulin g preparations were examined for the presence of contaminating serum proteins, retent ...1978722086
isolation and characteristics of bacteriophages from staphylococci of chicken origin.lysogenicity in chicken coagulase-positive staphylococci was tested by incubating the strains in the presence of mitomycin c. of 88 strains tested, 84 (95.5%) were proved to be phage carriers and 81 were susceptible to any of the phages. the lysogenic strains were detected with almost equal frequency from both of typeable and untypeable strains by the international phages. sixteen phages (ch phages) were isolated from chicken lysogenic strains, and their usefulness for the typing of chicken stap ...1977144452
phage typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci.218 bovine and 116 human strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci and 46 bovine staphylococcus aureus strains were typed with the verhoef-phage set for human staphylococci and the holmberg-set for bovine staphylococci. 22.5% of the bovine strains were lysed by the bovine phages and only 3.2% by the human phages. none of the bovine staph. aureus strains could be typed. 21% of the human strains tested were lysed by the human phages and only 5.2% by the bovine phages. these results clearly demon ...1978151457
physico- and immunochemical properties of staphylococcal protein a extracellularly produced by a set of mutants from staphylococcus aureus cowan i.mutant strains of staphylococcus aureus have been isloated using a simple cosedimentation technique. while the parental strain contains predominantly a cell-bound protein a, the mutant strains exclusively produce extracellular protein a. the mutant forms of protein a all have lower molecular weights than that of protein a from the parental strain. they showed the same antigenicity as the parental protein a and gave similar reactivity with immunoglobulin to the parental one except for one mutant. ...1979111003
[the mutual transmission of staphylococcus aureus between humans and cattle and the environmental adaptation of hemolysin and fibrinolysin formation].in an ecological investigation in 20 dairy herds of cattle we compared the characteristics of strains isolated from nasal swabs of milkers, from the udder of cows and from cases of mastitis in cows. in 7 herds we found definite strains in the nasal flora of the milkers and in the udder-flora of the cows which only differ in the formation of hemolysin and of fibrinolysin. in the other checked characteristics strains from man and strains from cattle show identical patterns. in 5 herds these strain ...1978149523
the role of humoral immunity and acute inflammation in protection against staphyloccocal dermonecrosis.mice were protected against the dermonecrotic effects of staphylococcus aureus by previous infection with either coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative strains or by immunization with alpha-toxin. passive protection was conferred by serum from previously infected mice or by alpha-antitoxin. while only some of these methods were associated with circulating alpha-antitoxin, in all cases there was a brisk early inflammatory response to infection. furthermore, if the capacity of well immunized mic ...1975124702
amino acid sequence of the aminoterminal segment of dermatosparactic calf-skin procollagen type i.the n-terminal procollagen peptide of the pn alpha 1(i) chain from dermatosparactic calf skin contains 139 amino acid residues. for the determination of the amino acid sequence the procollagen peptide was treated with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase, protease from staphylococcus aureus v8 and trypsin. the fragments obtained were separated by molecular sieve and ion-exchange chromatography and submitted to automated edman degradation. the procollagen peptide consists of three segments, an n-termina ...1979488118
variation among cows in the ability of milk to support phagocytosis and in the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to phagocytose staphylococcus aureus.marked variation existed among cows in the ability of their milk to support phagocytosis and in the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from their milk to phagocytose staphylococcus aureus. furthermore, milk samples that supported a low degree of phagocytosis were generally obtained from cows that had a greater occurrence of clinical mastitis per lactation (r = 0.41). results from this study suggest that variation in the phagocytic defense mechanism of the bovine mammary gland could ...1978749573
the isolation and characterization of the link proteins from proteoglycan aggregates of bovine nasal cartilage.a preparation containing the link proteins may be obtained from bovine nasal cartilage by extraction with 4 m guanidine hydrochloride and by equilibrium density gradient centrifugations of the extract as commonly employed in the isolation of proteoglycan monomers. in the present paper, protein-rich proteoglycans have been removed from such a preparation to give purified link proteins by chromatography on sepharose cl-6b in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. the individual link proteins, which in order o ...1979429292
[residues of antimicrobial materials in the effluents of livestock farms (author's transl)].forty water samples were taken from streams of three different regions of belgium, with intensive husbandry and examined for residual microbiological activity. in some samples, activity was detected against staphylococcus aureus; none of them were active against e. coli and c. albicans. the substances in the few positive samples were not identified. with this low activity and the small proportion of positive samples (12 out of 41) any influence on the water biosphere due to the methods of farmin ...1976766304
radioimmunoassay of the link proteins associated with bovine nasal cartilage proteins from bovine nasal cartilage have been purified by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate (baker, j.r., and caterson, b. (1979) j. biol. chem. 254, 2387-2393) and used to raise antisera in rabbits. a sensitive radioimmunoassay procedure utilizing binding of 125i-labeled antigen . antibody complexes to protein a of staphylococcus aureus has served to demonstrate the specificity of the antisera for the link proteins. the lack of reactivity with proteo ...1979489539
hygiene in the prevention of udder infections. iii. effectiveness of 59 teat dips for reducing bacterial populations on teat skin.fifty-nine teat dips were tested for effectiveness in reducing populations of experimentally applied streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus on teat skin. the results varied widely among products. populations of s. agalactiae recovered from dipped teats ranged from a 98.3% reduction to a 147.4% increase as compared to undipped controls. reductions in recoverable s. aureus ranged from 98.5 to 43.6%. the products yielding the highest germicidal activity did not conform to a consistent p ...19751089683
[studies of enterotoxin production by strains of staphylococcus aureus of different origins (author's transl)].376 staphylococcus aureus strains of clinical and epidemiological origin were tested for their ability to produce the enterotoxins, a, b and c1. for these investigations, microagargel precipitation against specific antisera has been used. additionally these strains were studied by phagetyping, biochemical typing and for their antibiogram. the strains tested came from human pathological processes, mouth throat swabs of healthy people, persons working in hospitals, outbreaks of food poisoning from ...1976936826
staphylococci outside the hospital. staphylococcus aureus in sheep.biochemical properties were studied in staph. aureus strains obtained from the anterior nares of healthy sheep and from the udders of ewes suffering from purulent mastitis. of the total number of 84 isolated staphylococcal strains 75 (89.3%) were classified as the c biotype. these undoubtedly sheep-adapted staphylococci produced pigment and beta hemolysin, they were growing on crystal violet agar as the negative type in violet colonies lacking both fibrinolysin and alpha hemolysin. all of them c ...1976987676
[characteristics of the staphylococci isolated from the udder of cows with mastitis].a total of 175 strains of staphylococcus aureus and 67 strains of staphylococcus epidermidis were studied, isolated from 486 samples of milk secretion taken aceptically from the individual quarters of the udder of cows affected with subclinical and purulent (clinical) mastitis. the staphylococci were referred to as the causative agent of mastitis in case they were the only microflora in the seedings of the investigated material. tests were applied as given in fig. 1 to characterize the strains. ...1976960547
[penicillinase of staphylococci isolated from milk and dairy products].examinations were performed in 173 strains of staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products. of this number, 143 strains were resistant and 30 sensitive to penicillin. all the resistant strains produced penicillinase. penicillinase production was demonstrated also in vivo by a test on white mice.1975808005
ecology of staphylococcus aureus: comparative characterization of strains isolated from man, cattle and sheep in bulgaria and in the gdr.staphylococcus aureus strains from man, cattle and sheep have been differentiated by biochemical tests and by phage typing. strains from pathological material of human origin mostly belong to the host-specific variety hominis, strains from mastitis in cattle mostly belong to the host-specific variety bovis. however, there are also strains from cattle which cannot be allotted to one of the known host-specific varieties and also strains which belong to the host-specific variety hominis. strains fr ...1978570580
[etiology of mastitis in dairy cows in slovakia during 1972-1974].in the period from 1972 to 1974, veterinary institutes in slovakia performed bacteriological examinations in 178,853 milk samples coming from 72,454 dairy cows. on an annual average, the number of examined samples was higher by 61% than in 1967-1971. germs responsible for the inflammation of the mammary gland were found in the milk of 22.32% of the dairy cows. the following bacterial germs were represented: streptococcus agalactiae - 15.77%, staphylococcus aureus - 4.19%, other streptococci - 1. ...1975814671
]acute severe mastitis in cows of the dutch-friesian breed (author's transl)].one hundred cases of severe acute mastitis are reported. bacteriological examination of the milk was negative in 23% of the cases. e. coli was most frequently found to be the causative organism (23%), followed by st. aureus (19%), c. pyogenes (10%), str. dysgalactiae (9%), str. agalactiae (5%) and a number of other pathogenic agents such as atypical streptococci, str. uberis, haemolytic streptococci, aerobacter aerogenes, kl. pneumoniae, a clostridium and p. multocida. in several cases, a tentat ...1976818734
sodium cloxacillin for treatment of mastitis in lactating cows.sodium cloxacillin was used to treat 107 cows affected with acute mastitis and 138 affected with subclinical mastitis. based on the application of conservative bacteriologic criteria, the cure rate was 53% for acute staphylococci mastitis and 65% for subclinical staphylococci mastitis. the cure rate for streptococcus agalactiae infections was 91% in acute conditions and 92% in subclinical conditions. the cure rate was 73% for the acute infections and 88% in cases of subclinical infections when s ...19751107365
macrophages in bovine milk.the high vacuolated mononuclear cells in milk from normal bovine mammary glands, usually designated epithelial cells, were examined for properties characteristic of macrophages. in vitro, these cells concentrated neutral red into cytoplasmic vacuoles, adhered rapidly to and spread on glass, and phagocytosed viable streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus. neutral red uptake was demonstrated in vivo, and the vacuolated mononuclear cells phagocytosed formalinkilled s aureus in vivo. thes ...19751094865
[presence of coryneform organisms (c) in cow udders. iii. fermentation and hemagglutination properties as well as pathogenicity of c. uberis].altogether 111 strains of c. uberis isolated from cow udders of a dairy herd were studied. only 27 strains gave positive fermentation without gas formation from glucose, 6 strains from maltose, lactose and galactose, 9 strains from maltose, 4 strains from sucrose, and 5 strains from sucrose and lactose. no fermentation was found in 48 strains; 12 strains decomposed various carbohydrates except glucose. statistically significant differences in the slide haemagglutination test (oh), type a, were o ...19751181560
leukocyte response of bovine mammary gland to injection of killed cells and cell walls of staphylococcus aureus.injection of mammary glands of cows with heat-killed staphylococcal cells, staphylococcal cell walls, or distilled water induced leukocytosis. the magnitude of leukocytic response to staphylococcal antigens in cows of each treatment group depended on the extent of previous experience with staphylococcal cell materials. the 2nd intramammary injection produced greater reactions than did the 1st, and the 1st injection in cows previously parenterally vaccinated with killed cells in oil-water adjuvan ...19751190597
[prevalence of staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis in dairies of the city of san luis].in order to detect subclinical mastitis by means of california mastitis test and recounting of somatic cells, 163 cows from the dairies of san luis city, argentina, were examined. seventy six individuals (46.6%) exhibited an inflammatory response ranging > or = 2+ grade and a cellular recounting value of > or = 5 x 10(5), data compatible with those of subclinical mastitis. staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 39 (51.3%) cultures as estimated by the sum of the two last values listed in table 1 ...19921298016
the role of capsular antigens in staphylococcus aureus immunity.most clinical blood isolates of staphylococcus aureus have been shown to be encapsulated. techniques are now available for the preparation of type-specific capsular antisera and to provide reliable serologic methods for the identification of clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus. epidemiologic studies in the u.s.a. and europe indicated the prevalence of capsular types 5 and 8 among clinical isolates from human, bovine, and poultry. encapsulated types 5 and 8 resisted in vitro phagocytosis a ...19921303685
[chemotactic effects of some staphylococcal substances (author's transl)].bovine leukocytes, besides rabbit leukocytes, were found to be suitable for chemotactic studies on staphylococci with the modified boyden-method. the bovine leukocytes could be obtained more easily in larger quantities. casein, however, had no significant chemotactic effects on bovine leukocytes. culture supernatants of staphylococcus aureus and s. epidermidis and the heat-killed staphylococci had cytotaxigenic and to a small degree also cytotaxic effects on the rabbit and bovine leukocytes. the ...19751217268
purification and properties of a protamine kinase from bovine kidney microsomes.about an eightfold increase in protamine kinase activity was detected following extraction of highly purified microsomes from bovine kidney with 1% triton x-100. relative to the soluble fraction, the microsomes contained about 30% protamine kinase activity. the microsomal protamine kinase was purified to apparent homogeneity. the purified enzyme exhibited an apparent m(r) approximately 45,000 as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by gel permeation chromato ...19921322115
gangliosides suppress tumor necrosis factor production in human monocytes.both normal and malignant cells contain gangliosides as important cell membrane constituents that, after being shed, may influence cells of the immune system. we have studied the impact of gangliosides on the expression of tnf in blood monocytes and in the monocytic cell line mono mac 6. although under standard culture conditions, bovine brain gangliosides (100 micrograms/ml) suppressed lps-stimulated tnf production 5-fold in pbmc and 10-fold in mono mac 6 cells, suppression was more efficient u ...19921371788
secretion of alpha-hemolysin by bovine mammary isolates of staphylococcus aureus.a total of 262 strains of staphylococcus aureus isolated from the mammary gland of dairy cows were examined for the production of alpha-hemolysin. strains were cultured in a liquid medium of casein hydrolysate and yeast extract in an atmosphere of 7% (v/v) co2 in air. the assay consisted of a dot immunoblotting technique employing bacterial culture supernatants and a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for alpha-hemolysin. ninety-four percent (247) of 262 strains were positive for alpha-hemolysin ...19921423065
ph-sensitive interactions between igg and a mutated igg-binding protein based upon two b domains of protein a from staphylococcus aureus.a fusion protein, consisting of the n-terminal 81 amino acids from an inactive bovine dnase i (q38,e39-e38,q39) and two sequential synthetic igg-binding domains based upon domain b of protein a from staphylococcus aureus has been shown to bind to porcine igg with a similar affinity and ph profile to protein a. the same residue in each b domain (tyr111 and tyr169) has been mutated by cassette mutagenesis to ser, glu, his, lys or arg and the effect of the mutation on binding interactions with porc ...19921438169
influence of medicinal herbs on phagocytosis by bovine neutrophils.twenty-six herbal preparations made from 24 medicinal herbs, categorized as antipyretics in chinese materia medica, were tested in vitro to determine their effects upon phagocytosis of 32p-labelled staphylococcus aureus by neutrophils isolated from bovine blood and milk. the percentage of phagocytosis was determined after incubating (1 hour at 37 degrees c) 1.25 x 10(7) neutrophils, 1 x 10(8) 32p-labelled s. aureus and 10% skimmed milk with herbal solutions. concentrations of herbal preparations ...19921455927
studies on the pathogenicity of thiamineless dwarf-colony variants of staphylococcus aureus isolated from the bovine udder.the pathogenic characteristics of thiamineless dwarf-colony variants of staphylococcus aureus (d strains) were compared with those of normal s aureus isolated from the bovine udder. intravenous injection of d strains into embryonated hen's eggs and intracranial inoculations into mice produced similar results to those with normal s aureus. intramammary infusion of d strains into normal cows resulted in mastitis which was indistinguishable from the type produced by infusion of s aureus. intramuscu ...1976935664
basophil hypersensitivity response in rabbits.a cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response has been observed in rabbits immunized with bovine serum albumin and challenged intradermally with this antigen 7 days later. the cellular response appears to be similar to cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reported in guinea pigs and humans. a basophil response was also observed in rabbits immunized with staphylococcus aureus and challenged with viable staphylococcal cells 7 days later. a method of observing basophil infiltration in rabbits by me ...1977832902
plasmid pattern analysis of staphylococcus species isolated from bovine mammary secretions.plasmid profiles of staphylococci isolated from bovine mammary secretions were heterogeneous as shown by the study of 94 isolates representing six species. plasmids were identified in 19 of 94 staphylococcal isolates. number of plasmids per isolate varied from 1 to 4. size of plasmids ranged from 1.2 to 45 mda; however, most were between 1.8 and 4.8 mda. some isolates with identical plasmid profiles were observed within and between species. plasmid profiles observed in this study suggest that no ...19921474200
a cohort study of coagulase negative staphylococcal mastitis in selected dairy herds in prince edward island.the epidemiology and importance of coagulase negative staphylococcal (cns) mastitis in prince edward island had not been documented. to investigate this, a cohort of 84 cows at seven farms were quarter sampled eight times over a lactation, commencing with samples taken prior to drying off in the previous lactation. thirteen species of cns were isolated. the quarter prevalence of cns mastitis varied from 4.8% to 6.4% in the first five months of lactation and increased to 14.2 to 16.6% in the last ...19921477796
identification of the disulfide bonds in human plasma protein sp-40,40 (apolipoprotein-j).sp-40,40, a human plasma protein, is a modulator of the membrane attack complex formation of the complement system as well as a subcomponent of high-density lipoproteins. in the present study, the positions of the disulfide bonds in sp-40,40 were determined. sp-40,40 was purified from human seminal plasma by affinity chromatography using an anti-sp-40,40 monoclonal antibody and reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the protein was digested with trypsin and the fragments ...19921491011
[origin of the staphylococci in slaughtered poultry].studied were 382 coagulase-positive and 290 coagullase-negative staphylococcus strains isolated from birds during their post-slaughter handling, from the vats for water cooling as well as from the women working on the slaughter-house conveyor. studied were the phage behaviour, fibrinolysine production, the crystal-violet test and the type of hemolysines. it was established that the coagulase positive staphylococci were lysed slightly by the human and the bovine set of phages. the main sources of ...19761025836
adherence and colonization by bacterial pathogens in explant cultures of bovine mammary tissue.explant cultures of bovine mammary tissue taken from virgin heifers were used to examine adherence, colonization and cytopathogenesis of streptococcus uberis, streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus dysgalactiae, staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli in the putative target tissue. none of the five bacteria was able to adhere to healthy ductular epithelium but all showed a marked tropism for exposed connective tissue. s. aureus and e. coli induced a marked cytopathic effect in ductular epith ...19921496817
interleukin 2 treatment of staphylococcus aureus mastitis.a study was conducted in dairy cows to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant bovine interleukin 2 (rboil-2) as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy in staphylococcus aureus mastitis. in normal, non-mastitic cows, intramammary infusion of rboil-2 caused a tenfold increase in somatic cell counts (scc) in milk. co-administration of 2 mg of rboil-2 and sodium cephapirin in cows with established s. aureus mastitis decreased scc and shedding of s. aureus compared with values from cows that were given only ...19921498257
studies on the immunochemistry of staphylococcus aureus cell wall: antigenicity of pentaglycine bridges.the specific antigenicity of pentaglycine bridges in cell walls of s. aureus was investigated. the antistaphylococcal sera (against 11 oeding strains of s. aureus) were found to contain antibodies of two different specificities against polyglycyl peptides; one type reacted with polyglycyl peptides with a free amino terminus and the other with polyglycyl peptides with a free carboxyl terminus. these antibodies were assayed by passive hemagglutination with tanned sheep red cells sensitized with n- ...19751128452
neutrophil and lymphocyte response to supplementation with vitamins c and e in young calves.calves, beginning at 3 d of age, were bottle-fed milk replacer unsupplemented, or supplemented with 10 g of vitamin c, or supplemented with 10 g of vitamin c plus 57 iu of vitamin e/kg of dry milk replacer (10 calves per treatment). neutrophils from wk 2 and 4 blood samples were assayed for staphylococcus aureus phagocytosis and neutrophil-mediated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and lymphocytes from those samples were assayed for concanavalin a-induced, phytohemagglutinin-induced, or ...19921500563
radiographic method for anatomic study of the teat canal: characteristics related to resistance to new intramammary infection during lactation and the early dry in vivo radiographic method to determine teat canal anatomy has shown that resistant quarters had teat canals with a smaller diameter than that of susceptible quarters. the length of the teat canal did not appear to be related to resistance to new intramammary infections. these findings relate to new infection caused by aerobacter aerogenes, streptococcus agalactiae, and staphylococcus aureus. quarters guarded by teat canals with larger diameter were less resistent to new infection during bot ...19751192747
the effect of intramuscular and intramammary vaccination of cows on antibody levels and resistance to intramammary infection by staphylococcus aureus.cows were vaccinated simultaneously by the intramuscular and intramammary route with formolised staphylococcus aureus cells of strains bb, mexi and 3528. vaccination resulted in slight increases in serum agglutinin titres, but the levels of the agglutinins in milk and colostrum were not higher in vaccinated cows than in the unvaccinated controls. vaccination did not result in higher levels of igm, igg1, igg2 or iga immunoglobulins in serum, colostrum or milk as compared with controls. vaccinated ...19751166119
diagnosis of staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection by detection of specific antibody titer in milk.the diagnostic value of the determination of staphylococcus aureus antibody titer in milk as a method for identification of mammary quarters with s. aureus imi was evaluated. ten cows with a history of s. aureus imi and 9 cows with no history of s. aureus imi were sampled daily for 10 d. quarter and composite milk samples were collected and processed by standard methods for concentration of s. aureus, s. aureus antibody titer (percentage of positive laboratory control), and scc (cells per millil ...19921500549
the complete primary structure of bovine stefin b.a new stefin b-type low-mr cpi was isolated from bovine thymus and subjected to structural analysis. the inhibitor consisted of 98 amino acids and its mr was calculated to be 11,178. the nh2-terminal amino acid residue was blocked. the sequence was determined by automated sequencing of peptides derived by cleavage with cyanogen bromide and fragments of the inhibitor resulting from enzymatic digestion with beta-trypsin and staphylococcus aureus v-8 proteinase. the nh2-terminal blocking group was ...19921544453
high incidence of clinical mastitis due to staphylococcus aureus in two dairy herds with low milk cell counts.five dairy herds with a high incidence of clinical mastitis were investigated. two of these herds had a high incidence of mastitis caused by staphylococcus aureus yet had a relatively low rolling mean cell count. the mean cell counts of samples from clinical cases submitted by the dairymen from these two farms were significantly lower than the counts of similar samples submitted from the other farms. it is suggested that a possible explanation of the low cell count on these two farms was the pro ...19921546435
adaptation of two commercially available dna probes for the detection of e. coli and staphylococcus aureus to selected fields of dairy hygiene--an exemplary study.the application of two commercially available colorimetric dna hybridization tests (gene-trak e. coli and staphylococcus aureus) to selected aspects of dairy hygiene was investigated. bacterial isolates of different origin, naturally contaminated cheese varieties, nonfat dry milk, milk concentrates, artificially contaminated milk and raw milks from udder quarters were examined. based on the observation that the sensitivity of the e. coli dna probe was comparable to that of the beta-d-glucuronida ...19921575881
effect of a milk-derived factor on the inflammatory response to staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection.daily injections of an anti-inflammatory milk-derived factor (mdf) into mice increased resistance to staphylococcus aureus challenge, and reduced leukocyte infiltration. intraperitoneal injection of mdf into lactating mice prior to s. aureus intramammary challenge resulted in greater milk secretory activity and less inflammation compared with untreated controls, but had little effect on the number of s. aureus recovered from mammary tissue. infusion of mdf directly into mouse mammary glands prio ...19921595190
identification of the bactericidal domain of lactoferrin.we report the existence of a previously unknown antimicrobial domain near the n-terminus of lactoferrin in a region distinct from its iron-binding sites. a single active peptide representing this domain was isolated following gastric pepsin cleavage of human lactoferrin, and bovine lactoferrin, and sequenced by automated edman degradation. the antimicrobial sequence was found to consist mainly of a loop of 18 amino acid residues formed by a disulfide bond between cysteine residues 20 and 37 of h ...19921599934
stabilization of basic fibroblast growth factor with dextran sulfate.dextran sulfate protected bfgf from heat and acid inactivation and from proteolytic degradation. the protective effect was stronger than that of heparin which is known as a stabilizer of bfgf. dextran sulfate and bfgf formed a high molecular weight complex via ionic interaction when mixed together in aqueous solution. the complex was dissociated when the ionic strength was increased and the protective effect was completely abolished. successive digestion of bfgf with staphylococcus aureus v8 pro ...19921633881
effect of operation theatre environment on laparotomy wound infection in bovines.right flank laparotomies were performed on five clinically healthy cross-bred calves. a significant (p less than 0.05) increase of 22.1 and 2.7 times in bacterial count in subcutaneous tissue and incised skin edges, respectively, and a non-significant increase (1.1 times) in muscles and peritoneum had occurred during 15 minutes exposure to the operation theatre environment. poly-morphonuclear cells and gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infiltration was also demonstrated histopathological ...19921642065
detection of enterotoxins and tsst-1 secreted by staphylococcus aureus isolated from ruminant mastitis. comparison of elisa and immunoblot.the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (se) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tsst-1) was studied in 81 strains of staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of mastitis in cattle, goats and sheep. se and tsst-1 were detected by two techniques: elisa double antibody sandwich, and an immunoblot technique combined with a semiautomated electrophoresis system. more staph. aureus strains isolated from sheep produced enterotoxins than those from goats and cattle. sec was the predominant type in ...19921644704
microbiologic investigation of an epizootic of mastitis caused by serratia marcescens in a dairy epizootic of subclinical and clinical mastitis caused by serratia marcescens was investigated in a 1,000-cow dairy farm in california. serratia marcescens was isolated from 13 to 18% of composite milk samples obtained from lactating dairy cows. during monthly milk sampling performed during a 4-month period, s marcescens was isolated from 38.8 to 62.3% of composite milk samples obtained from cows from which s marcescens was previously isolated. few cows infected with s marcescens had evidence ...19921559873
an efficient microtest to study adherence of bacteria to mammalian cells.a simple, fast and highly reproducible microtest was developed for in vitro adherence studies. a rat epithelial cell line was investigated for the adherence of clinical and subclinical ovine and bovine staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from mastitis. staphylococcus aureus strains differed in their ability to adhere to epithelial cells, the degree of adherence being dependent on the concentration of bacteria used in the test.19921537544
the economic implications of bioengineered mastitis control.this paper estimates the cost of mastitis for the new york dairy sector. the average cost is found to be $125 per cow from reduced milk production, treatment, and increased culling. at the 1988 cow inventory, this translates to approximately $100 million annually for the entire dairy farm sector. when quality and production losses for the processing sector are added, the cost to the new york industry alone is nearly $150 million annually. two promising new treatments, a bacteriocin and a vaccine ...19921560148
diverse effects of bursectomy on humoral immune responses in the chicken.chickens bursectomized hormonally or surgically at various ages in embryonic to postembryonic lives were immunized with a mixture of antigens, and the antibodies produced titrated. immune responses to salmonella pullorum (sp), brucella abortus (ba). staphylococcus aureus (staph) and ovalbumin (oa) were more markedly suppressed by the bursal deprivation than those to heterogenous erythrocytes, viruses and such bacteria as pasteurella multocida (pm) and escherichia coli b. the immune response to b ...19751187514
prevalence of intramammary infection and teat canal colonization in unbred and primigravid dairy heifers.teat canal keratin (n = 461) and mammary gland secretions (n = 370) were collected from 31 unbred and 85 primigravid jersey heifers from one research and three commercial dairy herds. of 97 heifers from which secretion samples were obtained, 96.9% had intramammary infections and 29% showed clinical symptoms. seventy-five percent of quarters were infected. staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 36 (37.1%) heifers and 55 (14.9%) quarters. one hundred and eight (93.1%) heifers and 326 (70.7%) qua ...19901690231
effects of bovine mammary secretion during the early nonlactating period and antibiotics on polymorphonuclear neutrophil function and morphology.the effect of bovine mammary secretion during the early nonlactating period and of antibiotic preparations on bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil (pmn) phagocytic function and morphology were evaluated in a series of in vitro multifactorial experiments. benzathine cloxacillin (cl), benzathine cephapirin (ce), sodium novobiocin (no), and a combination of dihydrostreptomycin with procaine penicillin g (dp) were prepared in the presence and absence of a peanut oil aluminum monostearate vehicle. the ...19901691602
carboxylmethylation affects the proteolysis of myelin basic protein by staphylococcus aureus v8 proteinase.bovine myelin basic protein (mbp), charge isoform 1 (c1) was carboxylmethylated by the enzyme d-aspartyl/l-isoaspartyl protein methyltransferase (ec. and the carboxylmethylated protein was subjected to proteolysis by sequencing grade staphylococcal v8 proteinase at ph 4.0 to identify its carboxylmethylated modified aspartate and/or asparagine residues which are recognized by this methyltransferase. native mbp, c1 was treated similarly and the proteolysis products were compared, using e ...19911718433
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor effects on lymphocytes and immunoglobulin concentrations in periparturient cows.immunomodulatory effects of recombinant bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. eleven of 21 cows were experimentally infected with staphylococcus aureus in one mammary quarter prior to the study. cows were assigned to four groups in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (5 micrograms/kg of body weight or placebo injected subcutaneously once daily beginning 14 d prep ...19911721927
effect of specific antibody on adherence of staphylococcus aureus to bovine mammary epithelial cells.staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in the bovine mammary gland. the ability of s. aureus to adhere to epithelial cells in the ductules and alveoli of the bovine mammary gland is believed to add greatly to its virulence and may be necessary for colonization. two in vitro methods were developed for the purposes of quantifying adherence and of determining the effect which specific antibody may have in inhibiting the adherence of this organism. both methods utilize bovine mammary epithelial p ...19921729186
the effect of interferon-gamma intramammary administration on mammary phagocyte function.the effect of recombinant bovine interferon-gamma on intramammary phagocyte function of mammary gland was studied in 4 holstein cows (study 1) and 7 holstein cows (study 2). recombinant bovine interferon-gamma was intramammarily infused on day 6 of the dry period and phagocytes were collected from lacteal secretions and tested in vitro 24 hours later. results from study 1 indicate that phagocytosis of escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus was significantly increased after than before interf ...19902111962
evaluation of postmilking teat germicides containing lauricidin, saturated fatty acids, and lactic acid.the efficacies of postmilking teat germicides containing lauricidin (glyceryl monolaurate), saturated fatty acids, lactic acid, and lauric acid were determined against new imi caused by staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae in three controlled infection trials. in trial 1, a germicide was evaluated containing 1% lauricidin, 5% caprylic and capric acids, 6% lactic acid, and .85% lauric acid. new imi with staph. aureus and strep. agalactiae were reduced 81.3 and 49.6%, respectively. t ...19921500569
prevalence of staphylococcus species during the periparturient period in primiparous and multiparous cows.during a 14-mo period, 77 multiparous and 36 primiparous cows were sampled to determine the prevalence of staphylococci during the periparturient period. distal streak canal swabs were taken at 14 d prepartum, and foremilk was sampled the first 5 consecutive wk of lactation. staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 7.6% of quarters of primiparous cows but from only .6% of quarters of multiparous cows at parturition. prevalence in primiparous cows declined to 3.5% by the wk-1 sampling. quarter pre ...19921500579
variation in milk somatic cells of heifers at first evaluate variation in milk somatic cells, 24 primiparous cows (paired by calving date) were sampled during the first 75 d of lactation. milk somatic cell counts were lowest at 9 to 10 wk. for differential cell counts in milk, only percentage of macrophages changed significantly during first 75 d (33% at 1 wk, 25% at 6 wk, and 34% at 11 wk). epithelial cells were identified and ranged from 11 to 20% of total. for milk somatic cell count, variation between cows within pairs sampled contemporane ...19911757620
a periodate-sensitive anti-phagocytic surface structure, induced by growth in milk whey, on staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis.the phagocytic and chemiluminescent activity of purified bovine neutrophils in response to two staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from mastitic bovine milk and grown in milk whey was studied. the activity was significantly reduced compared with the response elicited by the same strains grown in tryptic soy broth (tsb). a mild periodate treatment of the milk whey-grown strains resulted in a significant increase of both chemiluminescence and phagocytosis, whereas trypsin, subtilisin or papain ...19911666171
frequency of reisolation of staphylococcus aureus from multiple sequential milk samples.bacterial cultures were performed on multiple sequential composite samples of milk from 1,172 cows in 9 dairy herds. if the initial diagnosis of staphylococcus aureus infection was based on the first positive culture, an average of 37.8% of subsequent cultures on the same cows were negative for s aureus. however, if the initial diagnosis of s aureus infection was confirmed by 2 or 2 of 3 sequential positive cultures and any conversions from s aureus positive to negative were confirmed by 2 or 2 ...19921517132
comparative in vitro activity of three cephalosporins against staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis.this report compares the in vitro activity of three cephalosporins (cephalothin, cefoxitin and ceftriaxone) against 57 staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cows with clinical mastitis on the basis of the minimal inhibitory (mic) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (mbc). the majority of the s aureus strains showed resistance to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone and sensitivity to cephalothin. the highest mics and mbcs were found for cefoxitin and ceftriaxone. antimicrobial tolerance (mbc/mic ...19911780593
microbiological results from milk samples obtained premilking and postmilking for the diagnosis of bovine intramammary infections.bacteriological culture results were compared between 336 pairs of quarter milk samples collected premilking and postmilking. using a positive result on either premilking or postmilking samples as the definitive diagnosis, premilking sampling sensitivity was 91% for staphylococcus aureus, 91% for coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 97% for streptococcus other than agalactiae. postmilking sampling sensitivities were 81, 45, and 58%, respectively, for the same pathogens. requiring both premilkin ...19911787189
efficacy of ledermix paste in eliminating staphylococcus aureus from infected dentinal tubules in vitro.the efficacy of ledermix paste in disinfection of dentinal tubules was studied in a model developed by haapasalo and orstavik with some modifications. ledermix and 3% tetracycline in a hydrous base were effective in reducing the amount of staphylococcus aureus in dentinal tubules after 7 days of incubation and also after recontamination. they were not effective after 24 h.19911820857
structure--function relationship of the human erythrocyte plasma membrane ca(2+)-atpase revealed by v8 protease treatment.treatment of the solubilized and purified ca(2+)-translocating atpase (ca(2+)-atpase) (136 kda) from human erythrocyte plasma membranes with endoproteinase glu-c from staphylococcus aureus strain v8 (v8 protease) yielded transient fragments of 96 kda and 76 kda and more stable fragments of 60 kda and 37/36 kda (doublet). the presence of calmodulin did not alter the fragmentation pattern. the 60 kda fragment contains the protein kinase c (bovine brain) phosphorylation site(s), which we previously ...19911835379
a pertussis-toxin-sensitive protein controls exocytosis in chromaffin cells at a step distal to the generation of second messengers.the role of gtp-binding proteins (g-proteins) in the secretory process in chromaffin cells was investigated by studying the effects of pertussis toxin (ptx) on catecholamine release and generation of various second messengers. ptx was found to stimulate the catecholamine secretion induced by nicotine, 59 mm-k+ or veratridine. ptx also potentiated ca2(+)-evoked catecholamine release from permeabilized chromaffin cells, suggesting that ptx substrate(s) regulate the exocytotic machinery at a step d ...19911848752
the effect of lipopolysaccharide on bovine mammary macrophage function.the effect of escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (lps) on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii molecules by bovine mammary macrophages was examined. the ability of lps-treated mammary macrophages to support antigen-specific t-cell proliferation, as a measure of their antigen presentation ability, was also evaluated. for this purpose, control and lps-treated macrophages were pulsed with heat-killed staphylococcus aureus and then cultured with s. aureus-sensitized t-c ...19911889031
hypersensitivity responses to staphylococcus aureus infections in rabbits. an experimental study.repeated weekly infections with s aureus, of bovine mammary origin, for three times evoked an immediate and a delayed type hypersensitivity in rabbits. the skin responses at 6 hr were characterized by oedema, haemorrhages and infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. while at 24 hr it was dominated by mononuclear cells specially lymphocytes in the dermis.19911864620
effects of postmilking teat treatment on the colonization of staphylococcus aureus on chapped teat skin.sixteen holstein cows were used to test the effect of postmilking teat treatment on colonization and intramammary infection by staphylococcus aureus on chapped teats. treatments were (1) chapping the teat and using 1% i2/10% glycerin postdip solution, (2) 1% i2/10% glycerin postdip solution on nonchapped teats, (3) chapping the teat and using 10% glycerin postdip solution, (4) chapping the teat and not using a postdip solution. all mammary glands were free of s aureus teat skin colonization and ...19911883082
synapsins contain o-linked n-acetylglucosamine.the neuron-specific synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins synapsin i and synapsin ii were shown to contain terminal n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac) residues as determined by specific labeling with bovine galactosyltransferase and udp-[3h]galactose. the beta-elimination of galactosyltransferase radiolabeled synapsin i and subsequent analysis of released saccharide on high-voltage paper electrophoresis confirmed the presence of monosaccharidic glcnac moieties in o-linkage to the protein. partia ...19911901592
reaction rate and collisional efficiency of the rhodopsin-transducin system in intact retinal rods.a model of transducin activation is constructed from its partial reactions (formation of metarhodopsin ii, association, and dissociation of the rhodopsin-transducin complex). the kinetic equations of the model are solved both numerically and, for small photoactivation, analytically. from data on the partial reactions in vitro, rate and activation energy profile of amplified transducin turnover are modeled and compared with measured light-scattering signals of transducin activation in intact reti ...19911901231
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